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ABSTRACT: El alargamiento de extremidades trata las discrepancias de longitud de extremidades superiores e inferiores. Lograr un adecuado tratamiento temprano evita secuelas irreversibles como la artrosis. El estudio de las discrepancias se realiza con una telerradiografía estandarizada, la cual entrega la información de cuál es el segmento óseo comprometido y cuál es el largo total a corregir. Menos de 15mm de discrepancia se ha demostrado que no tiene influencia sobre la mecánica de la marcha ni de las articulaciones. Más de 15mm produce una alteración en las cargas articulares, rangos de movimiento articular, compensaciones musculares, compensaciones de columna (escoliosis compensatoria), entre otras, que producen secuelas a largo plazo.
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ABSTRACT: Cryptococcal infections are classically associated to HIV/AIDS patients without therapy, but its presence among other immunosuppressed patients is less recognized. We report 3 lethal cases in non HIV-patients. Two of them presented with meningitis associated to renal transplant or corticosteroid use and, the third, with a necrotic skin infection in the context of progressive liver cirrhosis. In the former two patients, meningeal infection was suspected late, and in the latter, the diagnosis was established postmortem. Cryptococcal infections in non-HIV immunosupressed patients can affect different sites, are suspected late and have a high case-fatality ratio.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate an alternative approach to tubeless surgery that allows a second percutaneous procedure using the same nephrostomy tract. Twenty patients underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy from September 2012 to May 2013 at our institution. Inclusion criteria were: absence of urinary infection, single puncture and operative time less than 2h. Following the procedure the initially placed ureteral catheter was exteriorized through the working sheath by tying a non-absorbable suture to its end. On postoperative day 1 all patients were studied with non-enhanced CT or X-ray film. If the patient was rendered stone free, the stent was removed along with the urethro-vesical catheter. If a residual stone was present, we recovered the ureteral catheter and used the same nephrostomy tract for a second endoscopic procedure. Patients were assessed for pain, postoperative complications, length of stay, stone free rate, hematocrit and creatinine variations. Thirteen patients met the inclusion criteria. No major complications related to the stent placement and its exteriorization were seen. Two patients required a second percutaneous procedure successfully achieved recovering the ureteral catheter through the nephrostomy tract. We present a safe and simple modification of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy, with its well-known clinical benefits but maintaining a safe path for an eventual second look procedure if necessary.
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