ICON Plc
  • Dublin, Ireland
Recent publications
Background Conservative management of adnexal mass is warranted when there is imaging-based and clinical evidence of benign characteristics. Malignancy risk is, however, a concern due to the mortality rate of ovarian cancer. Malignancy occurs in 10–15% of adnexal masses that go to surgery, whereas the rate of malignancy is much lower in masses clinically characterized as benign or indeterminate. Additional diagnostic tests could assist conservative management of these patients. Here we report the clinical validation of OvaWatch, a multivariate index assay, with real-world evidence of performance that supports conservative management of adnexal masses.Methods OvaWatch utilizes a previously characterized neural network-based algorithm combining serum biomarkers and clinical covariates and was used to examine malignancy risk in prospective and retrospective samples of patients with an adnexal mass. Retrospective data sets were assembled from previous studies using patients who had adnexal mass and were scheduled for surgery. The prospective study was a multi-center trial of women with adnexal mass as identified on clinical examination and indeterminate or asymptomatic by imaging. The performance to detect ovarian malignancy was evaluated at a previously validated score threshold.ResultsIn retrospective, low prevalence (N = 1,453, 1.5% malignancy rate) data from patients that received an independent physician assessment of benign, OvaWatch has a sensitivity of 81.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 65.1–92.7] for identifying a histologically confirmed malignancy, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.7%. OvaWatch identified 18/22 malignancies missed by physician assessment. A prospective data set had 501 patients where 106 patients with adnexal mass went for surgery. The prevalence was 2% (10 malignancies). The sensitivity of OvaWatch for malignancy was 40% (95% CI: 16.8–68.7%), and the specificity was 87% (95% CI: 83.7–89.7) when patients were included in the analysis who did not go to surgery and were evaluated as benign. The NPV remained 98.6% (95% CI: 97.0–99.4%). An independent analysis set with a high prevalence (45.8%) the NPV value was 87.8% (95% CI: 95% CI: 75.8–94.3%).Conclusion OvaWatch demonstrated high NPV across diverse data sets and promises utility as an effective diagnostic test supporting management of suspected benign or indeterminate mass to safely decrease or delay unnecessary surgeries.
Purpose: There is little research on care-seeking preferences during active pain crises for sickle cell disease (SCD) patients and their caregivers. The objective of this study was to identify relevant, patient or caregiver narratives of the pain crisis experience, to understand the factors that contribute to care-seeking during a pain crisis, and to identify preferences when making care-seeking decisions during a pain crisis. Patients and methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with Canadian residents with a self-reported SCD diagnosis, who were either ≥18 years of age or an adolescent between the ages of 12-18. Interviews were hosted virtually, audio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Results: A total of 23 individuals participated (74% female; 26% male), including six adolescents with parent dyads and 11 adults. Almost all (N = 21, 91.3%) participants were Black/African American. Participants mentioned many factors that influenced care-seeking decisions, mainly the symptom and pain experience; institutional factors (waiting time, the presence of and adherence to treatment guidelines, and the empathy or racial bias felt from medical staff); and subject-level factors (age and a flexibility in daily responsibilities). Conclusion: This study identified important institutional and subject-level considerations involved in care-seeking decisions. Most importantly, this study highlights the racial stigma faced by many patients when care-seeking in the ER and the lack of care protocol implemented, which hinders care-seeking in a dedicated medical facility. From the patient perspective, these are clear gaps to fill to encourage patients to seek and receive the care they deserve.
Bepranemab is a recombinant, humanized, full‐length IgG4 monoclonal antibody that binds to a central tau epitope (amino acids 235‐250). Here, we update on the progress of the TOGETHER study (AH0003; NCT04867616) with bepranemab in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD). TOGETHER is a global, multicenter, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, parallel‐group study investigating the efficacy, safety and tolerability of bepranemab versus placebo. Patients with prodromal (National Institute on Aging‐Alzheimer’s Association [NIA‐AA] Stage 3) or mild (NIA‐AA Stage 4) AD (target N = 450) will be randomized (1:1:1) to receive one of two doses of bepranemab or placebo (intravenous, every 4 weeks), over an 80‐week treatment period, followed by an optional 48‐week open‐label‐extension period. Participants will have a global Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score of 0.5 (prodromal AD) or 0.5–1.0 (mild AD) and a CDR‐Memory Box score ≥0.5 at screening and baseline, a score of ≤85 for the delayed recall domain of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), mini‐mental state examination (MMSE) ≥20 at screening and must meet the NIA‐AA 2018 definition of cerebral beta‐amyloid (Aβ) accumulation, by either a positive centrally read positron emission tomography (PET) scan or a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pTau181/Aβ1‐42 ratio. The primary endpoint is change from baseline to Week 80 in CDR scale Sum of Boxes total score. Secondary endpoints include: pharmacokinetics; safety and tolerability; tau PET imaging and change from baseline in AD Assessment Scale‐Cognitive Subscale 14, Amsterdam Instrumental Activities of Daily Living questionnaire and MMSE at Weeks 56 and 80. As of March 1, 2022, 56/125 planned centers have enrolled participants across 8 countries: Belgium, Canada, France, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK and USA. Of the 538 participants who entered screening, 62 have been randomized so far and 334 failed screening. Predominant reasons for screen failure include not meeting RBANS, MMSE or Aβ positivity (CSF or PET) criteria. This proof‐of‐concept study employs clinical outcome measures, imaging, pharmacokinetics, and biomarkers to assess the ability of bepranemab to slow progression of AD when administered in the early stages of disease. Enrollment and randomization are underway with nearly half of the study centers active.
Background MPS IIIA is a rare, degenerative pediatric genetic disease characterized by symptoms impacting cognition, mobility and behavior; the mean age of death is around 15 years of age. Currently, there are no approved therapies for MPS IIIA. Methods A two-year, multi-center, prospective, descriptive cohort study was conducted to document the natural history course of MPS IIIA. In the context of this study, semi-structured interviews were performed with parents of children at study entry and one year later. Interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis methods to identity concepts of interest to children and parents, identify what factors impacted parents’ burden the most, and develop qualitatively-derived disease severity stages. Children were sorted into these stages according to the symptoms their parents described at the entry interview. This sorting was compared quantitatively to the sorting of children at baseline according to the child’s calendar age and their BSID development quotient (DQ). Results 22 parents in France, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK were interviewed. Children ranged in age from 28 to 105 months (mean 61.4 months). The conceptual models for children’s symptoms and impacts and parents’ impacts provided a detailed and comprehensive picture of what it is like for children of various ages and their parents to live with MPS IIIA. Four factors were identified as mediating the burden perceived by parents: state support, family support, time since diagnosis, and parent coping strategy. Four disease stages were developed, accounting for both the presence and the severity of MPS IIIA symptoms. The comparison of children’s sorting into these stages with the BSID DQ and the child’s calendar age showed strong statistical associations. Conclusions The findings of this qualitative research embedded in a natural history study add to the current understanding of MPS IIIA as a complex disease that impacts every aspect of the lives of children and their families. This study demonstrates the unique potential of mixed methods research in rare diseases to address some of the current limitations of more traditional quantitative approaches by providing an individualized, detailed understanding of the patient experience.
Importance It is estimated that up to 50% of patients with ERBB2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) will develop brain metastases (BMs), which is associated with poor prognosis. Previous reports of the HER2CLIMB trial have demonstrated that tucatinib in combination with trastuzumab and capecitabine provides survival and intracranial benefits for patients with ERBB2-positive MBC and BMs. Objective To describe overall survival (OS) and intracranial outcomes from tucatinib in combination with trastuzumab and capecitabine in patients with ERBB2-positive MBC and BMs with an additional 15.6 months of follow-up. Design, Setting, and Participants HER2CLIMB is an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating tucatinib in combination with trastuzumab and capecitabine. The 612 patients, including those with active or stable BMs, had ERBB2-positive MBC previously treated with trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and trastuzumab emtansine. The study was conducted from February 23, 2016, to May 3, 2019. Data from February 23, 2016, to February 8, 2021, were analyzed. Interventions Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive tucatinib (300 mg orally twice daily) or placebo (orally twice daily), both in combination with trastuzumab (6 mg/kg intravenously or subcutaneously every 3 weeks with an initial loading dose of 8 mg/kg) and capecitabine (1000 mg/m ² orally twice daily on days 1-14 of each 3-week cycle). Main Outcomes and Measures Evaluations in this exploratory subgroup analysis included OS and intracranial progression-free survival (CNS-PFS) in patients with BMs, confirmed intracranial objective response rate (ORR-IC) and duration of intracranial response (DOR-IC) in patients with measurable intracranial disease at baseline, and new brain lesion–free survival in all patients. Only OS was prespecified before the primary database lock. Results At baseline, 291 of 612 patients (47.5%) had BMs. Median age was 52 years (range, 22-75 years), and 289 (99.3%) were women. At median follow-up of 29.6 months (range, 0.1-52.9 months), median OS was 9.1 months longer in the tucatinib-combination group (21.6 months; 95% CI, 18.1-28.5) vs the placebo-combination group (12.5 months; 95% CI, 11.2-16.9). The tucatinib-combination group showed greater clinical benefit in CNS-PFS and ORR-IC compared with the placebo-combination group. The DOR-IC was 8.6 months (95% CI, 5.5-10.3 months) in the tucatinib-combination group and 3.0 months (95% CI, 3.0-10.3 months) in the placebo-combination group. Risk of developing new brain lesions as the site of first progression or death was reduced by 45.1% in the tucatinib-combination group vs the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.36-0.85]). Conclusions and Relevance This subgroup analysis found that tucatinib in combination with trastuzumab and capecitabine improved OS while reducing the risk of developing new brain lesions, further supporting the importance of this treatment option for patients with ERBB2-positive MBC, including those with BMs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02614794
Objectives To evaluate the evidence on effects of nurse staffing in nursing homes on resident outcomes. Design Systematic review. Setting and Participants Studies evaluating the effects of nurse staffing levels, total staffing, or skill mix on pressure ulcers, nursing home associated infections, and pain outcomes for adult residents in US nursing homes. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Database for English-language articles published between January 2000 and May 2021. We also searched for gray literature and sought expert referrals. Two reviewers participated in determination of eligibility, assessment of methodological quality, and abstraction of data. Abstracted data included study design; setting and population characteristics; and resident outcomes. We rated overall certainty of evidence (very low, low, moderate, and high) for each outcome using GRADE. Results Of 9152 unique citations, 378 articles underwent full-text review. We identified 22 eligible studies that addressed pressure ulcers (k = 15), COVID-19 cases and/or mortality (k = 4), other infections (k = 8), and moderate-severe pain among residents (k = 7); some examined multiple outcomes. Most studies (k = 17) were rated moderate or high quality. All studies were observational. Overall, registered nurse (RN) staffing was probably associated with fewer pressure ulcers (moderate certainty) and possibly fewer COVID-19 infections/mortality (low certainty), other infections (low certainty) and lower rates of moderate-severe pain (low certainty). Higher skill mix was probably associated with fewer pressure ulcers, higher resident COVID-19 infections, fewer other infections, and lower rates of moderate-severe pain (low certainty for all outcomes). Conclusions and Implications Higher RN staffing and skill mix may be associated with better nursing home resident outcomes, while results were mixed for total staffing. Increasing RN staffing levels and skill mix are one of a variety of approaches to improve nursing home care.
Objectives To investigate the cost-effectiveness of abatacept (ABA) as first-line (1L) therapy in Japanese rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using data from the Institute of Rheumatology, Rheumatoid Arthritis database. Methods A decision-analytic model was used to estimate the cost per American College of Rheumatology response of at least 50% improvement (ACR50) responder and per patient in Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) remission from a Japanese healthcare payers’ perspective over a 2-year time horizon. Clinical characteristics of patients on ABA-1L were matched with those of patients on ABA second or later line (2L+) or tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi)-1L directly or using propensity scores. Resource utilisation and medical costs were calculated from the Japan Medical Data Center claims database. Parameter uncertainty was addressed by sensitivity and subgroup analyses (age, treatment duration, Japanese version of Health Assessment Questionnaire [J-HAQ] score). Results Incremental costs per member per month (ΔPMPM) for ABA-1L versus TNFi-1L and ABA-2L+ were -1,571 Japanese Yen (JPY) and 81 JPY, respectively. For ABA-1L versus TNFi-1L, ΔPMPM by ACR50 response was -11,715 JPY and by CDAI and SDAI remission 11,602 JPY and 47,003 JPY, respectively. Corresponding costs for ABA-1L were lower for all outcome parameters versus those for ABA-2L+. Scenario analyses showed that ABA-1L was cost-effective over TNFi-1L in patients <65 years for any outcome. Furthermore, ABA-1L was cost-effective over ABA-2L+ for all outcomes in patients with age <65 years, disease duration <5 years and J-HAQ ≥1.5. Conclusions ABA-1L demonstrated a favourable cost-effectiveness profile in RA patients, accruing savings for the Japanese healthcare payers.
Background: Clubfoot is a common congenital foot deformity in children. The Ponseti method of serial casting has become the standard of care in clubfoot treatment. Clubfoot casting is performed in many centers by both orthopaedic surgeons and physical therapists (PTs); however, direct comparison of outcomes and complications of this treatment between these providers is limited. This study prospectively compared the outcomes of patients with clubfoot treated by these 2 groups of specialists. Methods: Between January 2010 and December 2014, all patients under the age of 12 months with a diagnosis of clubfoot were included. Patients were randomized to an orthopaedic surgeon (MD) group or a PT group for weekly serial casting. Main outcome measures included the number of casts required to achieve correction, clinical recurrence of the deformity, and the need for additional surgical intervention. Results: One hundred twenty-six infants were included in the study. Patient demographics and characteristics (sex, race, family history of clubfoot, laterality, and severity of deformity) were similar between treatment groups, with the only significant difference being the mean age of entry into the study (5.2 weeks in the MD group and 9.2 weeks in the PT group, P=0.01). Mean length of follow-up was 2.6 years. The number of casts required trended to a lower number in the MD group. There was no significant difference in the rates of clinical recurrence or additional surgical intervention between groups. Conclusions: Ponseti casting for treatment of clubfoot performed by orthopaedic surgeons and PTs results in equivalent outcomes without any difference in complications. Although the number of casts required trended to a lower number in the MD group, this likely did not result in any clinical significance, as the difference in cast number equaled <1 week's difference in the overall duration of serial casting. Level of evidence: Level I-therapeutic.
Background: The advent of immunotherapies (I-O) and targeted therapies has transformed the treatment landscape in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, adoption of new treatment guidelines and evolving treatment patterns in clinical practice are largely unknown. The aim of this systematic literature review (SLR) was to capture real-world first-line treatment patterns in advanced (staged IIIB-IV) or recurrent NSCLC patients in the US. Methods: Electronic databases were systematically searched for observational studies published 2012-2020 that reported on adult patients receiving first-line therapy for advanced NSCLC. Included studies were reviewed and treatment patterns were summarized descriptively. Results: Eighteen studies were included. Platinum-doublet (PD) chemotherapy and unspecified chemotherapy regimens were the most commonly used first-line treatments (up to 71% and 96%, respectively). Chemotherapy as monotherapy was mainly utilized in patients ≥65 years. While chemotherapy use was continuously high, I-O became the preferred front-line treatment in 2018 (32.9%). I-O monotherapy was more prevalent among patients with PD-L1 ≥50%, compared to patients with lower levels. First-line use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and bevacizumab-based therapies was common in 2010 (33.4% and 21.7%, respectively), but gradually declined to <1% in 2018. Conclusion: Consistent with the evolving first-line NSCLC treatment landscape in the US, this SLR captures the increasing use of I-O in recent years. While the brief lag in I-O use from the time of authorization may be attributable to an initial resistance to treatment adoption or publication delays, continued use of chemotherapy regimens may reflect an unmet treatment need, which warrants further research.
Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of NEPA, a fixed-dose combination of oral netupitant (300 mg) and palonosetron (0.5 mg), compared to available treatments in Spain after aprepitant generic introduction in the market, and to discuss results in previously performed analyses in different wordwide settings. Methods A Markov model including three health states, complete protection, complete response at best and incomplete response, was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of NEPA versus common treatment options in Spain during 5 days after chemotherapy. Incremental costs including treatment costs and treatment failure management cost as well as incremental effects including quality adjusted life days (QALDs) and emesis-free days were compared between NEPA and the comparator arms. The primary outcomes were cost per avoided emetic event and cost per QALDs gained. Results NEPA was dominant (more effective and less costly) against aprepitant combined with palonosetron, and fosaprepitant combined with granisetron, while, compared to generic aprepitant plus ondansetron, NEPA showed an incremental cost per avoided emetic event of €33 and cost per QALD gained of €125. Conclusion By most evaluations, NEPA is a dominant or cost-effective treatment alternative to current antiemetic standards of care in Spain during the first 5 days of chemotherapy treatment in cancer patients, despite the introduction of generics. These results are in line with previously reported analyses throughout different international settings.
Objectives: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the fourth most common cancer among women in developed countries. Understanding regarding the characteristics of and the post-platinum treatment (tx) profile for women with advanced/recurrent (A/R) EC is limited. The objective of this study was to describe real-world patient (pt) demographics, clinical characteristics, tx patterns, and outcomes in European pts with A/R EC. Methods: This retrospective chart review study utilized data collected from European pts (Germany, France, Spain, Italy, UK) with EC from the IQVIA Oncology Advantage Database. A de novo case report form captured relevant variables for pts receiving tx after initial platinum-based regimens for A/R EC. Pts were included if they had progressed on ≤2 prior lines of chemotherapy (CT) with ≥1 prior platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. For pts receiving active tx (vs hormone monotherapy or best supportive care) after chemotherapy, the index date was the date of initiation of the post-platinum tx. For pts not receiving active post-platinum tx, the index date was the discontinuation date of the last therapy or the date of progression. Pts were included if their index date was between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2016. Pts were followed from their index date to the last visit, the record of death, or the date of data extraction from September to November 2020 (whichever came first). Mismatch repair (MMR)/microsatellite instability (MSI) status was collected. Tx response, defined as complete or partial response (CR/PR), was identified as per RECIST v1.1 or provider assessment. Results: A total of 339 pts were included. Pts were treated by 227 providers (>33 providers in each country), with 56% in a teach- ing/university hospital setting. Mean (SD) age at A/R EC diagnosis was 60.3 (9.1) years and 61.4 (9.2) years at index date. An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 at index date was reported for 91% of pts. MMR/MSI status was tested in 108 pts (32%); 16% (17/108) were MMR deficient/MSI-high. During the follow-up period, 214 pts (63%) died; 207 (97%) deaths were due to EC. The most common index (i.e., first active post-platinum) tx were doxorubicin monotherapy (21%), paclitaxel monotherapy (11%), and carboplatin/paclitaxel (7%); 20% did not receive active tx after the index date. In the 271-pts receiving active tx, the most common reasons for stopping index tx included tx completion (35%; 95/271) or distant progression/relapse (22%; 59/271). The response rate to index tx in pts receiving active tx was 44% (120/271), including 20% (54/271) with the best response of a CR and 24% (66/271) with a PR; 24% (65/271) had stable disease. Among all pts (n=339), only 8% received further active tx after index tx/care, commonly paclitaxel (2.4%), topotecan (1.8%), and doxorubicin (1.2%). Conclusions: These results showed that pts with A/R EC received variable active tx following platinum-based chemotherapy. Funding: GSK (213506). Editorial support provided by Fishawack Indicia, part of Fishawack Health, funded by GSK.
Introduction: Few randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have directly compared long-acting muscarinic antagonist/long-acting β2-agonist (LAMA/LABA) dual maintenance therapies for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This systematic literature review and network meta-analysis (NMA) compared the efficacy of umeclidinium/vilanterol (UMEC/VI) versus other dual and mono-bronchodilator therapies in symptomatic patients with COPD. Methods: A systematic literature review (October 2015-November 2020) was performed to identify RCTs ≥ 8 weeks long in adult patients with COPD that compared LAMA/LABA combinations against any long-acting bronchodilator-containing dual therapy or monotherapy. Data extracted on changes from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score, Transitional Dyspnoea Index (TDI) focal score, rescue medication use and moderate/severe exacerbation rate were analysed using an NMA in a frequentist framework. The primary comparison was at 24 weeks. Fixed effects model results are presented. Results: The NMA included 69 full-length publications (including 10 GSK clinical study reports) reporting 49 studies. At 24 weeks, UMEC/VI provided statistically significant greater improvements in FEV1 versus all dual therapy and monotherapy comparators. UMEC/VI provided similar improvements in SGRQ total score compared with all other LAMA/LABAs, and significantly greater improvements versus UMEC 125 μg, glycopyrronium 50 μg, glycopyrronium 18 μg, tiotropium 18 μg and salmeterol 50 μg. UMEC/VI also provided significantly better outcomes versus some comparators for TDI focal score, rescue medication use, annualised moderate/severe exacerbation rate, and time to first moderate/severe exacerbation. Conclusion: UMEC/VI provided generally better outcomes compared with LAMA or LABA monotherapies, and consistent improvements in lung function (measured by change from baseline in trough FEV1 at 24 weeks) versus dual therapies. Treatment with UMEC/VI may improve outcomes for symptomatic patients with COPD compared with alternative maintenance treatments.
PURPOSE Postconsolidation immunotherapy including dinutuximab, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-2 improved outcomes for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma enrolled on the randomized portion of Children's Oncology Group study ANBL0032. After random assignment ended, all patients were assigned to immunotherapy. Survival and toxicities were assessed. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with a pre-autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) response (excluding bone marrow) of partial response or better were eligible. Demographics, stage, tumor biology, pre-ASCT response, and adverse events were summarized using descriptive statistics. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) from time of enrollment (up to day +200 from last ASCT) were evaluated. RESULTS From 2009 to 2015, 1,183 patients were treated. Five-year EFS and OS for the entire cohort were 61.1 ± 1.9% and 71.9 ± 1.7%, respectively. For patients ≥ 18 months old at diagnosis with International Neuroblastoma Staging System stage 4 disease (n = 662) 5-year EFS and OS were 57.0 ± 2.4% and 70.9 ± 2.2%, respectively. EFS was superior for patients with complete response/very good partial response pre-ASCT compared with those with PR (5-year EFS: 64.2 ± 2.2% v 55.4 ± 3.2%, P = .0133); however, OS was not significantly different. Allergic reactions, capillary leak, fever, and hypotension were more frequent during interleukin-2–containing cycles than granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor–containing cycles ( P < .0001). EFS was superior in patients with higher peak dinutuximab levels during cycle 1 ( P = .034) and those with a high affinity FCGR3A genotype ( P = .0418). Human antichimeric antibody status did not correlate with survival. CONCLUSION Analysis of a cohort assigned to immunotherapy after cessation of random assignment on ANBL0032 confirmed previously described survival and toxicity outcomes. EFS was highest among patients with end-induction complete response/very good partial response. Among patients with available data, higher dinutuximab levels and FCGR3A genotype were associated with superior EFS. These may be predictive biomarkers for dinutuximab therapy.
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Ali Ghabeli Juibary
  • Neuroscience & Pain
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  • Global Health Economics Outcomes Research & Epidemiology
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