The surgical repair of lateral hernias is considered a challenge. Laparoscopic intracorporeal rectus aponeuroplasty (LIRA) has been described as a minimally invasive technique for primary incisional ventral hernias of the midline, especially for M2 to M4 ventral hernias but the indications of the concept associated to LIRA are beginning to expand to other complex locations. The aim of this video is to show the surgical steps for lateral hernias where the concept associated to LIRA is followed to repair this type of hernias.
Background: There is a lack of knowledge about the career paths and employment situation of young medical oncologists. The aim of our study was to evaluate the current professional standing of these professionals in Spain. Methods: The Spanish Society of Medical Oncology + MIR section conducted a national online survey in May 2021 of young medical oncology consultants (< 6 years of expertise) and final year medical oncology residents. Results: A total of 162 responses were eligible for analysis and included participants from 16 autonomous communities; 64% were women, 80% were consultants, and 20% were residents. More than half of the participants performed routine healthcare activity and only 7% research activity. Almost three quarters (73%) were subspecialized in a main area of interest and almost half of these chose this area because it was the only option available after residency. Half of the respondents (51%) considered working abroad and 81% believed the professional standing in Spain was worse than in other countries. After finishing their residency, only 22 were offered a job at their training hospital. Just 16% of participants had a permanent employment contract and 87% were concerned (score of ≥ 5 on a scale of 1-10) about their job stability. In addition, one quarter of the participants in our study showed an interest in increasing their research activity. Conclusions: The choice of subspecialty in medical oncology may depend on job opportunities after residency rather than personal interest. The abundance of temporary contracts may have influenced the job stability concerns observed. Future mentoring strategies should engage in building a long-term career path for young medical oncologists.
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has favored the expansion of telemedicine. Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph-MPN) might be good candidates for virtual follow-up. In this study, we aimed to analyze the follow-up of patients with Ph-MPN in Spain during COVID-19, its effectiveness, and acceptance among patients. We present a multicenter retrospective study from 30 centers. Five hundred forty-one patients were included with a median age of 67 years (yr). With a median follow-up of 19 months, 4410 appointments were recorded. The median of visits per patient was 7 and median periodicity was 2.7 months; significantly more visits and a higher frequency of them were registered in myelofibrosis (MF) patients. 60.1% of visits were in-person, 39.5% were by telephone, and 0.3% were videocall visits, with a predominance of telephone visits for essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV) patients over MF, as well as for younger patients (< 50 yr). The proportion of phone visits significantly decreased after the first semester of the pandemic. Pharmacological modifications were performed only in 25.7% of the visits, and, considering overall management, ET patients needed fewer global treatment changes. Telephone contact effectiveness reached 90% and only 5.4% required a complementary in-person appointment. Although 56.2% of the cohort preferred in-person visits, 90.5% of our patients claimed to be satisfied with follow-up during the pandemic, with an 83% of positive comments. In view of our results, telemedicine has proven effective and efficient, and might continue to play a complementary role in Ph-MPN patients’ follow-up.
Background Little is known about the disposition to autoimmune diseases (ADs) among children diagnosed with JIA. In this study, we provide a comprehensive overview of the prevalence of and factors associated with ADs in parents of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods Prevalence rates of ADs and 95% Poisson confidence intervals were calculated for parents of JIA patients from the international Pharmachild registry and compared with general population prevalence rates as reported in the literature. Demographic, clinical and laboratory features were compared between JIA patients with and without a family history of AD using χ² and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Eight thousand six hundred seventy three patients were included and the most common familial ADs were psoriasis, autoimmune thyroid disease, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. The prevalence of several ADs was higher in parents of the included JIA patients than in the general population. Clinical Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Scores at study entry and last follow-up were not significantly different between patients with (n = 1231) and without a family history of AD (n = 7442). Factors associated with familial AD were older age at JIA onset (P < 0.01), Scandinavian residence (P < 0.01), enthesitis-related arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and undifferentiated arthritis (P < 0.01), ANA positivity (P = 0.03) and HLA-B27 positivity (P < 0.01). Conclusions Familial AD proves to be a risk factor for JIA development and certain diseases should therefore not be overlooked during family health history at the diagnosis stage. A family history of AD is associated with the JIA category but does not influence the severity or disease course.
Introduction The combination of Virtual Screening (VS) techniques with in vivo screening in the zebrafish model is currently being used in tandem for drug development in a faster and more efficient way. Areas covered We review the different virtual screening techniques, the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model for drug discovery and the synergy that exists between them. Expert opinion We highlight the advantages of combining virtual and zebrafish larvae screening for drug discovery. On the one hand, VS is a faster and cheaper tool for searching active compounds and possible candidates for therapy than in vivo screening when processing large compound libraries. On the other hand, zebrafish larvae form a vertebrate model which allows in vivo screening of large amounts of the compounds. Importantly physiology and chemical response is mostly conserved between zebrafish and mammals. The availability of the transgenic and mutant zebrafish lines allows an analysis of a specific phenotype upon treatment, along with toxicity, off-target effect, side effects, and dosage. The advantages of VS, in vivo whole animal approach screening, and the screening combinations are also reviewed.
Growth alterations have been described in patients operated on for oral clefts. The purpose of this work was to analyze the craniofacial and palate morphology and dimensions of young adults operated on for oral clefts in early childhood in Spain. Eighty-three patients from eight different hospitals were divided into four groups based on their type of cleft: cleft lip (CL, n = 6), unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP, n = 37), bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP, n = 16), and cleft palate only (CPO, n = 24). A control group was formed of 71 individuals. Three-dimensional (3D) digital models were obtained from all groups with an intraoral scanner, together with cephalometries and frontal, lateral, and submental facial photographs. Measurements were obtained and analyzed statistically. Our results showed craniofacial alterations in the BCLP, UCLP, and CPO groups with an influence on the palate, maxilla, and mandible and a direct impact on facial appearance. This effect was more severe in the BCLP group. Measurements in the CL group were similar to those in the control group. Cleft characteristics and cleft type seem to be the main determining factors of long-term craniofacial growth alterations in these patients. Prospective research is needed to clearly delineate the effects of different treatments on the craniofacial appearance of adult cleft patients.
Tumor-necrosis-factor-α inhibitors (anti-TNF-α) are associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease, primarily due to reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI). We assessed the performance of parallel LTBI screening with tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assays (QFT-GIT) before anti-TNF-α treatment in children with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders in a low TB-burden setting. We conducted a multicenter cohort study involving 17 pediatric tertiary centers in Spain. LTBI was defined as the presence of a positive TST and/or QFT-GIT result without clinical or radiological signs of TB disease. A total of 270 patients (median age:11.0 years) were included, mainly with rheumatological (55.9%) or inflammatory bowel disease (34.8%). Twelve patients (4.4%) were diagnosed with TB infection at screening (LTBI, n = 11; TB disease, n = 1). Concordance between TST and QFT-GIT results was moderate (TST+/QFT-GIT+, n = 4; TST−/QFT-GIT+, n = 3; TST+/QFT-GIT-, n = 5; kappa coefficient: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.36–0.60). Indeterminate QFT-GIT results occurred in 10 patients (3.7%) and were associated with young age and elevated C-reactive protein concentrations. Eleven of 12 patients with TB infection uneventfully completed standard LTBI or TB treatment. During a median follow-up period of 6.4 years, only 2 patients developed TB disease (incidence density: 130 (95% CI: 20–440) per 100,000 person-years), both probable de novo infections. Conclusion: A substantial number of patients were diagnosed with LTBI during screening. The dual strategy identified more cases than either of the tests alone, and test agreement was only moderate. Our data show that in children in a low TB prevalence setting, a dual screening strategy with TST and IGRA before anti-TNF-α treatment is effective. What is Known: • The optimal screening strategy for latent tuberculosis in children with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders remains uncertain. • Children receiving anti-TNF-α drugs are at increased risk of developing severe tuberculosis disease. What is New: • A dual screening strategy, using TST and an IGRA assay, identified more children with latent tuberculosis than either of the tests alone. • Identification and treatment of latent tuberculosis before initiation of anti-TNF-α therapy averted incident tuberculosis cases.
Characterization of three new HLA class I alleles, HLA-A*02:1008, -A*24:553 and -C*12:350, identified in Spanish hematopoietic stem cell donors.
Introduction The main advantages of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) are the immediate availability of donors, the possibility of developing cell therapy approaches with different novel transplant platforms, and the procedure's cost savings. Methodology We retrospectively analyzed the pediatric haplo-HSCT activity of the Spanish hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation group (GETH) between 1999 and 2016, aiming to study clinical characteristics and outcomes by describing patient groups with non-malignant disease (NMD) or malignant disease (MD) and the impact of 2 different periods (1999–2009 and 2010–2016) on long-term outcomes. Results Twelve centers performed 232 haplo-HSCTs in 227 children, representing 10% of all pediatric allogeneic HSCT activity in Spain from 1999 to 2016, with a notable increase since 2013. Most haplo-HSCTs (86.7%) were performed in patients with MD; 95% received peripheral blood stem cells from donors, and 78.9% received ex vivo T-cell depleted grafts. Non-manipulated grafts using post-transplantation cyclophosphamide have been incorporated since 2012. We observed a higher percentage of graft failure in NMD versus MD (32% vs. 15.6%; p = 0.029). Relapse and transplant-related mortality were the procedure's main limitations in MD and NMD, respectively. Five-year overall survival was 48.5% (SE 3.9), with no statistically significant difference when comparing the MD and NMD cohorts. Patients who received previously a HSCT the overall survival was significantly decreased. We observed no survival improvement over time. Conclusions Although haplo-HSCT is an increasingly employed treatment option, our patients’ results need improvement. We need to develop reference centers, especially for NMD whose rarity makes it difficult to gain experience.
Resumen Presentamos la visión futurista que de su especialidad tienen 7 líderes de opinión estrechamente comprometidos con la patología mamaria. Las especialidades incluidas fueron radiología, patología, cirugía, cirugía plástica, medicina nuclear, oncología médica y oncología radioterápica. Los autores plasman, en este artículo, sus opiniones y criterios respecto a los avances que vislumbran en su futuro profesional. Conceptos clave como sistemas de cribado sin radiación, transcriptómica clínica, diagnóstico funcional del tumor, inteligencia artificial, navegación intraoperatoria, biopsia líquida, ADN tumoral circulante, reconstrucción con técnicas microquirúrgicas avanzadas, hipofraccionamiento extremo o teragnosis, son algunos de los conceptos presentados y discutidos. Los autores justifican sus puntos de vista, abriendo líneas de trabajo a tener en cuenta para optimizar esfuerzos y el conocimiento futuro.
Background: Ample evidence indicates a sex-related difference in severity of COVID-19, with less favorable outcomes observed in men. Genetic factors have been proposed as candidates to explain this difference. The polyglutamine (polyQ) polymorphism in the androgen receptor gene has been recently described as a genetic biomarker of COVID-19 severity. Objective: To test the association between the androgen receptor polyQ polymorphism and COVID-19 severity in a large cohort of COVID-19 male patients. Materials and methods: This study included 1136 male patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 as confirmed by positive PCR. Patients were retrospectively and prospectively enrolled from March to November 2020. Patients were classified according to their severity into three categories: oligosymptomatic, hospitalized and severe patients requiring ventilatory support. The number of CAG repeats (polyQ polymorphism) at the androgen receptor was obtained by PCR and patients were classified as either short (<23 repeats) or long (≥23 repeats) allele carriers. The association between polyQ alleles (short or long) and COVID-19 severity was assessed by Chi-squared (Chi2 ) and logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean number of polyQ CAG repeats was 22 (±3). Patients were classified as oligosymptomatic (15.5%), hospitalized (63.2%) and severe patients (21.3%) requiring substantial respiratory support. PolyQ alleles distribution did not show significant differences between severity classes in our cohort (Chi2 test p > 0.05). Similar results were observed after adjusting by known risk factors such as age, comorbidities, and ethnicity (multivariate logistic regression analysis). Discussion: Androgen sensitivity may be a critical factor in COVID-19 disease severity. However, we did not find an association between the polyQ polymorphism and the COVID-19 severity. Additional studies are needed to clarify the mechanism underlying the association between androgens and COVID-19 outcome. Conclusions: The results obtained in our study do not support the role of this polymorphism as biomarker of COVID-19 severity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Background The Cuban population residing in the state of Florida in the United States forms the largest population group of immigrants in that state. It has been described as a population with little awareness of organ donation. The objective is to analyze the factors that Cubans residing in the Florida refer to when expressing an unfavorable attitude toward organ donation and to determine the psychosocial factors associated with the attitude toward organ donation of this population group. Methods We performed a cross-sectional observational study. From the Proyecto Colaborativo Internacional Donante (International Donor Collaborative Project), a sample stratified by age and sex of Cubans residing in Florida (N = 1224) is obtained. The sample is analyzed using the validated questionnaire (PCID-DTO-RIOS). The reasons against organ donation were analyzed using a specific multiresponse item, with an open response option. For the analysis of the psychosocial variables, a logistic regression analysis is carried out. Results A total of 38.2% (n = 468) of the individuals under study declared themselves against organ donation. Of those who were against, the reasons stated were (1) leave the dead in peace (n = 440; 57.6%); (2) religious reasons (n = 192; 25.1%); (3) fear of mutilation (n = 160; 20.9%); (4) assertive refusal (n = 128; 16.8%); (5) apparent death (n = 16; 2.1%); and (6) other reasons (n = 764; 62.4%). Conclusions The Cuban population residing in Florida who is against organ donation expresses various reasons. In addition, there are factors associated with the psychosocial profile toward organ donation of this important population group.
Radiant catalytic ionization (RCI) is a novel technology that uses the appropriate wavelength (240-260 nm) and the phenomenon of photo-oxidation leading to permanent removal of viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Here, two analyses were performed. The first of them was a complete analysis of environmental biosecurity in a hospital environment. The second one was a longitudinal study with 40 patients with confirmed COVID19 and high viral load to assess the efficacy of RCI technology eliminating airborne SARS-CoV-2 indoors. A significant decrease in the number of bacteria and fungi colony-forming units (CFUs) was found in rooms with RCI when compared with rooms without it (p=0.03 for both of them). In the second part of the study, 16 samples out of 40 (40%) were positives when RCI technology was absent; whereas, these samples were negative when the equipment was on. Incidence rates (IR) with their Poisson 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated as the number of positive tests with the purifier or without it, showing an IR difference of 48.5% [CI(15.9-81), p=0.004]. Furthermore, the IR ratio was calculated obtaining a value of 3.3, confirming that RCI diminished more than 3-fold the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 in the air of the patients’ rooms, thus laying the first stone in the fight for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 dissemination indoors.
Purpose of the study A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was designed to assess differences in brain relaxation between 20% mannitol and 3% hypertonic saline (HS) during elective supratentorial brain tumour surgery in patients with midline shift. Material and methods Sixty patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy for tumour resection were enrolled to receive either 5 mL/kg of 20% mannitol (n = 30) or 3% HS (n = 30) administered at skin incision. PCO2 in arterial blood was maintained within 35–40 mmHg and arterial blood pressure was controlled within baseline values ±20%. The primary outcome was the proportion of satisfactory brain relaxation. The surgeon assessed brain relaxation on a four-point scale (1 = excellent with no swelling, 2 = minimal swelling, 3 = serious swelling not requiring treatment, 4 = severe swelling requiring treatment). Postsurgical intracranial changes determined by imaging techniques, postoperative complications, PACU and hospital stay, and mortality at 30 days were also recorded. Appropriate statistical tests were used for comparison; P < 0.05 was considered as significant. This trial was registered in Eudract.ema.europa.eu (#2021-006290-40). Results There was no difference in brain relaxation: 2.00 [1.00–2.00] and 2.00 [1.75–3.00] for patients in mannitol and HS groups, respectively (P = 0.804). Tumour size (OR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.99–1.01; P = 0.371), peritumoral oedema classification (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.11–2.84; P = 0.493), mass effect (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.16–4.87; P = 0.864), anaesthesia (OR: 4.88, 95% CI: 0.82–28.96; P = 0.081) and midline shift (OR: 5.00, 95% CI: 0.84–29.70; P = 0.077) did not have a significant influence on brain swelling in patients treated with either mannitol or HS. No significant differences in perioperative outcomes, mortality and length of PACU and hospital stay were observed. Conclusions 5 mL/kg of 20% mannitol or 3% HS result in similar brain relaxation scores in patients undergoing craniotomy for supratentorial brain tumour with midline shift.
Background: This study aimed to define the existing barriers for early enteral nutrition (EEN) in critically ill children and to analyze the differences in nutrient supply, complications, and outcomes between EEN and late EN (LEN). Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter observational, prospective study including critically ill children receiving EN. Variables analyzed included demographic and anthropometric features, caloric and nutrient supply, outcomes, and complications according to the EN onset. Patients were classified into two groups according to the start of EN: 24-EEN vs EN started after 24 h (24-LEN) and 48-EEN vs EN started after 48 h (48-LEN). Results: Sixty-eight children were enrolled; 22.1% received 24-EEN, and 67.6% received 48-EEN. EN was most frequently delayed in patients older than 12 months, in patients with cardiac disease, and in those requiring mechanical ventilation (MV). Children in the 24-EEN group had shorter duration of MV compared with those in the 24-LEN group (P = 0.04). The 48-EEN group received a higher caloric intake (P = 0.04), reached the caloric target earlier (P < 0.01), and had lower incidence of constipation (P = 0.01) than the 48-LEN group. There was a positive correlation between the time required to reach the maximum caloric intake and the length of pediatric intensive care stay (r = 0.46; P < 0.01). Conclusion: EEN may improve nutrient delivery, reduce time on MV, and prevent constipation in critically ill children. No relevant differences between 24-EEN and 48-EEN were found. Cardiac disease, MV, and age older than 12 months were risk factors associated with LEN.
Purpose: Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most frequent indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Around 20% of patients suffer early disease progression within 24 months (POD24) of diagnosis. This study examined the significance of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in predicting response to therapy and POD24 in FL patients. Experimental design: We collected 100 plasma samples, before and during the treatment, from 36 FL patients prospectively enrolled in eight Spanish hospitals. They were treated with a chemotherapy-rituximab regimen and followed up for a median of 3.43 years. We performed targeted deep sequencing in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and tumor genomic DNA from 31 diagnostic biopsy samples. Results: Of the alterations detected in the diagnostic tissue samples, 73% (300/411) were also identified in basal cfDNA. The mean numbers of alterations per basal cfDNA sample in patients who suffered progression of disease within 24 months (POD24-pos) or did not to achieve complete response (non-CR) were significantly higher than in POD24-neg or CR patients (unpaired samples t-test, P = 0.0001 and 0.001, respectively). Pre-treatment ctDNA levels, as haploid genome equivalents (hGE/mL), were higher in patients without CR (P = 0.02) and in POD24-pos patients compared to POD24-neg patients (P < 0.001). Dynamic analysis showed that ctDNA levels decreased dramatically after treatment, although the reduction was more significant in patients with CR and POD24-neg patients. Conclusions: Basal ctDNA levels are associated with the risk of early progression and response to treatment in FL. cfDNA monitoring and genotyping during treatment and follow-up predict response to treatment and early progression.
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