Hospital de Infecciosas "F. Muñiz"
Recent publications
Purpose To identify determinants of oxygenation over time in patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); and to analyze their characteristics according to Berlin definition categories. Materials and methods Prospective cohort study including consecutive mechanically ventilated patients admitted between 3/20/2020–10/31/2020 with ARDS. Epidemiological and clinical data on admission; outcomes; ventilation, respiratory mechanics and oxygenation variables were registered on days 1, 3 and 7 for the entire population and for ARDS categories. Results 1525 patients aged 61 ± 13, 69% male, met ARDS criteria; most frequent comorbidities were obesity, hypertension, diabetes and respiratory disease. On admission, 331(21%), 849(56%) and 345(23%) patients had mild, moderate and severe ARDS; all received lung-protective ventilation (mean tidal volumes between 6.3 and 6.7 mL/kg PBW) and intermediate PEEP levels (10–11 cmH2O). PaO2/FiO2, plateau pressure, static compliance, driving pressure, ventilation ratio, pH and D-dimer >2 mg/L remained significantly different among the ARDS categories over time. In-hospital mortality was, respectively, 55%, 58% and 70% (p < 0.000). Independent predictors of changes of PaO2/FiO2 over time were BMI; preexistent respiratory disease; D-dimer >2 mg/L; day 1-PEEP, and day 1-ventilatory ratio. Conclusion Hypoxemia in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS is associated with comorbidities, deadspace and activated coagulation markers, and disease severity—reflected by the PEEP level required.
Resumen Se informa un caso autóctono de rickettsiosis por Rickettsia parkeri, ocurrido en junio del 2018 en la zona selvática del Parque Provincial Urugua-í, Misiones, Argentina, región sin registros previos de esta enfermedad en humanos. Se describen los aspectos epidemiológicos, ecológicos, clínicos y de laboratorio necesarios para el diagnóstico oportuno y el tratamiento adecuado. Se resalta el hecho de considerar a las rickettsiosis como diagnóstico diferencial ante un paciente con síndrome febril agudo exantemático; el antecedente epidemiológico de exposición al vector característico de la región, garrapatas del género Amblyomma, es un elemento fundamental.
Objectives In a context of COVID-19 vaccine shortages, this study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of receiving one dose of Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26 followed by a second COVID-19 vaccine dose of either Gam-COVID-Vac rAd5, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BBIBP-CorV in a cohort of older adults. Study design Single-centre, randomised, open label, non-inferiority trial. Methods Adults aged ≥65 years who had received one dose of Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26 were randomised in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive a second-dose COVID-19 vaccination of either Gam-COVID-Vac rAd5, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BBIBP-CorV. The primary outcome was the assessment of the humoral immune response to vaccination (i.e. antibody titres of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at 28 days after second-dose vaccination). In addition, neutralising antibody titres at day 28 for the three schedules were measured. Results Of 85 participants who were enrolled in the study between 26 and 30 July 2021, 31 individuals were randomised to receive Gam-COVID-Vac rAd5, 27 to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and 27 to BBIBP-CorV. The mean age of participants was 68.2 years (SD 2.9) and 49 (57.6%) were female. Participants who received Gam-COVID-Vac rAd5 and ChAdOx1 nCoV1-19 showed significantly increased anti-S titres at 28 days after second-dose vaccination, but this magnitude of difference was not observed for those who received BBIBP-CorV. The ratio between the geometric mean at day 28 and baseline within each group was 11.8 (6.98–19.89) among patients assigned to Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26/rAd5, 4.81 (2.14–10.81) for the rAd26/ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group and 1.53 (0.74–3.20) for the rAd26/BBIBP-CorV group. All of the schedules were shown to be safe. Conclusions The findings in this study contribute to the scarce information published on the safety and immunogenicity of Gam-COVID-Vac heterologous regimens and will help the development of guidelines and vaccine programme management.
In Argentina, the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection has been documented mainly among blood banks with a prevalence of ~0.02–0.046% for Buenos Aires city, 0.8% for the northeast, and 1% for the northwest; both areas are considered endemic for HTLV-2 and 1, respectively. Policies and specific guidelines for testing blood donors for HTLV are included since 2005. Screening for antibodies is performed at blood banks and confirmatory testing is performed at reference laboratories. There are no specific recommendations for the assistance of communities and individuals affected, nor referral to specialized clinics on the HTLV infection. In 2016, as a strategy of intervention, we opened a specialized clinical attendance in a referral infectious diseases public hospital for the comprehensive approach to patients with HTLV, offering follow-up and counseling for patients and their families for the early diagnosis of HTLV-1/2 and related diseases. During the study, 124 patients with presumptive HTLV positive diagnosis from blood bank, symptomatic patients (SPs), relatives, and descendants visited the unit. A total of 46 patients were HTLV positive (38 HTLV-1 and 8 HTLV-2). There were nine SPs (2 adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma [ATL] and 7 HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis [HAM/TSP]). All patients with HTLV-1 and−2 were offered to study their relatives. Two out of 37 (5.4%) descendants tested were positive for HTLV-1. Sexual partners were studied; among 6 out of 11 couples (54.5%) were found positive (5 HTLV-1 and 1 HTLV-2). Other relatives, such as mothers (1/2) and siblings (1/6), were positive for HTLV-1. According to the place of birth among HTLV-1 carriers, 58% were born in an endemic area or in countries where HTLV infection is considered endemic while for HTLV-2 carriers, 12.5% were born in an endemic area of Argentina. The proviral load (pVL) was measured in all, patients with HTLV-1 being higher in symptomatic compared with asymptomatic carriers. In addition, two pregnant women were early diagnosed during their puerperium and breastmilk replacement by formula was indicated. Inhibition of lactation was also indicated. Our study provides tools for a multidisciplinary approach to the infection and reinforces the importance of having specialized clinical units in neglected diseases, such as HTLV for counseling, clinical and laboratory follow-up, and providing useful information for patients for self-care and that of their families.
BACKGROUND: The aim of these clinical standards is to provide guidance on 'best practice´ for diagnosis, treatment and management of drug-susceptible pulmonary TB (PTB).METHODS: A panel of 54 global experts in the field of TB care, public health, microbiology, and pharmacology were identified; 46 participated in a Delphi process. A 5-point Likert scale was used to score draft standards. The final document represents the broad consensus and was approved by all 46 participants.RESULTS: Seven clinical standards were defined: Standard 1, all patients (adult or child) who have symptoms and signs compatible with PTB should undergo investigations to reach a diagnosis; Standard 2, adequate bacteriological tests should be conducted to exclude drug-resistant TB; Standard 3, an appropriate regimen recommended by WHO and national guidelines for the treatment of PTB should be identified; Standard 4, health education and counselling should be provided for each patient starting treatment; Standard 5, treatment monitoring should be conducted to assess adherence, follow patient progress, identify and manage adverse events, and detect development of resistance; Standard 6, a recommended series of patient examinations should be performed at the end of treatment; Standard 7, necessary public health actions should be conducted for each patient. We also identified priorities for future research into PTB.CONCLUSION: These consensus-based clinical standards will help to improve patient care by guiding clinicians and programme managers in planning and implementation of locally appropriate measures for optimal person-centred treatment for PTB.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) subgenotype F1b infection has been associated with the early occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronically infected patients from Alaska and Peru. In Argentina, however, despite the high prevalence of subgenotype F1b infection, this relationship has not been described. To unravel the observed differences in the progression of the infection, an in-depth molecular and biological characterization of the subgenotype F1b was performed. Phylogenetic analysis of subgenotype F1b full-length genomes revealed the existence of two highly supported clusters. One of the clusters, designated as gtF1b Basal included sequences mostly from Alaska, Peru and Chile, while the other, called gtF1b Cosmopolitan, contained samples mainly from Argentina and Chile. The clusters were characterized by a differential signature pattern of eight nucleotides distributed throughout the genome. In vitro characterization of representative clones from each cluster revealed major differences in viral RNA levels, virion secretion, antigen expression levels, as well as in the localization of the antigens. Interestingly, a differential regulation in the expression of genes associated with tumorigenesis was also identified. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the molecular and biological characteristics of the subgenotype F1b clusters and contributes to unravel the different clinical outcomes of subgenotype F1b chronic infections.
The digital revolution resulting from the emergence of the Web 2.0 and the arrival of social media have changed how human beings communicate, and the physicianpatient relationship is not an exception to this new environment. The origin of a digital identity is critical for our participation in social media as social communicators, but digital professionalism should be framed within good practice recommendations with well-defined legal and ethical outlines. The objective of this article is to provide tools for the adequate use of social media and digital presence, taking the protection of personal image and disseminated information into consideration.
Resumen Introducción Los pacientes con enfermedad VIH/sida avanzada presentan un alto riesgo de desarrollar infecciones oportunistas. Las micobacterias no tuberculosas (MNT) como Mycobacterium genavense (MG) son causa de infecciones diseminadas en pacientes con sida. Estos microorganismos se transmiten por inhalación o ingesta, y pueden causar infecciones graves tanto en huéspedes inmunocomprometidos como inmunocompetentes. Se presenta el caso de un paciente que desarrolló una lesión ocupante de espacio cerebral en la que se identificó a MG como agente etiológico. Caso clínico Se describe el caso de un paciente con una larga historia de enfermedad VIH/sida avanzada y antecedente de infección diseminada con compromiso del tubo digestivo, la médula ósea y el sistema nervioso central por una micobacteria no identificada dos años antes. Recibió tratamiento antituberculoso ampliado a MNT y fue externado, pero abandonó los controles y el tratamiento indicados. Meses después retorna a la consulta por omalgia izquierda, sin manifestaciones de compromiso neurológico. Una tomografía computarizada cerebral de control mostró un absceso en la región temporo-parietal derecha, con edema perilesional. El examen microbiológico de la lesión posterior a la exéresis neuroquirúrgica mostró el desarrollo de MG. Conclusiones Se presenta el caso de un paciente con enfermedad VIH/sida avanzada que desarrolló un absceso cerebral debido a MG. La infección por VIH/sida representa el principal factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de infecciones diseminadas por MNT. La micobacteria MG es un agente etiológico muy poco frecuente como causa de lesiones de masa cerebral ocupante en huéspedes inmunocomprometidos. El examen microbiológico directo y los cultivos del material obtenido por biopsia estereotáctica o exéresis quirúrgica es necesario para un correcto diagnóstico y abordaje terapéutico según antibiograma. Finalmente, se efectuó una revisión bibliográfica del tema.
Background: The role of oral vitamin D3 supplementation for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 remains to be determined. The study was aimed to evaluate whether vitamin D3 supplementation could prevent respiratory worsening among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods and Findings: We designed a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, sequential, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The study was conducted in 17 second and third level hospitals, located in four provinces of Argentina, from 14 August 2020 to 22 June 2021. We enrolled 218 adult patients, hospitalized in general wards with SARS-CoV-2 confirmed infection, mild-to-moderate COVID-19 and risk factors for disease progression. Participants were randomized to a single oral dose of 500 000 IU of vitamin D3 or matching placebo. Randomization ratio was 1:1, with permuted blocks and stratified for study site, diabetes and age (≤60 vs >60 years). The primary outcome was the change in the respiratory Sepsis related Organ Failure Assessment score between baseline and the highest value recorded up to day 7. Secondary outcomes included the length of hospital stay; intensive care unit admission; and in-hospital mortality. Overall, 115 participants were assigned to vitamin D3 and 105 to placebo (mean [SD] age, 59.1 [10.7] years; 103 [47.2%] women). There were no significant differences in the primary outcome between groups (median [IQR] 0.0 [0.0 - 1.0] vs 0.0 [0.0 - 1.0], for vitamin D3 and placebo, respectively; p = 0.925). Median [IQR] length of hospital stay was not significantly different between vitamin D3 group (6.0 [4.0 - 9.0] days) and 4 placebo group (6.0 [4.0 - 10.0] days; p = 0.632). There were no significant differences for intensive care unit admissions (7.8% vs 10.7%; RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.32 to 1.70; p = 0.622), or in-hospital mortality (4.3% vs 1.9%; RR 2.24; 95% CI 0.44 to 11.29; p = 0.451). There were no significant differences in serious adverse events (vitamin D3= 14.8%, placebo=11.7%). Conclusions: Among hospitalized patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 and risk factors, a single high oral dose of vitamin D3 as compared with placebo, did not prevent the respiratory worsening.
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay was evaluated as a surrogate marker of treatment failure in Chagas disease (CD). A convenience series of 18 acute or reactivated CD patients who received anti-parasitic treatment with benznidazole was selected—namely, nine orally infected patients: three people living with HIV and CD reactivation, five chronic CD recipients with reactivation after organ transplantation and one seronegative recipient of a kidney and liver transplant from a CD donor. Fifty-four archival samples (venous blood treated with EDTA or guanidinium hydrochloride-EDTA buffer and cerebrospinal fluid) were extracted using a Spin-column manual kit and tested by T. cruzi Loopamp kit (Tc-LAMP, index test) and standardized real-time PCR (qPCR, comparator test). Of them, 23 samples were also extracted using a novel repurposed 3D printer designed for point-of-care DNA extraction (PrintrLab). The agreement between methods was estimated by Cohen’s kappa index and Bland–Altman plot analysis. The T. cruzi Loopamp kit was as sensitive as qPCR for detecting parasite DNA in samples with parasite loads higher than 0.5 parasite equivalents/mL and infected with different discrete typing units. The agreement between qPCR and Tc-LAMP (Spin-column) or Tc-LAMP (PrintrLab) was excellent, with a mean difference of 0.02 [CI = −0.58–0.62] and −0.04 [CI = −0.45–0.37] and a Cohen’s kappa coefficient of 0.78 [CI = 0.60–0.96] and 0.90 [CI = 0.71 to 1.00], respectively. These findings encourage prospective field studies to validate the use of LAMP as a surrogate marker of treatment failure in CD.
COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) incidence varies depending on the country. Serum galactomannan quantification is a promising diagnostic tool since samples are easy to obtain with low biosafety issues. A multicenter prospective study was performed to evaluate the CAPA incidence in Argentina and to assess the performance of the lateral flow assay with digital readout (Sōna Aspergillus LFA) as a CAPA diagnostic and screening tool. The correlation between the values obtained with Sōna Aspergillus LFA and Platelia® EIA was evaluated. In total, 578 serum samples were obtained from 185 critically ill COVID patients. CAPA screening was done weekly starting from the first week of ICU stay. Probable CAPA incidence in critically ill patients was 10.27% (19/185 patients when LFA was used as mycological criteria) and 9% (9/100 patients when EIA was used as mycological criteria). We found a very good correlation between the two evaluated galactomannan quantification methods (overall agreement of 92.16% with a Kappa statistic value of 0.721). CAPA diagnosis (>0.5 readouts in LFA) were done during the first week of ICU stay in 94.7% of the probable CAPA patients. The overall mortality was 36.21%. CAPA patients' mortality and length of ICU stay were not statistically different from for COVID (non-CAPA) patients (42.11% vs 33.13% and 29 vs 24 days, respectively). These indicators were lower than in other reports. LFA-IMMY with digital readout is a reliable tool for early diagnosis of CAPA using serum samples in critically ill COVID patients. It has a good agreement with Platelia® EIA.
Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) has been proposed as a biomarker to distinguish HBeAg‐negative chronic infections (ENI) from HBeAg‐negative chronic hepatitis (ENH), identify patients prone to achieving sustained HBsAg loss, and predict the risk of liver disease progression. There is evidence that qHBsAg varies among genotypes, however there is a paucity of data on genotype F. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of qHBsAg in the diagnosis and evolution of genotype F chronic HBeAg‐negative infections. HBV‐DNA and HBsAg levels from 153 patients with ENI were correlated with the genotype. Liver disease progression was assessed by abdominal ultrasound and a transient elastography. The qHBsAg levels were significantly different among genotypes (p <0.001), being GTF: 4.0±1.1, GTA: 3.9±0.6 and GTD: 2.4±0.9 Log10 IU/ml. Only 10.7 and 11.5% of GTA and GTF showed qHBsAg <3.0 Log10 IU/ml. Regardless of HBV genotype, HBsAg clearance was observed in 17 cases, of which 12 showed qHBsAg <100 IU/ml before clearance. Despite of a large number of patients having qHBsAg >3.0 log10 IU/ml, no cases of advanced liver disease were observed at the end of follow‐up. This study provides new insights into the impact of HBV genotypes, in particular GTF, on serum HBsAg levels, emphasizing the need to implement a genotype‐specific cut‐off to achieve diagnostic certainty in the identification of ENI and the risk of liver disease progression. Regardless of HBV genotype, qHBsAg has been shown to be a powerful and reliable biomarker for predicting HBsAg loss.
Severe COVID-19 is associated with a systemic inflammatory response and progressive CD4+ T cell lymphopenia and dysfunction. We evaluated whether platelets might contribute to CD4+ T cell dysfunction in COVID-19. We observed a high frequency of CD4+ T cell-platelet aggregates in COVID-19 inpatients that inversely correlated with lymphocyte counts. Platelets from COVID-19 inpatients but not from healthy donors (HD) inhibited the up-regulation of CD25 expression and TNF-α production by CD4+ T cells. In addition, IFN-γ production was increased by platelets from HD but not from COVID-19 inpatients. A high expression of PD-L1 was found in platelets from COVID-19 patients to be inversely correlated with IFN-γ production by activated CD4+ T cells co-cultured with platelets. We also found that a PD-L1 blocking antibody significantly restored platelet-ability to stimulate IFN-γ production by CD4+ T cells. Our study suggests that platelets might contribute to disease progression in COVID-19 not only by promoting thrombotic and inflammatory events, but also by affecting CD4+ T cells functionality.
Cystoisospora belli causes chronic diarrhoea, acalculous cholecystitis, cholangiopathy and disseminated cystoisosporosis in patients with AIDS. Clinical manifestations and histological stages during C. belli infection in a patient with AIDS and liver disease were described. It was possible to identify sporozoite-like structures in the villus epithelium of the duodenum, close to the vascularization that underlies the basal membrane and unizoite tissue cysts near to the vascularization in the lamina propria. Unizoite tissue cysts were found inside of sinusoids in the liver communicating with the central vein and with a bile canaliculus and portal spaces. Based on these findings a hypothesis on C. belli life cycle could consider that the route of migration of unizoite tissue cysts up the liver is via the portal blood. The unizoite tissue cysts located in hepatic portal vein could migrated via sinusoid to central vein and general circulation through the venous system. The unizoite tissue cysts could also return via bile canaliculus to bile duct to portal triad. This hypothesis allows to understand the presence of unizoite stages in blood, the pathway by which the bile ducts become infected and unizoites in the liver being able to behave like hypnozoites that favour relapses and treatment failures.
Since 2018, important changes in the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis have been produced in the light of new evidence. The discovery of new anti-tuberculosis drugs, such as bedaquiline and nitroimidazopirane derivatives, as well as the use of repurposed drugs, led to international organizations to recommend new, totally oral, treatment regimens for mono-resistant and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, leaving aside the prolonged use of injectables, with their inherent toxicity and discomfort. Some definitions of drug-resistant tuberculosis have changed. The duration of treatment is also under review, leading some new regimens under study, such as BPaL (bedaquiline, pretomanid and linezolid), to a duration similar to that for treating susceptible tuberculosis. In this narrative review, we describe the new definitions, some basic diagnostic aspects, the pharmacological aspects, and the new classification of drugs to be used in the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis as well as the currently proposed schemes to treat it available within the Argentinean context. Finally, we include a brief review of ongoing clinical trials on new shortened treatments.
Like other alpha-herpesviruses, the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) remains latent in the neural ganglia following the primary varicella infection. The reactivation of the VZV in the dorsal root ganglia results in herpes zoster. Herpes zoster eruption is characterized by localized cutaneous lesions and neuralgic pain mostly in older and immunocompromised persons, especially those living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most commonly reported complications include VZV pneumonia, meningitis, encephalitis, and hepatitis. Several neurologic syndromes have been described associated with herpes zoster localized in cranial areas including peripheral nerve palsies and the Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, which has a varied clinical presentation and is the second most common cause of peripheral facial paralysis. Facial paralysis in this syndrome occurs in 60 to 90% of cases and it may precede or appear after the cutaneous lesions with a worse prognosis than idiopathic Bell paralysis. Here we present two cases of herpes zoster from the geniculate ganglia with peripheral facial paralysis that appeared simultaneously with vesicular herpetic otic lesions (multimetameric Ramsay-Hunt syndrome). In the two cases, amplifiable varicella-zoster viral DNA was found in the cerebrospinal fluid by RT-PCR Multiplex.
Background Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO 2 ) therapy has been proposed to treat hypoxaemia and reduce inflammation in COVID-19. Our objective was to analyse safety and efficacy of HBO 2 in treatment of hypoxaemia in patients with COVID-19 and evaluate time to hypoxaemia correction. Methods This was a multicentre, open-label randomised controlled trial conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between July and November 2020. Patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxaemia (SpO 2 ≤90% despite oxygen supplementation) were assigned to receive either HBO 2 treatment or the standard treatment for respiratory symptoms for 7 days. HBO 2 treatment was planned for ≥5 sessions (1 /day) for 90 min at 1.45 atmosphere absolute (ATA). Outcomes were time to normalise oxygen requirement to SpO 2 ≥93%, need for mechanical respiratory assistance, development of acute respiratory distress syndrome and mortality within 30 days. A sample size of 80 patients was estimated, with a planned interim analysis after determining outcomes on 50% of patients. Results The trial was stopped after the interim analysis. 40 patients were randomised, 20 in each group, age was 55.2±9.2 years. At admission, frequent symptoms were dyspnoea, fever and odynophagia; SpO 2 was 85.1%±4.3% for the whole group. Patients in the treatment group received an average of 6.2±1.2 HBO 2 sessions. Time to correct hypoxaemia was shorter in treatment group versus control group; median 3 days (IQR 1.0–4.5) versus median 9 days (IQR 5.5–12.5), respectively (p<0.010). OR for recovery from hypoxaemia in the HBO 2 group at day 3 compared with the control group was 23.2 (95% CI 1.6 to 329.6; p=0.001) Treatment had no statistically significant effect on acute respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation or death within 30 days after admission. Conclusion Our findings support the safety and efficacy of HBO 2 in the treatment of COVID-19 and severe hypoxaemia. Trial registration number NCT04477954 .
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51 members
Tomas Orduna
  • Department of Infectious Diseases
Maria Belen Bouzas
  • Division Analisis Clinicos.
Jorge C Wallach
  • Department of Infectious Diseases
Lautaro de Vedia
  • Intensive Care
Federico Aranda
  • Laboratorio de Hemostasia, Trombosis y Biología Molecular Asociada
Uspallata 2272, Parque Patricios, C1282AEN, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Head of institution
Dr. Ruben Daniel Masini
4304 2180/3380