IHP

• Frankfurt (Oder), Brandenburg, Germany
Recent publications
In this paper, we report on polarization combining two-dimensional grating couplers (2D GCs) on amorphous Si:H, fabricated in the backend of line of a photonic BiCMOS platform. The 2D GCs can be used as an interface of a hybrid silicon photonic coherent transmitter, which can be implemented on bulk Si wafers. The fabricated 2D GCs operate in the telecom C-band and show an experimental coupling efficiency of − 5 dB with a wafer variation of ± 1.2 dB. Possibilities for efficiency enhancement and improved performance stability in future design generations are outlined and extension toward O-band devices is also investigated. Online available at: https://rdcu.be/cLRfN
A power combined wideband power amplifier (PA) covering the $J$ -band (220–320 GHz) is presented in 130-nm BiCMOS technology. The input power is split by two cascaded 1-to-2 power splitters with amplification stages in-between. The four split signals drive four output stages, which have their outputs combined within a 4-way zero-degree combiner. The splitting and combining networks also incorporate impedance matching. After de-embedding the I/O pads and baluns of 2 dB loss at each side, the PA achieves a gain of 20 dB at the middle of the band and a minimum gain of 17 dB at 320 GHz with I/O return losses below −5 dB. The PA records a saturated output power ranging from 9.5 to 14.5 dBm across the $J$ -band. It consumes 710 mW from a 3 V supply which corresponds to a drain efficiency ( $\eta _{d}$ ) of 3.15% at 270 GHz. The presented PA achieves twice better bandwidth with 1.5 times better $\eta _{d}$ than the state-of-the-art silicon-based amplifiers above 200 GHz. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first PA covering the whole $J$ -band in silicon technologies.
Molecular spectroscopy with THz heterodyne receivers is an important and widely used method for remote sensing of gases in space, in the Earth's and planetary atmospheres, as well as in the coma of comets. For the use on small satellites, compact and light-weight receivers are needed. We have developed an integrated SiGe BiCMOS receiver frontend which is tunable from 225 GHz to 255 GHz and have characterized it for heterodyne spectroscopy. The double-sideband noise temperature is 11 000 K at a local oscillator frequency of 240 GHz and the Allan time is 1 s. With this receiver we successfully performed heterodyne absorption and emission spectroscopy of acetonitrile in laboratory experiments.
This invited paper reviews the progress of silicon-based integrated analyzers for biomedical applications over the last two decades. Focus is set on various integrated circuit realizations in the millimeter-wave range from 30 GHz and at the terahertz frequencies of above 300 GHz. This article discusses high-frequency architectures and concrete implementations of both narrowband as well as broadband integrated readout circuits, including their use in miniaturized sensor solutions. A variety of circuits ranging from low-power sensing oscillators to highly integrated broadband vector network analyzers (VNAs), and example realizations of millimeter-wave cardiovascular sensors and implants to THz microfluidic labs-on-chip and exhaled human breath analyzers are recapitulated. This article closes with an outlook on emerging fields of research for future advancement of such biomedical sensors toward reliable and specific systems.
This work presents and evaluates different approaches of integrated optical sensors based on photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technologies for refractive index sensing. Bottlenecks in the fabrication flow towards an applicable system are discussed that hinder a cost-effective mass-production for disposable sensor chips. As sensor device, a waveguide coupled micro-ring based approach is chosen which is manufactured in an 8” wafer level process. We will show that the co-integration with a reproducible, scalable and low-cost microfluidic interface is the main challenge which needs to be overcome for future application of silicon technology based PIC sensor chips.
This letter presents a four-way power combined $D$ -band power amplifier (PA) in 0.13- $\mu \text{m}$ SiGe technology. The conventional cascode topology is modified by adding an additional interstage network between the common-emitter (CE) and common-base (CB) devices. Further techniques, such as power combining and adaptive bias circuits, are implemented to boost the power generation and the efficiency of the amplifier. The realized PA exhibits a saturated output power of 19.6 dBm with a maximum power-added-efficiency (PAE) of 9.5% at 130 GHz, which is a leading-edge performance among the reported silicon (Si) $D$ -band PAs in similar technologies. The small-signal gain peaks at 16 dB and the PA has a 3-dB bandwidth of 18 GHz.
The Picosecond Avalanche Detector is a multi-junction silicon pixel detector devised to enable charged-particle tracking with high spatial resolution and picosecond time-stamping capability. A proof-of-concept prototype of the PicoAD sensor has been produced by IHP microelectronics. Measurements with a ⁵⁵Fe X-ray radioactive source show that the prototype is functional with an avalanche gain up to a maximum electron gain of 23.
This paper presents a single-stage distributed amplifier with an average gain of 19 dB and over 170 GHz bandwidth (measurement limited) resulting in >1.5 THz gain-bandwidth product (GBW). The amplifier is composed of 10 gain sections using an emitter follower buffered cascode stage and is implemented in a 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS process with 470 GHz fT/ 650 GHz fmax HBT. The amplifier has over 14 dBm saturated output power (Psat) in W-Band and averages 13 dBm Psat with 20 dB gain in D-Band. Additionally, an average noise figure of 4.7 dB was measured over the complete 75-110 GHz range. This amplifier has, to the author's knowledge, the highest single-stage GBW reported to date while at the same time providing high output power and the best reported wideband noise figure for SiGe BiCMOS amplifiers in W-Band.
Radar systems are gaining in popularity and spreading into more and more applications due to their robust measurement method. While single-chip solutions have been published in the last decade in the upper millimetre-wave range, solutions are still very limited in the lower THz range. In this paper, a 0.48 THz FMCW-radar transceiver MMIC in a 130 nm silicon-germanium (SiGe) technology is presented. The MMIC consists of one Tx and Rx channel, respectively. The components for frequency synthesis and on-chip patch antennas are fully integrated into the MMIC. The achievable tuning range of the MMIC is 0.448 − 0.491 THz with a peak on-chip output power of about -9.4 dBm. The MMIC was designed and manufactured with the IHP SG13G3 technology.
Dielectric spectroscopy in the sub-THz regime is a promising candidate for microfluidic-based analysis of biological cells and bio-molecules, since multiple vibrational and rotational transition energy levels exist in this frequency range (P. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theor. Tech. , vol. 52, pp. 2438–2447, 2004). This article presents our recent efforts in the implementation of microfluidic channel networks with silicon-based technologies to unleash the potential of an integrated sub-THz microfluidic sensor platform. Various aspects of dielectric sensors, readout systems, flowmeter design as well as implemention- and technology-related questions are addressed. Three dielectric sensor systems are presented operating at 240 GHz realizing transmission-based, reflection-based and full two-port architectures. Furthermore different silicon based microchannel integration techniques are discussed as well as a novel copper pillar-based PCB microchannel method is proposed and successfully demonstrated.
Understanding the structural and magnetic properties in layered hybrid organic‐inorganic metal halide perovskites (HOIPs) is key for their design and integration in spin‐electronic devices. Here, a systematic study is conducted on ten compounds to understand the effect of the transition metal (Cu²⁺, Mn²⁺, Co²⁺), organic spacer (alkyl‐ and aryl‐ammonium), and perovskite phase (Ruddlesden‐Popper and Dion‐Jacobson) on the properties of these materials. Temperature‐dependent Raman measurements show that the crystals’ structural phase transitions are triggered by the motional freedom of the organic cations as well as by the flexibility of the inorganic metal‐halide lattice. In the case of Cu²⁺ HOIPs, an increase of the in‐plane anisotropy and a reduction of the octahedra interlayer distance is found to change the behavior of the HOIP from that of a 2D ferromagnet to that of a quasi‐3D antiferromagnet. Mn²⁺ HOIPs show inherent antiferromagnetic octahedra intralayer interactions and a phenomenologically rich magnetism, presenting spin‐canting, spin‐flop transitions, and metamagnetism controlled by the crystal anisotropy. Co²⁺ crystals with non‐linked tetrahedra show a dominant paramagnetic behavior irrespective of the organic spacer and the perovskite phase. This work demonstrates that the chemical flexibility of HOIPs can be exploited to develop novel layered magnetic materials with tailored magnetic properties.
This paper presents a transmitter (TX) and a receiver (RX) with a cross-polarized bowtie-antenna on a silicon lens for gas spectroscopy at 222–270 GHz and the doubled frequency at 444–540 GHz. TX and RX are fabricated in 0.13 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. Both use two integrated local oscillators for frequency subbands 222–256 GHz and 250–270 GHz, which allow operating in one branch of the TX and RX at 222–270 GHz and in a second branch of the TX and RX at 444–540 GHz by frequency doubling. The directivity of the cross-polarized bowtie-antenna of the TX and RX is optimized for these two frequency bands with an estimated value of 24.4 dBi at 260 GHz, and 29.5 dBi at 520 GHz. Absorption spectroscopy of gaseous methanol is used as a measure for the performance of the TX and RX in the lower and upper frequency bands.
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• Circuit Design
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