Objectives: To furnish a model to ensure access and use of healthcare services to the undocumented and homeless population. Methods: Between March 2020 and October 2021, public and third sector actors in Rome implemented an accessible COVID-19 screening service and vaccination program targeting the homeless and undocumented population. Results: 95.6% of the patients tested negative to both rapid and molecular tests. 0.9% tested positive to both. 0.7% were false negatives, while 2.8% were false positives. None of the participants refused the diagnostic treatment. From July to October 2021, 1384 people received a complete cycle of the COVID-19 vaccine through the program. 632 (45.6%) also agreed to perform the antibodies testing before inoculation. 318 (50.31%) of these were positive at the time of vaccination. Conclusion: We present a cost-effective model for reducing structural barriers to access diagnostic and preventive services for the homeless and undocumented population that can be applied to different public health settings.
Introduction: Dysphagia often results in serious, poor health outcomes. Nurses have an important role in assessing dysphagia. Therefore, they need reliable and effective screening tools to detect dysphagia. The purpose of this umbrella review is to locate the most valid, reliable, and usable bedside screening tools that allow nurses to identify dysphagia in institutionalized patients. Methods: Umbrella Review as suggested by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials or cross-sectional studies. We excluded: pediatric and psychiatric patients. We searched on PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the Joanna Briggs Institute Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, and the Joanna Briggs Institute Evidence-Based Practice Database. Results: Six reviews were included. Four tools were reported in all the reviews: 3 oz swallowing water test, Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability, Toronto Bedside Swallowing Screening Test, Gugging Swallowing Screen. They have shown fair to good sensitivity and specificity. The reviews analysed did not allow for a comparative analysis between instruments, which may be hindering the selection of the optimal instrument for clinical practice. Conclusions: Almost all reviews have considered stroke patients. The next steps will be to determine if there is a tool applicable in multiple settings with different patients and if this intervention is cost-effective.
Aim: Nurses use their smartphones during the work shift. The objective of this review is to investigate the presence of bacteria on mobile phones and the procedures to disinfect or decontaminate the smartphone and decrease the infection rate. Method: This systematic review was carried out through a search on the main scientific databases by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The research was conducted by considering articles published in the last ten years. Results: Of 502 initial articles, 489 were excluded and 12 articles were considered relevant. Twelve articles were included in the review. The analysis of the studies showed a high contamination of pathogenic microorganisms on the device's surfaces, most of which appear to be antibiotic resistant. The use of smartphones during clinical practice increases the risk of contracting nosocomial infections. The presence of bacteria on mobile phones and their use favors the cross-transmission of microorganisms. Conclusion: Onset prevention is a primary goal for the entire multidisciplinary team. There are no protocols concerning smartphones disinfection during clinical practice, but their implementation would reduce the incidence by improving nursing care.
Background: the world population is aging, and the prevalence of chronic diseases is increasing. Chronic diseases affect the quality of life of patients and contribute toward increased healthcare costs if patients do not adhere to treatment. This study defines the medication adherence levels of patients with chronic diseases. Methods: an observational cross-sectional study was carried out. Patients aged 65 years and older with chronic diseases were included in this study. The medication adherence report scale was used. Results: overall, 98 patients aged 65 years and older were included. The mean age of responders was 78.65 years. Study population: 71.43% were always adherent; 9.79% often adherent; 14.89% sometimes adherent; 3.87% rarely adherent; and 1% never adherent. The internal consistency of the MARS-5I was good: Cronbach's alfa value of 0.77. Conclusions: the MARS-5I is an effective self-report instrument to measure the medication adherence of patients. However, further studies are needed to explore factors affecting medication adherence to avoid clinical consequences for patients and high healthcare costs for healthcare facilities. Healthcare communication could be improved to ensure better transitional care.
PURPOUSE: to assess the clinicopathologic features of a poorly defined subset of diffuse large b-cell lymphoma, which is characterized by the secretion of an IgM paraprotein (IgMs-DLBCL). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: multicentre, retrospective, and comparative study to analyse with an integrated diagnostic approach the IgMs-DLBCL subset.RESULTS: Overall, 650 DLBCL were enrolled: 102 had an associated serum IgM and 56 other paraproteins (OP), the remaining 492 cases were the reference group (REF). IgMs-DLBCL were characterized by older age, advanced stage, dissemination to extra-nodal organs, elevated LDH and poor PS. As a result, the majority of IgMs had a high IPI, NCC-IPI and CNS-IPI score (p<.001).Furthermore, IgMs qualified as an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis for both PFS and OS (p<.001). Remarkably, the incidence of CNS involvement was higher in the IgMs compared to the OP and the REF subsets, respectively (p<.001). IgMs-DLBCL were characterized by: 1) prevalence of non-GCB/ABC-type; 2) frequent overexpression of BCL-2; 3) preferential IGVH4-34 gene usage; 4) MYD88 and TP53 mutations, both occurringin 30.8% of IgMs cases (95%CI, 14.3-51.8) CONCLUSION: Our study was carried out on the largest series of IgMs-DLBCL reported so far. This is a sizeable subset of DLBCL (7.9%, 95%CI, 5.9-10.5%),which is worth to detect at diagnosis. Remarkably, IgMs-DLBCL harbours features of a molecular subset that associate with a worse outcome. Indeed, more studies are necessary to fully understand the molecular pathogenesis of IgMs-DLBCL and the biological mechanisms leading to the high rate of CNS spreading.
Objectives The COVID-19 pandemic represents a difficult challenge for the whole of humanity. Sports, in which contact between athletes is essential, became impossible to practice without the risk of viral spread. Athletes of the national teams are a particular subgroup of the population for whom there is an important need for protection and the implementation of targeted preventive measures. The present report describes the protocol that was developed to answer the urgent protection need for athletes during COVID-19 pandemic. The protocol aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of a rigid prevention intervention to prevent outbreaks and infections in terms of COVID-19 as well as in other potential future pandemics from pathogens with similar path of transmission. Methods The study was conducted in rowing para-thletes training of the Paralympic Games in Tokyo2020. It was designed to create an anti-COVID-19 “ protection bubble ” with the aim to isolate para-athletes and their technical support team during pre-Olympic retreats. The “ bubble ” development relied on a carefully conducted protocol of repeated antigen and molecular COVID-19 tests on nasal and oropharyngeal fluids among all participants carried out before, during and at the end of each retreat. Results During the 10 months of protocol implementation there were no COVID-19 outbreaks among the para-athletes and technical personnel during the retreats. In total, 552 PCR tests and 298 antigen-based tests were performed for an average number of 42 test per athlete. The number of retreat participants was larger ( n = 23) in the beginning of the year due to the Paralympic selection rounds and smaller at the end of the study period ( n = 12). Conclusion The protocol has indicated that it is possible to implement an anti-COVID-19 protection protocol where athletes and technical staff can train and compete in safe conditions. The study showed that it is feasible to implement a rigid prevention protocol for athletes and technical staff based on repeated COVID-19 antigenic and molecular tests for a long period of training with excellent participation and compliance.
Background Acute myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary artery disease (MINOCA) is frequent in patients experiencing an early-onset MI, but data concerning its long-term prognosis are limited and conflicting. Methods The Italian Genetic Study on Early-onset MI enrolled 2000 patients experiencing a first MI before the age of 45 years, and had a median follow-up of 19.9 years. The composite primary endpoint was cardiovascular (CV) death, non-fatal MI, and non-fatal stroke (MACE); the secondary endpoint was rehospitalisation for coronary revascularisation. Results MINOCA occurred in 317 patients (15.9%) and, during the follow-up, there was no significant difference in MACE rates between them and the patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (MICAD: 27.8% vs 37.5%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57–1.09;p = 0.15). The CV death rate was lower in the MINOCA group (4.2% vs 8.4%, HR 0.26, 95%CI 0.08–0.86;p = 0.03), whereas the rates of non-fatal reinfarction (17.3% vs 25.4%; HR 0.76, 95%CI 0.52–1.13;p = 0.18), non-fatal ischemic stroke (9.5% vs 3.7%; HR 1.79, 95%CI 0.87–3.70;p = 0.12), and all-cause mortality (14.1% vs 20.7%, HR 0.73, 95%CI 0.43–1.25;p = 0.26) were not significantly different in the two groups. The rate of rehospitalisation for coronary revascularisation was lower among the MINOCA patients (6.7% vs 27.7%; HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.15–0.47;p < 0.001). Conclusions MINOCA is frequent and not benign in patients with early-onset MI. Although there is a lower likelihood of CV death,the long-term risk of MACE and overall mortality is not significantly different from that of MICAD patients.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to map the recent literature on medication error to monitor the state of research and explore emerging research fronts. Specifically, the co-occurrences analysis aimed to research the conceptual structure of the medication errors, whereas the coauthorship analysis aimed to research the "authorities" that influenced the academic and political discussion on medication errors. Methods: The search for relevant studies was carried out through the Scopus. To map and monitor the state of research on medication error, a preliminary analysis was conducted through the year of publication, type of article, and language. The count of citation shows the most relevant work among those included. Bibliometric analyses were conducted, such as coauthorship analysis and co-occurrences analysis. Results: The search strategy yielded 5393 articles. Of these, 1267 articles were included. Four main themes emerged from this bibliometric analysis: (a) the exploration of human factors related to health care professionals that increase the risk of medication error, (b) the investigation of behaviors and strategies that can prevent the error in the preparation and administration stage, (c) the analysis of the benefits related to the presence of the pharmacist in hospital settings, and (d) the exploration of the consequences of a medication error and/or adverse effects of drugs. Conclusions: For the first time, a bibliometric analysis of medication errors research in the world has been conducted and demonstrated that there is a wealth of contributions already being made that are well aligned to the World Health Organization challenge.
Many studies analyze the medication errors in the hospital setting, but the literature involving the home care setting seems scarce. The aim of this study is to identify the main risk factors that affect the genesis of medication errors and the possible solutions to reduce the phenomenon in the home care setting. This systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The critical analysis of the literature shows that medication errors in home care occur mainly during transitional care. The main risk factors related to transitional care are poor interprofessional communication, lack of a standardized process for medication reconciliation, the widespread use of computerized tools, and the inadequate integration of the pharmacist into the care team. The strategies to reduce the risk of errors from therapy at home are the implementation of the pharmacist in the health team to ensure accurate medication reconciliation and the use of computerized tools to improve communication between professionals and to reduce the dispersion of information.
Aims Data regarding long-term prognosis of MINOCA are very limited and conflicting. Methods and results The Italian Genetic Study on early-onset MI enrolled 2000 patients who had a first MI before they were 45. The median follow-up was 19.9 years, the equivalent of 39 535 person-years. The composite primary endpoint was cardiovascular (CV) death, non-fatal MI, and non-fatal stroke (MACE); the secondary endpoint was rehospitalization for coronary revascularization. MINOCA was experienced by 317 patients (15.9%). The risk of MACE was not significantly different between MINOCA patients and those with obstructive coronary artery disease (MICAD, 27.8% vs. 37.5%; adj. HR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.57–1.09; P = 0.15, Figure 1). There was no between-group difference in the rate of non-fatal MI (17.3% vs. 25.4%; adj. HR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.52–1.13; P = 0.18), non-fatal ischaemic stroke (9.5% vs. 3.7%; adj. HR: 1.79, 95% CI: 0.87–3.70; P = 0.12), or all-cause mortality (14.1% vs. 20.7%; adj. HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.43–1.25; P = 0.26), but the rates of CV death (6.2% vs. 8.4%; adj. HR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.08–0.86; P = 0.03) and coronary revascularization (6.7% vs. 27.7%; HR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.15–0.47; P < 0.001) were lower in the MINOCA group. Conclusions MINOCA is frequent in early-onset MI patients and is not benign with a long-term risk of MACE and overall mortality not significantly different from that of the MICAD patients. 189 Figure 1 Composite primary endpoint of CV death, non-fatal MI, and non-fatal stroke
Purpose Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents a subtype of breast cancer which lacks the expression of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2): TNBC accounts for approximately 20% of newly diagnosed breast cancers and is associated with younger age at diagnosis, greater recurrence risk and shorter survival time. Therapeutic options are very scarce. Aim of the present analysis is to provide further insights into the clinical activity of metronomic chemotherapy (mCHT), in a real-life setting. Methods We used data included in the VICTOR-6 study for the present analysis. VICTOR-6 is an Italian multicentre retrospective cohort study, which collected data of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients who have received mCHT between 2011 and 2016. Amongst the 584 patients included in the study, 97 were triple negative. In 40.2% of the TNBC patients, mCHT was the first chemotherapy treatment, whereas 32.9% had received 2 or more lines of treatment for the metastatic disease. 45.4% out of 97 TNBC patients received a vinorelbine (VRL)-based regimen, which resulted in the most used type of mCHT, followed by cyclophosphamide (CTX)-based regimens (30.9%) and capecitabine (CAPE)-based combinations (22.7%). Results Overall response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were 17.5% and 64.9%, respectively. Median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 6.0 months (95% CI: 4.9–7.2) and 12.1 months (95% CI: 9.6–16.7). Median PFS was 6.9 months for CAPE-based regimens (95% CI: 5.0–18.4), 6.1 months (95% CI: 4.0–8.9) for CTX-based and 5.3 months (95% CI: 4.1–9.5) for VRL-based ones. Median OS was 18.2 months (95% CI: 9.1-NE) for CAPE-based regimens and 11.8 months for VRL- (95% CI: 9.3–16.7 and CTX-based ones (95%CI: 8.7–52.8). Tumour response, PFS and OS decreased proportionally in later lines. Conclusion This analysis represents the largest series of TNBC patients treated with mCHT in a real-life setting and provides further insights into the advantages of using this strategy even in this poor prognosis subpopulation.
Introduction: In Italy, the monoclonal antibodies nivolumab and pembrolizumab are subjected to the AIFA monitoring registries for the indication "advanced melanoma (unresectable or metastatic) in adults". These two drugs have the same eligibility criteria, and they are indicated until failure due to progression or toxicity; both of these drugs have also undergone dosage changes from pro/kg to flat dose. In this observational study, also based on clinical eligibility parameters, we wanted to investigate the rwTTD, definitive and temporary suspensions, as well as dose modifications. Methods: We enrolled patients who started a treatment with nivolumab or pembrolizumab and were admitted to the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute in the period between 01/01/2016 and 31/12/2018. Treatments were followed up to 31/01/2021. Data were collected from the AIFA monitoring registries and from local therapy monitoring databases. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate rwTTD, and the differences between sample subgroups were evaluated using the Log-Rank Test. Results: In the 123 patients enrolled, the rwTTD was 11.67 months (IC 95%: 7,93-17,27). On average, about one out of five patients stopped the therapy before 2 months. The treatments suspended for at least 45 consecutive days and then resumed were 49 (47.6%) with rwTTD= 26.4 months (95% CI 17.3-43.6), significantly higher (p=0.008) compared to treatments suspended for less than or equal to 45 days (rwTTD= 8.4 months (95% CI 4.3-17.1). Dosage changes of nivolumab from pro/kg to flat dose ended in percentage ranging from -23.8% to +56.9%, mean +7.2%. In the case of pembrolizumab, the transition to the flat dose led to variations between +22% and +81.8%, average +39.9%. Discussion and conclusions: Patients who temporarily stopped the treatment had a median rwTTD that is three times higher than patients who stopped permanently and had at least 45 days of therapy. Other studies suggest that patients who had immunological response and side effects, then had better PFS and OS than those without side effects. It is confirmed that it is therefore important to manage toxicities and then resume treatment, whenever possible. In patients who switched to a flat dose, there was an evident increase in the dose administered, especially for pembrolizumab.
(1) Background: It is well known that the success of surgical procedures is related to optimal postoperative management and follow-up. In this regard, mHealth technologies could potentially improve perioperative care. Based on these considerations, the objective of this scoping review is to evaluate the current status and use of mHealth interventions designed to provide perioperative care in orthopedic surgery. (2) Methods: This scoping review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement (Extension for Scoping Review) and follows the framework of Arskey and O’Malley. (3) Results: The use of mHealth in the surgical setting is mainly oriented towards the development of applications for monitoring post-operative pain and optimizing communication between the various health professionals involved in patient care. (4) Conclusions: The mHealth systems can have a positive impact both on patient participation in the therapeutic process and on the communication between health professionals, increasing the quality of care.
Background: We present immunogenicity data 6 months after the first dose of BNT162b2 in correlation with age, gender, BMI, comorbidities and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: An immunogenicity evaluation was carried out among health care workers (HCW) vaccinated at the Istituti Fisioterapici Ospitalieri (IFO). All HCW were asked to be vaccine by the national vaccine campaign at the beginning of 2021. Serum samples were collected on day 1 just prior to the first dose of the vaccine and on day 21 just prior to the second vaccination dose. Thereafter sera samples were collected 28, 49, 84 and 168 days after the first dose of BNT162b2. Quantitative measurement of IgG antibodies against S1/S2 antigens of SARS-CoV-2 was performed with a commercial chemiluminescent immunoassay. Results: Two hundred seventy-four HWCs were analyzed, 175 women (63.9%) and 99 men (36.1%). The maximum antibody geometric mean concentration (AbGMC) was reached at T2 (299.89 AU/mL; 95% CI: 263.53-339.52) with a significant increase compared to baseline (p < 0.0001). Thereafter, a progressive decrease was observed. At T5, a median decrease of 59.6% in COVID-19 negative, and of 67.8% in COVID-19 positive individuals were identified with respect to the highest antibody response. At T1, age and previous COVID-19 were associated with differences in antibody response, while at T2 and T3 differences in immune response were associated with age, gender and previous COVID-19. At T4 and T5, only COVID-19 positive participants demonstrated a greater antibody response, whereas no other variables seemed to influence antibody levels. Conclusions: Overall our study clearly shows antibody persistence at 6 months, albeit with a certain decline. Thus, the use of this vaccine in addressing the COVID-19 pandemic is supported by our results that in turn open debate about the need for further boosts.
Résumé Contexte La COVID-19 est associée à un risque thromboembolique veineux élevé, en particulier chez les patients sévères. Depuis les premières propositions GIHP/GFHT publiées en avril 2020, de nouvelles connaissances sont apparues. L’objet du présent travail était de réactualiser ces propositions. Méthodes Un groupe de travail a défini sept questions et effectué une revue critique de la littérature. Les propositions ont été formulées après consensus entre les membres du groupe de travail et les autres membres du GIHP/GFHT. Résultats Chez les patients hospitalisés non sévères et certains patients ambulatoires à risque, nous suggérons l’administration d’une thromboprophylaxie à dose standard. Chez les patients sévères, nous suggérons une thromboprophylaxie à dose intermédiaire ou thérapeutique selon le taux de D-dimères et son évolution. Sept à dix jours après l’admission, nous suggérons de revenir à une dose standard pour réduire le risque hémorragique. Chez les patients présentant un très haut risque thrombotique, ayant reçu une thromboprophylaxie à dose thérapeutique, nous suggérons un dépistage systématique de la thrombose avant la désescalade. Nous suggérons d’ajuster l’anticoagulation au poids des patients. Nous suggérons un monitorage régulier des paramètres d’hémostase, incluant les D-dimères, chez les patients sévères. Nous suggérons un monitorage de l’anticoagulation à dose intermédiaire et thérapeutique par l’activité anti-Xa. Conclusion Les propositions réactualisées suivent une approche standard de la thromboprophylaxie, visant à diminuer l’incidence des évènements thromboemboliques veineux symptomatiques. Chez les patients sévères, nous proposons une stratégie séquentielle tenant compte de la relation temporelle entre le risque thrombotique et le risque hémorragique.
Objective Medication errors are a concern in overall the world. Although there are studies that investigate what may be the main causes that lead to the genesis of the medication error in the home care setting, there is no tool that correlates knowledge, attitudes, and behavior to medication errors in the context of home care. This study aimed to psychometrically test to the questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in the administration of medication in the new setting: home care setting. Design This observational study was reported according to the STROBE checklist. Sample Sixty two nurses working in home care setting responded to the online survey. Measurement The face and content validity of the items generated was assessed. An Exploratory Factorial Analysis descriptive statistical analysis was conducted. The final questionnaire is composed of 20 items. Results The results of the statistical analyses allowed to validate the questionnaire, ensuring good internal consistency and reliability. Most of the sample pointed out that the use of electronic health record, medication reconciliation and the pharmacist's figure are all useful strategies for reducing the risk of medication errors. Conclusion The questionnaire is reliable to measure knowledge, attitude, and behavior about medication errors prevention in home care settings.
Background: The first goal of the study was to analyse the antibody titre 21 days after the first dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine in a group of 252 healthcare workers (HCW). The second goal was to analyse how the antibody titre changes in correlation with age, gender and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Participants had a nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 and were assessed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at baseline and 21 days after the BNT162b2 priming dose. Results: First dose of BNT162b2 activated immune responses in 98% of the participants. Five HWC had no increase in antibody titre 21 days after the first dose. Antibody titre was greater in young (<38 years) vs. older participants (<38 vs. 47-56 p = 0.002; <38 vs. >56 p = 0.001). Higher antibody levels were detected in underweight vs. pre-obesity group (p = 0.026) and in normal-weight vs. pre-obesity group (p = 0.007). This association was confirmed after adjusting for age (p = 0.0001) and gender (p = 0.00001). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that a single dose of BNT162b2 activates the immune response, and being young and normal-weight correlate positively with this response. Larger specifically designed clinical trials are needed to validate these results.
Background: We tested the hypothesis that Whole Body Vibration (WBV) positively affects the fatigue process ensuing from repeated bouts of maximal efforts, as induced by repeated sprints ability (RSA). Eleven male soccer players performed three sets of six repeated shuttle sprints (40 metres). Methods: Eleven male soccer players (age 23,6±4,5 years) were cross-randomized to perform WBW before RSA and during the recovery between sets (WBV-with) or to warm-up and passive recovery between sets (WBV-without). The effects of WBV were quantified by sprint time (ST) and blood lactate concentration (LA), collected up to 15th min after completion of tests. Results: ST during RSA showed a better maintenance of performance in the WBV-with compared to WBV-without condition in all three sets, reaching a statistical significance between-groups during the 2nd and 3rd set (P< 0.05). No significant differences in ST over the sets were detected in WBVwith, whereas a significant decrease was observed in the WBV-without condition (P<0.001). LA recovered significantly faster from the 9th to 15th minute of recovery in WBV-with as compared to WBV-without (P<0.05). Conclusions: These findings would indicate that WBV performed during recovery between RSA sets is capable of delaying the onset of muscle fatigue resulting in a better maintenance of sprint performance.
Background : Literature data suggests that age, gender and body mass index (BMI) could be associated with difference in immune responses to vaccines. The first goal of the study was to analyze the antibody titre seven days after the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine in a group of 248 healthcare workers (HCWs). The second goal was to analyze how antibody titre changes in correlation with age, gender, BMI and hypertension. Methods : An immunogenicity evaluation was carried out among HCWs vaccinated at the Istituti Fisioterapici Ospitalieri (IFO), Rome, Italy. All HCWs were asked to be vaccinated by the Italian national vaccine campaign at the beginning of 2021. 260 vaccinated HCWs were enrolled in the study. All eligible participants were assigned to receive the priming dose in two weeks’ time and the booster dose exactly 21 days thereafter. Blood and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected at baseline and 7 days after second dose of vaccine. Quantitative measurements of IgG antibodies against S1/S2 antigens of SARS-CoV-2 were performed with a commercial chemiluminescent immunoassay. Presence of SARS-Cov-2 in nasopharyngeal swab was determined by commercial RT-PCR testing. Findings : 248 HWCs were analyzed, 158 women (63.7%) and 90 men (36.3%). After the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine, 99.5% of participants developed a humoral immune response. The geometric mean concentration of antibodies among the vaccinated subjects after booster dose (285.9 AU/mL 95% CI: 249.5–327.7) was higher than that of human convalescent sera (39.4 AU/mL, 95% CI: 33.1–46.9), with p<0.0001. Multivariate linear regression analysis of AU/mL by age, gender and BMI multivariate was performed by the inclusion of covariates. This analysis demonstrated that age (p<0.0001) and gender (p = 0.038) are statistically associated with differences in antibody response after vaccination, whereas BMI and hypertension have no statistically significant association (p = 0.078 and p = 0.52 respectively).
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