IDIBAPS August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute
Recent publications
Background When genes responsible for normal embryonic development are abnormally expressed in adults, it can lead to tumor development. This can suggest that the same mechanism that controls embryonic differentiation can also control tumor differentiation. We hypothesize that the malignant phenotype of lung cancer cells could acquire benign characteristics when in contact with an embryonic lung microenvironment. We cultured two lung cancer cell lines in embryonic lung mesenchyme-conditioned medium and evaluated morphological, functional and molecular changes. Methods The human embryonic mesenchymal lung-conditioned medium (hEML-CM) was obtained by culturing lung cells from embryos in the pseudoglandular stage of development. The NSCLC cell lines A549 and H1299 we cultured in the hEML-CM and in a tumor-conditioned medium. Morphological changes were analyzed with optical and transmission electron microscopy. To evaluate the functional effect of conditioned medium in tumor cells, we analyzed cell proliferation, migration, colony formation capacity in 2D and 3D and in vivo tumor growth capacity. The expression of the pluripotency genes OSKM, the adenocarcinoma marker NKX2-1, the lung surfactant proteins SFTP, the myofibroblast marker MYH and DNMT3A/3B was analyzed with qRT-PCR and the presence of the myofibroblast markers vimentin and α-SMA with immunofluorescence. Transcriptomic analysis was performed using Affymetrix arrays. Results The A549 and H1299 cells cultured in hEML-CM lost their epithelial morphology, acquired mesodermal characteristics, and decreased proliferation, migration, and colony formation capacity in 2D and 3D, as well as reduced its capacity to growth in vivo. The expression of OSKM, NKX2-1 and SFTP decreased, while that of DNMT3A/3B, vimentin, α-SMA and MYH increased. Distant matrix analysis based on transcriptomic profile showed that conditioned cells were closer to myoblast and human lung fibroblast than to normal epithelial immortalized lung cells. A total of 1631 for A549 and 866 for H1299 differentially expressed genes between control and conditioned cells were identified. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that stimuli from the embryonic lung can modulate the malignant phenotype of lung cancer cells, control their growth capacity and activate their differentiation into myofibroblasts. These findings could lead to new strategies for lung cancer management.
Background Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are a group of heterogeneous conditions, which include mainly intellectual disability, developmental delay (DD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), among others. These diseases are highly heterogeneous and both genetic and environmental factors play an important role in many of them. The introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) has lead to the detection of genetic variants in several genetic diseases. The main aim of this report is to discuss the impact and advantages of the implementation of NGS in the diagnosis of NDDs. Herein, we report diagnostic yields of applying whole exome sequencing in 87 families affected by NDDs and additional data of whole genome sequencing (WGS) from 12 of these families. Results The use of NGS technologies allowed identifying the causative gene alteration in approximately 36% (31/87) of the families. Among them, de novo mutation represented the most common cause of genetic alteration found in 48% (15/31) of the patients with diagnostic mutations. The majority of variants were located in known neurodevelopmental disorders genes. Nevertheless, some of the diagnoses were made after the use of GeneMatcher tools which allow the identification of additional patients carrying mutations in THOC2 , SETD1B and CHD9 genes. Finally the use of WGS only allowed the identification of disease causing variants in 8% (1/12) of the patients in which previous WES failed to identify a genetic aetiology. Conclusion NGS is more powerful in identifying causative pathogenic variant than conventional algorithms based on chromosomal microarray as first-tier test. Our results reinforce the implementation of NGS as a first-test in genetic diagnosis of NDDs.
Background The extracellular volume (ECV) and intracellular volume (ICV) estimated by bioimpedance analysis (BIA) deviates markedly from the textbook volumes of 20% and 40% of the body weight (BW). We estimated the transcellular exchange of water by calculating solute equilibriums after fluid challenges to examine whether the BIA or the textbook volumes are likely to be most correct. Methods Data was retrieved from 8 healthy male volunteers who received 25 mL/kg of Ringer’s solution or 3–5 mL/kg of hypertonic (7.5%) saline over 30 min after the ECV and ICV had been estimated by BIA. The exchange of water between the ECV and the ICV was calculated according to a sodium equation and an osmolality equation. Simulations were performed, where deviating body fluid volumes were applied. Results The mean ECV measured with BIA was 24.9% of BW ( p < 0.05 versus the “textbook” volume). Mean ICV measured with BIA was 22.3% of BW ( p < 0.05). The sodium and osmolality equations correlated closely with respect to the translocation of water across the cell membrane ( r ² = 0.86). By applying the “textbook” ECV, the sodium equation indicated that Ringer’s solution exchanged negligible amounts of water, while hypertonic saline withdrew 1.4 L from the ICV to the ECV. By contrast, applying the BIA-derived ECV to the sodium equation implied that 3 L of water would be translocated from the ECV to the ICV once hypertonic saline was administered. Conclusion The “textbook” ECV and ICV volumes but not the BIA-derived volumes were consistent with the fluid shifts obtained by two solute equations.
First-episode psychosis (FEP) patients show structural brain abnormalities at the first episode. Whether the cortical changes that follow a FEP are progressive and whether age at onset modulates these changes remains unclear. This is a multicenter MRI study in a deeply phenotyped sample of 74 FEP patients with a wide age range at onset (15–35 years) and 64 neurotypical healthy controls (HC). All participants underwent two MRI scans with a 2-year follow-up interval. We computed the longitudinal percentage of change (PC) for cortical thickness (CT), surface area (CSA) and volume (CV) for frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. We used general linear models to assess group differences in PC as a function of age at FEP. We conducted post-hoc analyses for metrics where PC differed as a function of age at onset. We found a significant age-by-diagnosis interaction effect for PC of temporal lobe CT ( d = 0.54; p = 002). In a post-hoc-analysis, adolescent-onset (≤19 y) FEP showed more severe longitudinal cortical thinning in the temporal lobe than adolescent HC. We did not find this difference in adult-onset FEP compared to adult HC. Our study suggests that, in individuals with psychosis, CT changes that follow the FEP are dependent on the age at first episode, with those with an earlier onset showing more pronounced cortical thinning in the temporal lobe.
Neuroinflammation, in which activated microglia are involved, appears to contribute to the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the role of microglial activation and the mechanisms governing this process remain uncertain. We focused on one inhibitory mechanism involved in the control of microglial activation, the microglia inhibitory receptor CD200R1, and its ligand CD200, mainly expressed by neurons. The human CD200R1 gene encodes two membrane-associated and two soluble protein isoforms and the human CD200 gene encodes full-length proteins (CD200full) but also truncated (CD200tr) proteins which act as CD200R1 antagonists. Little is known about their expression in the human brain under pathological conditions. We used human peripheral blood monocytes and monocyte-derived microglia-like cells from control subjects to characterize the expression of the CD200R1 mRNA variants, which showed stimulus-specific responses. We provide evidence of increased CD200R1 (mRNA variants and protein isoforms) and CD200 expression (CD200tr mRNA) in brain tissue of PD patients, mainly in the hippocampus, as well as increased CD200 expression (CD200full and CD200tr mRNAs) in iPSCs-derived dopaminergic neurons generated from skin fibroblasts of PD patients. Our results suggest that CD200-CD200R1 signalling is altered in PD, which may affect the microglial function and constitute a potential target in therapeutic strategies for PD.
Background: Fluid resuscitation is the standard treatment to restore circulating blood volume and pressure after massive haemorrhage and shock. Packed red blood cells (PRBC) are transfused to restore haemoglobin levels. Restoration of microcirculatory flow and tissue oxygen delivery is critical for organ and patient survival, but these parameters are infrequently measured. Patient Blood Management is a multidisciplinary approach to manage and conserve a patient's own blood, directing treatment options based on broad clinical assessment beyond haemoglobin alone, for which tissue perfusion and oxygenation could be useful. Our aim was to assess utility of non-invasive tissue-specific measures to compare PRBC transfusion with novel crystalloid treatments for haemorrhagic shock. Methods: A model of severe haemorrhagic shock was developed in an intensive care setting, with controlled haemorrhage in sheep according to pressure (mean arterial pressure 30-40 mmHg) and oxygen debt (lactate > 4 mM) targets. We compared PRBC transfusion to fluid resuscitation with either PlasmaLyte or a novel crystalloid. Efficacy was assessed according to recovery of haemodynamic parameters and non-invasive measures of sublingual microcirculatory flow, regional tissue oxygen saturation, repayment of oxygen debt (arterial lactate), and a panel of inflammatory and organ function markers. Invasive measurements of tissue perfusion, oxygen tension and lactate levels were performed in brain, kidney, liver, and skeletal muscle. Outcomes were assessed during 4 h treatment and post-mortem, and analysed by one- and two-way ANOVA. Results: Each treatment restored haemodynamic and tissue oxygen delivery parameters equivalently (p > 0.05), despite haemodilution after crystalloid infusion to haemoglobin concentrations below 70 g/L (p < 0.001). Recovery of vital organ-specific perfusion and oxygen tension commenced shortly before non-invasive measures improved. Lactate declined in all tissues and correlated with arterial lactate levels (p < 0.0001). The novel crystalloid supported rapid peripheral vasodilation (p = 0.014) and tended to achieve tissue oxygen delivery targets earlier. PRBC supported earlier renal oxygen delivery (p = 0.012) but delayed peripheral perfusion (p = 0.034). Conclusions: Crystalloids supported vital organ oxygen delivery after massive haemorrhage, despite haemodilution to < 70 g/L, confirming that restrictive transfusion thresholds are appropriate to support oxygen delivery. Non-invasive tissue perfusion and oximetry technologies merit further clinical appraisal to guide treatment for massive haemorrhage in the context of Patient Blood Management.
Background The role of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is not fully elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate in COVID-19 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS the impact of early use of NMBAs on 90-day mortality, through propensity score (PS) matching analysis. Methods We analyzed a convenience sample of patients with COVID-19 and moderate-to-severe ARDS, admitted to 244 intensive care units within the COVID-19 Critical Care Consortium, from February 1, 2020, through October 31, 2021. Patients undergoing at least 2 days and up to 3 consecutive days of NMBAs (NMBA treatment), within 48 h from commencement of IMV were compared with subjects who did not receive NMBAs or only upon commencement of IMV (control). The primary objective in the PS-matched cohort was comparison between groups in 90-day in-hospital mortality, assessed through Cox proportional hazard modeling. Secondary objectives were comparisons in the numbers of ventilator-free days (VFD) between day 1 and day 28 and between day 1 and 90 through competing risk regression. Results Data from 1953 patients were included. After propensity score matching, 210 cases from each group were well matched. In the PS-matched cohort, mean (± SD) age was 60.3 ± 13.2 years and 296 (70.5%) were male and the most common comorbidities were hypertension (56.9%), obesity (41.1%), and diabetes (30.0%). The unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death at 90 days in the NMBA treatment vs control group was 1.12 (95% CI 0.79, 1.59, p = 0.534). After adjustment for smoking habit and critical therapeutic covariates, the HR was 1.07 (95% CI 0.72, 1.61, p = 0.729). At 28 days, VFD were 16 (IQR 0–25) and 25 (IQR 7–26) in the NMBA treatment and control groups, respectively (sub-hazard ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.67, 1.00, p = 0.055). At 90 days, VFD were 77 (IQR 0–87) and 87 (IQR 0–88) (sub-hazard ratio 0.86 (95% CI 0.69, 1.07; p = 0.177). Conclusions In patients with COVID-19 and moderate-to-severe ARDS, short course of NMBA treatment, applied early, did not significantly improve 90-day mortality and VFD. In the absence of definitive data from clinical trials, NMBAs should be indicated cautiously in this setting.
Background The development of liver cirrhosis is usually an asymptomatic process until late stages when complications occur. The potential reversibility of the disease is dependent on early diagnosis of liver fibrosis and timely targeted treatment. Recently, the use of non-invasive tools has been suggested for screening of liver fibrosis, especially in subjects with risk factors for chronic liver disease. Nevertheless, large population-based studies with cost-effectiveness analyses are still lacking to support the widespread use of such tools. The aim of this study is to investigate whether non-invasive liver stiffness measurement in the general population is useful to identify subjects with asymptomatic, advanced chronic liver disease. Methods This study aims to include 30,000 subjects from eight European countries. Subjects from the general population aged ≥ 40 years without known liver disease will be invited to participate in the study either through phone calls/letters or through their primary care center. In the first study visit, subjects will undergo bloodwork as well as hepatic fat quantification and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by vibration-controlled transient elastography. If LSM is ≥ 8 kPa and/or if ALT levels are ≥1.5 x upper limit of normal, subjects will be referred to hospital for further evaluation and consideration of liver biopsy. The primary outcome is the percentage of subjects with LSM ≥ 8kPa. In addition, a health economic evaluation will be performed to assess the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of such an intervention. The project is funded by the European Commission H2020 program. Discussion This study comes at an especially important time, as the burden of chronic liver diseases is expected to increase in the coming years. There is consequently an urgent need to change our current approach, from diagnosing the disease late when the impact of interventions may be limited to diagnosing the disease earlier, when the patient is asymptomatic and free of complications, and the disease potentially reversible. Ultimately, the LiverScreen study will serve as a basis from which diagnostic pathways can be developed and adapted to the specific socio-economic and healthcare conditions in each country. Trial registration This study is registered on ( NCT03789825 ).
Purpose To assess the association between three different a priori dietary patterns adherence (17-item energy reduced-Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), Trichopoulou-MedDiet and Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH)), as well as the Protein Diet Score and kidney function decline after one year of follow-up in elderly individuals with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods We prospectively analyzed 5675 participants (55–75 years) from the PREDIMED-Plus study. At baseline and at one year, we evaluated the creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and food-frequency questionnaires-derived dietary scores. Associations between four categories (decrease/maintenance and tertiles of increase) of each dietary pattern and changes in eGFR (ml/min/1.73m ² ) or ≥ 10% eGFR decline were assessed by fitting multivariable linear or logistic regression models, as appropriate. Results Participants in the highest tertile of increase in 17-item erMedDiet Score showed higher upward changes in eGFR ( β : 1.87 ml/min/1.73m ² ; 95% CI: 1.00–2.73) and had lower odds of ≥ 10% eGFR decline (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.47–0.82) compared to individuals in the decrease/maintenance category, while Trichopoulou-MedDiet and DASH Scores were not associated with any renal outcomes. Those in the highest tertile of increase in Protein Diet Score had greater downward changes in eGFR ( β : − 0.87 ml/min/1.73m ² ; 95% CI: − 1.73 to − 0.01) and 32% higher odds of eGFR decline (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.00–1.75). Conclusions Among elderly individuals with overweight/obesity and MetS, only higher upward change in the 17-item erMedDiet score adherence was associated with better kidney function after one year. However, increasing Protein Diet Score appeared to have an adverse impact on kidney health. Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN89898870 (Data of registration: 2014).
With lowering costs of sequencing and genetic profiling techniques, genetic drivers can now be detected readily in tumors but current prognostic models for Natural‐killer/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL) have yet to fully leverage on them for prognosticating patients. Here, we used next‐generation sequencing to sequence 260 NKTCL tumors, and trained a genomic prognostic model (GPM) with the genomic mutations and survival data from this retrospective cohort of patients using LASSO Cox regression. The GPM is defined by the mutational status of 13 prognostic genes and is weakly correlated with the risk‐features in International Prognostic Index (IPI), Prognostic Index for Natural‐Killer cell lymphoma (PINK) and PINK‐Epstein‐Barr virus (PINK‐E). Cox‐proportional hazard multivariate regression also showed that the new GPM is independent and significant for both progression‐free survival (PFS, HR: 3.73, 95% CI 2.07‐6.73; P<0.001) and overall survival (OS, HR: 5.23, 95% CI 2.57‐10.65; P=0.001) with known risk‐features of these indices. When we assign an additional risk‐score to samples, which are mutant for the GPM, the Harrell's C‐indices of GPM‐augmented IPI, PINK and PINK‐E improved significantly (P<0.001, χ2 test) for both PFS and OS. Thus, we report on how genomic mutational information could steer towards better prognostication of NKTCL patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Omega-3 fatty acids are critical for brain function. Adolescence is increasingly believed to entail brain vulnerability to dietary intake. In contrast to the abundant research on the omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in cognition, research on DHA and attention in healthy adolescents is scarce. In addition, the role of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the vegetable omega-3 fatty acid, is unexplored. We examined associations between DHA and ALA and attention function among a healthy young population. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 372 adolescents (13.8 ± 0.9 years-old), we determined the red blood cell proportions of DHA and ALA by gas chromatography (objective biomarkers of their long-term dietary intake) and measured attention scores through the Attention Network Test. We constructed multivariable linear regression models to analyze associations, controlling for known confounders. Compared to participants at the lowest DHA tertile (reference), those at the highest DHA tertile showed significantly lower hit reaction time-standard error (higher attentiveness) (28.13 ms, 95% confidence interval [CI] = – 52.30; – 3.97), lower hit reaction time ( – 38.30 ms, 95% CI = – 73.28; – 3.33) and lower executive conflict response ( – 5.77 ms, 95% CI = – 11.44; – 0.09). In contrast, higher values were observed in those at the top tertile of ALA in hit reaction time compared to the lowest one (46.14 ms, 95% CI = 9.90; 82.34). However, a beneficial association was observed for ALA, with decreasing impulsivity index across tertiles. Overall, our results suggest that DHA (reflecting its dietary intake) is associated with attention performance in typically developing adolescents. The role of dietary ALA in attention is less clear, although higher blood levels of ALA appear to result in lower impulsivity. Future intervention studies are needed to determine the causality of these associations and to better shape dietary recommendations for brain health during the adolescence period.
Richter transformation (RT) is a paradigmatic evolution of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) into a very aggressive large B cell lymphoma conferring a dismal prognosis. The mechanisms driving RT remain largely unknown. We characterized the whole genome, epigenome and transcriptome, combined with single-cell DNA/RNA-sequencing analyses and functional experiments, of 19 cases of CLL developing RT. Studying 54 longitudinal samples covering up to 19 years of disease course, we uncovered minute subclones carrying genomic, immunogenetic and transcriptomic features of RT cells already at CLL diagnosis, which were dormant for up to 19 years before transformation. We also identified new driver alterations, discovered a new mutational signature (SBS-RT), recognized an oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)high–B cell receptor (BCR)low-signaling transcriptional axis in RT and showed that OXPHOS inhibition reduces the proliferation of RT cells. These findings demonstrate the early seeding of subclones driving advanced stages of cancer evolution and uncover potential therapeutic targets for RT. Single-cell genomic and transcriptomic analyses of longitudinal samples of patients with Richter syndrome reveal the presence and dynamics of clones driving transformation from chronic lymphocytic leukemia years before clinical manifestation
Purpose We hypothesized that the intra-operative measurement of the femoral head may increase the accuracy of the acetabular cup size optimal selection in total hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of this clinical research was to analyze the correlation between the estimated cup size from intra-operative measurement of the femoral head and the pre-operative templated cup size. Methods A prospective observational single-center study was conducted from June 2019 to January 2020 including primary THA ( n = 100). All cases were pre-operatively templated. The measurement of the anterior–posterior diameter of the femoral head was routinely intra-operatively performed. Any definitive implanted cup was considered as “oversized” when the size was > 4 mm than the diameter of the native head. Results The median (interquartile range) size of the implanted cup, pre-operative planned cup size, and diameter of the femoral head were measured 52 (50–54) mm, 50 (48–54) mm and 49 (45–51) mm, respectively. Pre-operative planned size cup accurately predicted the implanted cup or differed in only one size (2 mm) in 77 (78%) cases. Otherwise, intra-operative femoral head measurement method accurately predicted the implanted or differed in only one size (2 mm) in 51 (87%) cases ( p = 0.097). Conclusion The intra-operative femoral head measurement is a simple and reliable tool to help the surgeons choose the best size of the acetabular cup and is as reliable as the pre-operative templating in order to avoid cup oversizing in THA. Utmost caution is warranted whenever the cup reamer is > 4 mm than the anterior–posterior diameter of the native head.
Background and Objectives Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a highly heritable disorder. The majority of genetic cases are caused by autosomal dominant pathogenic variants in the c9orf72 , GRN and MAPT gene. As motor disorders are increasingly recognized as part of the clinical spectrum the current study aimed to describe motor phenotypes caused by genetic FTD, quantify their temporal association, and investigate their regional association with brain atrophy. Methods We analyzed baseline visit data of known carriers of a pathogenic variant in the c9orf72, GRN or MAPT gene from the Genetic Frontotemporal dementia Initiative cohort study. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed to identify motor sign clusters that were compared with respect to frequency and severity between groups. Associations with cross-sectional atrophy patterns were determined using voxel-wise regression. We applied linear mixed effects models to assess whether groups differed in the association between motor signs and estimated time to symptom onset. Results 322 pathogenic variant carriers were included in the analysis: 122 c9orf72 (79 presymptomatic) , 143 GRN (112 presymptomatic) and 57 MAPT (43 presymptomatic) pathogenic variant carriers. Principal component analysis revealed five motor clusters, which we call progressive supranuclear palsy like (PSP-like), bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) like, mixed/ALS-like, Parkinson’s disease like (PD-like), and corticobasal syndrome like motor phenotypes. There was no significant group difference in the frequency of signs of different motor phenotypes. However, mixed/ALS-like motor signs were most frequent, followed by PD-like motor signs. While the PSP-like phenotype was associated with mesencephalic atrophy, the mixed/ALS-like phenotype was associated with motor cortex and corticospinal tract atrophy. The PD-like phenotype was associated with widespread cortical and subcortical atrophy. Estimated time to onset, genetic group and their interaction, influenced motor signs. In c9orf72 pathogenic variant carriers, motor signs could be detected up to 25 years prior to expected symptom onset. Discussion These results indicate the presence of multiple natural clusters of motor signs in genetic FTD, each correlated with specific atrophy patterns. Their motor severity depends on time and the affected gene. These clinico-genetic associations can guide diagnostic evaluations and the design of clinical trials for new disease-modifying and preventive treatments.
Several genetic polymorphisms of the innate immune system have been described to increase the risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in transplant patients. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a polygenic score to predict CMV infection and disease in high risk CMV transplant recipients (heart, liver, kidney or pancreas). On hundred and sixteen CMV-seronegative recipients of grafts from CMV-seropositive donors undergoing heart, liver, and kidney or pancreas transplantation from 7 centres were prospectively included for this purpose during a 2-year period. All recipients received 100-day prophylaxis with valganciclovir. CMV infection occurred in 61 patients (53%) at 163 median days from transplant, 33 asymptomatic replication (28%) and 28 CMV disease (24%). Eleven patients (9%) had recurrent CMV infection. Clinically and/or functionally relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from TLR2 , TLR3 , TLR4 , TLR7 , TLR9 , AIM2 , MBL2 , IL28 , IFI16, MYD88 , IRAK2 and IRAK4 were assessed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT). A polygenic score including the TLR4 (rs4986790/rs4986791), TLR9 (rs3775291), TLR3 (rs3775296), AIM2 (rs855873), TLR7 (rs179008), MBL (OO/OA/XAO), IFNL3/IL28B (rs12979860) and IFI16 (rs6940) SNPs was built based on the risk of CMV infection and disease. The CMV score predicted the risk of CMV disease with an AUC of the model of 0.68, with sensitivity and specificity of 64.3 and 71.6%, respectively. Even though further studies are needed to validate this score, its use would represent an effective model to develop more robust scores predicting the risk of CMV disease in donor/recipient mismatch (D+/R-) transplant recipients.
NPC1 plays a central role in cholesterol egress from endolysosomes, a critical step for maintaining intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. Despite recent advances in the field, the full repertoire of molecules and pathways involved in this process remains unknown. Emerging evidence suggests the existence of NPC1‐independent, alternative routes. These may involve vesicular and non‐vesicular mechanisms, as well as release of extracellular vesicles. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms that bypass NPC1 function could have important implications for the development of therapies for lysosomal storage disorders. Here we discuss how cholesterol may be exported from lysosomes in which NPC1 function is impaired. NPC1 plays a key role in LDL‐derived cholesterol export from endolysosomes. Recent evidence supports the existence of alternative cholesterol egress routes that act in parallel or independently of NPC1. These so‐called NPC1 bypass pathways rely on both vesicular trafficking (involving RAB proteins) and non‐vesicular transport mechanisms (i.e., membrane contacts), including viral infections.
Abstract We aimed to analyze the nasopharyngeal microbiota profiles in pregnant women with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection, considered a vulnerable population during COVID-19 pandemic. Pregnant women were enrolled from a multicenter prospective population-based cohort during the first SARS-CoV-2 wave in Spain (March-June 2020 in Barcelona, Spain) in which the status of SARS-CoV-2 infection was determined by nasopharyngeal RT–PCR and antibodies in peripheral blood. Women were randomly selected for this cross-sectional study on microbiota. DNA was extracted from nasopharyngeal swab samples, and the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA of bacteria was amplified using region-specific primers. The differential abundance of taxa was tested, and alpha/beta diversity was evaluated. Among 76 women, 38 were classified as positive and 38 as negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection. All positive women were diagnosed by SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM/IgA antibodies, and 14 (37%) also had a positive RT–PCR. The overall composition of the nasopharyngeal microbiota differ in pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection (positive SARS-CoV-2 antibodies), compared to those without the infection (negative SARS-CoV-2 antibodies) (p = 0.001), with a higher relative abundance of the Tenericutes and Bacteroidetes phyla and a higher abundance of the Prevotellaceae family. Infected women presented a different pattern of microbiota profiling due to beta diversity and higher richness (observed ASV
Recent advances in cancer characterization have consistently revealed marked heterogeneity, impeding the completion of integrated molecular and clinical maps for each malignancy. Here, we focus on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a B cell neoplasm with variable natural history that is conventionally categorized into two subtypes distinguished by extent of somatic mutations in the heavy-chain variable region of immunoglobulin genes (IGHV). To build the ‘CLL map,’ we integrated genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic data from 1,148 patients. We identified 202 candidate genetic drivers of CLL (109 new) and refined the characterization of IGHV subtypes, which revealed distinct genomic landscapes and leukemogenic trajectories. Discovery of new gene expression subtypes further subcategorized this neoplasm and proved to be independent prognostic factors. Clinical outcomes were associated with a combination of genetic, epigenetic and gene expression features, further advancing our prognostic paradigm. Overall, this work reveals fresh insights into CLL oncogenesis and prognostication.
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314 members
Nuria Climent
  • AIDS Research team
Ana Paula Dantas
  • Experimental Cardiology
Felip Burgos
  • Division of Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Renal Pathobiology and Bioengineering
Rosselló, 149 - 153, 08036, Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Head of institution
Ramon Gomis
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