PurposePoint-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) is an established tool in the management of hypotensive patients in the emergency department (ED). We compared the diagnostic accuracy of a POCUS protocol versus standard assessment without POCUS in patients with undifferentiated hypotension.Methods This was an international, multicenter randomized controlled trial included three EDs in North America and three in South Africa from September 2012 to December 2016. Hypotensive patients were randomized to early POCUS protocol plus standard care (POCUS group) or standard care without POCUS (control group). Initial and secondary diagnoses were recorded at 0 and 60 min. The main outcome was measures of diagnostic accuracy of a POCUS protocol in differentiating between cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic shock. Secondary outcomes were diagnostic performance for shock sub-types, as well as changes in perceived category of shock and overall diagnosis.ResultsFollow-up was completed for 270 of 273 patients. For cardiogenic shock, the POCUS-based diagnostic approach (POCUS) performed similarly to the non-POCUS approach (control) for specificity [95.5% (89.9–98.5) vs.93.8% (87.7–97.5)]; positive likelihood ratio (17.92 vs 14.80); negative likelihood ratio (0.21 vs 0.09) and diagnostic odds ratio (85.6 vs 166.57), with a similar overall diagnostic accuracy between the two approaches [93.7% (88–97.2) vs 93.6% (87.8–97.2)]. Diagnostic performance measures were similar across sub-categories of shock.Conclusion This is the first randomized controlled trial to compare diagnostic performance of a POCUS protocol to standard care without POCUS in undifferentiated hypotensive ED patients. POCUS performed well diagnostically in undifferentiated hypotensive patients, especially as a rule-in test; however, performance did not differ meaningfully from standard assessment.
Background: Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary neuromuscular disease with an estimated prevalence of 1/10 000 births. SMA is increasingly recognized as a multi-system disease with a need to study additional under-recognized health domains such as quality of life, fatigue, bulbar function, respiratory function, and independence. Objective: Identify and assess reported evidence from the literature investigating Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) in adults with SMA. Develop a novel method drawing from network theory to graphically depict the literature, PROMs, and supporting psychometric evidence. Methods: A scoping review was completed following PRISM-ScR, COSMIN and JBI scoping review guidelines. Literature investigating PROMs in adult SMA or neuromuscular disease was identified from peer-reviewed and grey databases. A network graph was derived from extracted data. Results: 5292 articles were retrieved, 81 articles met inclusion criteria; corresponding to 31 unique PROMs. Only two PROMs were developed specifically for SMA. Few PROMs covered multiple domains of health. Most PROMs were incompletely validated, focusing on concurrent validity, and few assessed responsiveness or internal consistency. Conclusions: PROMs are emerging tools for monitoring and assessing adults with SMA. Despite their potential benefits, additional validation studies should be completed prior to their use for clinical decision-making. Network graphics may represent a technique to aid in the visualization of evidence supporting a scoping review.
Background: Characterizing the prevalence and distribution of frailty within a population can help guide decision-making and policy development by identifying health service resource needs. Here we describe the prevalence of frailty among hospitalized older adults in New Brunswick (NB), Canada. Methods: NB administrative hospital claims data were used to identify hospitalized older adults aged 65 or older between April 1, 2017 and March 31, 2019. Frailty was quantified using the Hospital Frailty Risk Score (HFRS), a validated frailty tool derived from claims data. Individuals with a HFRS ranked as intermediate or high were categorized as frail. The distribution of frailty across sex and age are described. Crude prevalence estimates and corresponding 95% confidence intervals are presented. Results: A total of 55,675 older adults (52% females) were hospitalized. The overall prevalence of frailty was 21.2% (95%CI: 20.9-21.6). Prevalence increased with age: 12.7% (95%CI: 12.3-13.1) in the 65-74 age group, 24.7% (95%CI: 24.1-25.3) in the 75-84 age group and 41.6% (95%CI: 40.6-42.7) for those aged 85 and over (p<.001). Discussion/conclusion: The distribution of frailty is in line with that reported in other jurisdictions. We demonstrate the feasibility of the HFRS to identify and characterize frailty in a large sample of older adults who were hospitalized, using administrative data.
It is well established that an elevated potassium level (hyperkalemia) is associated with a risk of adverse events including morbidity, mortality and healthcare system cost. Hyperkalemia is commonly encountered in many chronic conditions including kidney disease, diabetes and heart failure. Furthermore, hyperkalemia may result from the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi), which are disease-modifying treatments for these conditions. Therefore, balancing the benefits of optimizing treatment with RAASi while mitigating hyperkalemia is crucial to ensure patients are optimally treated. In this review, we will briefly discuss the definition, causes, epidemiology and consequences of hyperkalemia. The majority of the review will be focused on management of hyperkalemia in the acute and chronic setting, emphasizing contemporary approaches and evolving data on the relevance of dietary restriction and the use of novel potassium binders.
Background The planning and execution of discharge plans to successfully transition frail older adults from hospital-to-home can be a complicated endeavour. Objective To identify areas for improvement in the transitional process of frail older adults who were discharged from hospital based, geriatric units to their homes in the community. Method A prospective multi-phased mixed methods design was used, and cross-case thematic analysis of Phase 2 data were triangulated with Phase 1 findings. Results Thematic analysis findings indicated several related areas of importance within the transitional process: 1) Coordination of discharge; 2) Transition-to-home planning; 3) Home and community care; 4) Following of recommendations; and, 5) Medical follow-up. Conclusions Strengthening communication between stakeholders, as well as the implementation of harmonized policies and guidelines are needed to facilitate more consistent care delivery and provide patients and families with information on what to expect during the transitional process.
Aims and Objectives Cognitive abilities between monolingual and bilingual individuals may differ, making it an important factor to consider during the administration of cognitive screening tools. Otherwise, assessments could be subject to misinterpretation, leading to possible inaccurate diagnoses. The current project aimed to compare cognitive performance of healthy older monolingual and bilingual anglophones on the English version of a new cognitive screening test designed for better recognition of atypical dementia: the Dépistage Cognitif de Québec (DCQ; www.dcqtest.org ). Design The DCQ was administered by qualified psychometricians to 85 native English-speaking participants aged 50 years and over, in various sites across Canada. Language proficiency was established using the Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was used to exclude individuals with cognitive impairments. Data and Analysis Amid the anglophone participants recruited, 30 monolingual anglophones and 29 bilingual anglophones (English and French) met inclusion criteria. Groups had similar age, education, and MoCA scores. Monolinguals and bilinguals were compared on their total DCQ scores and each of the five DCQ indexes: Memory, Visuospatial, Executive, Language, and Behavioural. Findings The bilingual participants performed better on the Language Index, which contributed to the significant bilingual advantage for the overall DCQ scores. When applying a Bonferroni correction, the differences between groups were, however, not maintained. No differences were found on any of the other indexes. Originality This study is the first to explore psychometric properties of the DCQ in older monolingual and bilingual participants tested in their native language. Implications Results highlight the importance of identifying and characterizing linguistic diversity before using new screening tools in clinical settings. The potential cognitive advantages of bilingualism should be considered when interpreting test data and explicitly discussed in neuropsychological reports.
Objectives: Significant heterogeneity exists internationally in the airway devices used in the pre-hospital setting during cardiac arrest. This study evaluated the first-pass success (FPS) rate of two supraglottic airways (SGAs) used by paramedics during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: the King LTS-D and the i-gel. Methods: By examining 2,680 patient care records compiled by Ambulance New Brunswick between 2015 and 2020, we evaluated the FPS rate of the two SGAs using a 2x2 Pearson chi-square test for association, and a Mann-Whitney U test, to determine whether there were significant differences in FPS rates. Results: Our study demonstrated a statistically significant association between airway devices and FPS favoring the i-gel with an FPS of 90.6% compared to a 76.6% FPS with the King LTS-D; X 2(1) = 96.01, p < 0.001. The odds of successfully inserting the airway on the first attempt were 2.94 times higher if paramedics used the i-gel than if they used the King LTS-D with a 95% CI [2.32, 3.60]. Mann-Whitney's U test for SGA differences favored the i-gel in fewer attempts for successful insertion (z = -4.357, p < 0.001, d = 0.15). Conclusions: Among patients in New Brunswick with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, paramedics had a higher FPS rate with the i-gel compared to the King LTS-D. Our study also found a statistically significant difference between the King LTS-D and i-gel, favoring the i-gel in fewer attempts. Our findings suggest that the i-gel provides a more consistent FPS rate compared to the King LTS-D within our study populations; however, further research is necessary to determine the clinical implications of this. While multiple attempts at tracheal intubation are associated with negative clinical outcomes, no such evidence exists for SGAs.
Objectives: Few surveys have focused on physician moral distress, burnout, and professional fulfilment. We assessed physician wellness and coping during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design: Cross-sectional survey using four validated instruments. Setting: Sixty-two sites in Canada and the United States. Subjects: Attending physicians (adult, pediatric; intensivist, nonintensivist) who worked in North American ICUs. Intervention: None. Measurements and main results: We analysed 431 questionnaires (43.3% response rate) from 25 states and eight provinces. Respondents were predominantly male (229 [55.6%]) and in practice for 11.8 ± 9.8 years. Compared with prepandemic, respondents reported significant intrapandemic increases in days worked/mo, ICU bed occupancy, and self-reported moral distress (240 [56.9%]) and burnout (259 [63.8%]). Of the 10 top-ranked items that incited moral distress, most pertained to regulatory/organizational (n = 6) or local/institutional (n = 2) issues or both (n = 2). Average moral distress (95.6 ± 66.9), professional fulfilment (6.5 ± 2.1), and burnout scores (3.6 ± 2.0) were moderate with 227 physicians (54.6%) meeting burnout criteria. A significant dose-response existed between COVID-19 patient volume and moral distress scores. Physicians who worked more days/mo and more scheduled in-house nightshifts, especially combined with more unscheduled in-house nightshifts, experienced significantly more moral distress. One in five physicians used at least one maladaptive coping strategy. We identified four coping profiles (active/social, avoidant, mixed/ambivalent, infrequent) that were associated with significant differences across all wellness measures. Conclusions: Despite moderate intrapandemic moral distress and burnout, physicians experienced moderate professional fulfilment. However, one in five physicians used at least one maladaptive coping strategy. We highlight potentially modifiable factors at individual, institutional, and regulatory levels to enhance physician wellness.
Purpose: Proton Beam Therapy (PBT)is a treatment option for select cancer patients. It is currently not available in Canada. Assessment and referral processes for out-of-country treatment for eligible patients vary by jurisdiction, leading to variability in access to this treatment for Canadian cancer patients. The purpose of this initiative was to develop a framework document to inform consistent and equitable PBT access for appropriate patients through the creation of pan-Canadian PBT access consensus recommendations. Materials and methods: A modified Delphiprocess was used to develop pan-Canadian recommendations with input from 22 PBT clinical and administrative experts across all provinces, external peer-review by provincial cancer and system partners, and feedback from a targeted community consultation. This was conducted by electronic survey and live discussion. Consensus threshold was set at 70% agreement. Results: Fourconsensus rounds resulted in a final set of 27 recommendations divided into three categories: patient eligibility (n=9); program level (n=10); and system level (n=8). Patient eligibility included: anatomic site (n=4), patient characteristics (n=3), clinical efficacy (n=2). Program level included: regulatory and staff requirements (n=5), equipment and technologies (n=4), quality assurance (n=1). System level included: referral process (n=5), costing, budget impact and quality adjusted life years (n=2), eligible patient estimates (n=1). Recommendations were released nationally in June 2021 and distributed to all 43 cancer programs in Canada. Conclusion: A pan-Canadian consensus-building approach was successful in creating an evidence-based, peer-reviewed suite of recommendations thatsupportapplication of consistent clinical criteria to inform treatment options, facility set-up and access to high quality proton therapy.
Background: Burnout is a growing problem among health care professionals, with consequences for patient safety and personal satisfaction. The prevalence of burnout among hospital pharmacists in Canada is unknown; however, it has been documented at over 60% in other countries. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of burnout and variables associated with burnout among hospital pharmacists in Canada. Methods: This cross-sectional cohort study was based on a survey made available to more than 2600 Canadian hospital pharmacists from February 10 to April 2, 2020, through the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists QID platform. The questionnaire collected data for the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey for Medical Personnel (MBI-HSSMP), demographic data, employment characteristics, and workplace factors; it also included an open-ended question about burnout. Results: A total of 171 respondents provided data suitable for analysis. Of these, only 13 (7.6%) met the criteria for burnout on all 3 subscales of the burnout inventory; however, 105 respondents (61.4%) surpassed the threshold for burnout on the emotional exhaustion subscale. In univariate analyses, not working to one's full scope of practice was associated with meeting the criteria for burnout on all 3 scales. Linear regression highlighted associations between scores on the emotional exhaustion subscale and gender identity, perceived excessive on-call duties, area of practice, and positivity of workplace culture. Content analysis of the open-ended question supported the quantitative findings and pointed to 3 major themes: workload quantity, workload quality, and workplace culture. Conclusions: Results on the emotional exhaustion subscale of the MBI-HSSMP and responses to the open-ended question suggested a relatively high prevalence of burnout among Canadian hospital pharmacists, and indicated potential links between burnout and certain workplace characteristics.
Background: Canadian clinical pharmacy key performance indicators (cpKPIs) have been developed for inpatient hospital practice but are not established for ambulatory oncology. This study represents the first step in developing cpKPIs for ambulatory oncology. Objectives: To describe the current landscape of pharmacy services in ambulatory oncology in Canada and to identify perspectives related to the development and implementation of cpKPIs in this practice setting. Methods: In this national cross-sectional study, a web-based questionnaire was distributed to pharmacists working in ambulatory oncology settings. Potential participants who self-identified as pharmacists practising in an ambulatory oncology setting were eligible. Survey questions focused on participants' demographic characteristics, oncology pharmacy services provided, metrics captured, and pharmacists' perceptions of cpKPIs. All data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 44 responses were received, with most respondents practising in community hospitals in British Columbia, Ontario, and Atlantic Canada. The services most commonly provided were chemotherapy order verification, laboratory monitoring, identification and resolution of drug therapy problems, and counselling on anticancer medications. Twenty-six of the 44 respondents (59%) indicated that performance metrics or patient outcomes were tracked at their respective institutions, with none being universally captured. Overall, 43 (98%) of the respondents favoured the development of cpKPIs for ambulatory oncology practice. Conclusions: Despite growing patient care needs in ambulatory oncology, there is significant heterogeneity in the scope of pharmacy services offered and the outcomes used to qualify their impact within this setting across Canada. This study demonstrates a clear need for national consensus cpKPIs to inform pharmacy resource utilization and patient-centred quality improvement initiatives.
Study Design Prospective cohort study. Objectives To identify patient trajectories of recovery defined by change in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To explore possible predictors of trajectory membership. Methods Adolescent patients scheduled to undergo spinal fusion for AIS were enrolled in the Post-Operative Recovery following Spinal Correction: Home Experience (PORSCHE) study. Responses to the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory–version 4 (PedsQL–4.0) were collected prior to surgery and 4 to 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months post-operatively. Latent class growth analyses identified patient subgroups based on their unique trajectories of physical health (PH) and psychosocial health (PSH) outcomes using the PedsQL–4.0 subscale scores. Predictors included demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. Results Data from up to 190 patients were included (87.4% female; mean±SD age = 14.6 ± 1.9 years). Three trajectory subgroups were identified for PH and 4 trajectories were found for PSH, with a majority of patients scoring within the established range of healthy adolescents 12 months post-surgery. Increased child and parent pain catastrophizing, child trait anxiety and previous hospitalizations were associated with poorer PH outcomes, whereas increased child and parent pain catastrophizing, child state and trait anxiety, and parent state and trait anxiety were associated with poorer PSH trajectories. Conclusions The PH and PSH trajectories identified in this study and the factors associated with their membership may inform surgical decision-making for AIS while facilitating patient and family counselling regarding peri-operative recovery and expectations.
Introduction Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients experience poor survival. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a form of heart-lung bypass, in the setting of cardiac arrest, termed extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR), has promise in improving survival with good neurologic outcomes. The study objective was to determine the number of potential annual ECPR candidates among the OHCA population in a health region within the Atlantic Canadian province of Nova Scotia. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted over a five-year period: January 1st, 2012 to December 31st, 2016. Consecutive non-traumatic OHCA and emergency department (ED) cardiac arrests occurring in a pre-determined catchment area (20-minute transport to ECMO center) defined by a geographic bounding box were identified. Criteria for ECPR were developed to identify candidates for activation of a "Code ECPR": (1) age 16-70, (2) witnessed arrest, (3) no flow duration (time to CPR, including bystander) <10 minutes, (4) resuscitation >10 minutes without return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), (5) emergency medical service (EMS) transport to hospital <20 minutes, (6) no patient factors precluding ongoing resuscitation (do not resuscitate status (DNR), palliative care involvement, or metastatic cancer), and (7) initial rhythm not asystole. Candidates were stratified by initial rhythm. Candidates were considered ultimately ED ECPR eligible if they failed conventional treatment, defined by death or resuscitation >30 minutes. Clinical data related to candidacy was extracted by an electronic query from prehospital and ED electronic records and manual chart review by three researchers. Results Our search yielded 561 cases of EMS-treated OHCA or in-ED arrests. Of those 204/561 (36%; 95% CI 33-40%) met the criteria for activation of a "Code ECPR". Ultimately 79/204 (34%; 95% CI 28-41%) of those who met activation criteria were considered ED ECPR eligible; which is 14% (95% CI 11-17%) of the total number of arrests-of the total number of arrests, the initial rhythms were pulseless electrical activity (PEA) 33/79 (42%; 95% CI 32-53%) and shockable 46/79 (58%; 95% CI 47-69%). Conclusion Of all cardiac arrests in the area surrounding our ECMO center, approximately 41 per year met the criteria for a Code ECPR activation, with 16 per year ultimately being eligible for ED ECPR. This annual estimate varies based on the inclusion of initial rhythm. This provides insight into both prehospital and hospital implications of an ED ECPR program and will help guide the establishment of a program within our Nova Scotian health region. This study also provides a framework for similar investigation at other institutions contemplating ED ECPR program implementation.
Background Knowledge about the specific engagement activities pursued and associated impacts of patient engagement in research in Canada remains nascent. This study aimed to describe engagement activities and perceived impacts of projects funded by the Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research (SPOR). Methods This was a cross-sectional online survey of academic researchers and patient partners engaging in projects funded through 13 SPOR funding calls (2014–2019). Patient engagement activities and impacts were measured using a self-developed survey. Thematic analysis was used to describe engagement activities and impacts. Results 66 of 511 academic researchers and 20 of 28 patient partners contacted completed the survey and were included in analyses. Respondents reported that patient partners were engaged in seven types of activities across the research cycle: (a) sharing experiences/giving advice, (b) identifying the research focus/methods, (c) developing/revising aspects of the project, (d) conducting research activities, (e) study participation, (f) presenting on behalf of the project, and (g) other grant development or knowledge translation activities. Engagement was associated with six different types of impacts related to knowledge, outputs, or directions being (a) created, (b) moulded, (c) confirmed, or (d) chosen/prioritized, (e) perceived success of the research, and (f) minimal/negative impacts on the research. Conclusions This study presents information on different ways that patient partners were engaged in SPOR-funded research and the potential impacts of these activities. This knowledge base is imperative to the future of patient engagement in research, including the planning and evaluation of future studies that engage patients as active shapers of research.
Objective To count and describe the elements that overlap (ie, present in two or more) and diverge between models and frameworks of patient engagement in health services research. Our specific research question was ‘what are the elements that underlie models and frameworks of patient engagement in health services research?’ Design Scoping review. Data sources On 6–7 July 2021, we searched six electronic databases (ie, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Joanna Briggs Institute Evidence Based Practice Database, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Scopus) and Google Scholar for published literature, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, Conference Proceedings Citation Index, Google, and key agencies’ websites for unpublished (ie, grey) literature, with no date restrictions. These searches were supplemented by snowball sampling. Eligibility criteria We included published and unpublished literature that presented (a) models or frameworks (b) of patient engagement (c) in health services research. We excluded articles unavailable as full text or not written in English. Data extraction and synthesis Two independent reviewers extracted data from included articles using an a priori developed standardised form. Data were synthesised using both quantitative (ie, counts) and qualitative (ie, mapping) analyses. Results We identified a total of 8069 articles and ultimately included 14 models and frameworks in the review. These models and frameworks were comprised of 18 overlapping and 57 diverging elements, that were organised into six conceptual categories (ie, principles, foundational components, contexts, actions, levels and outcomes) and spanned intrapersonal, interpersonal, process, environmental, and health systems and outcomes domains. Conclusions There is little overlap between the elements that comprise existing models and frameworks of patient engagement in health services research. Those seeking to apply these models and frameworks should consider the ‘fit’ of each element, by conceptual category and domain, within the context of their study.
Sports are important activities for youth, with millions of children and adolescents participating in organized sports and recreational activities every year. Sports participation has many benefits but can also cause injuries, accounting for two-thirds of all injuries in Canadian adolescents and resulting in hundreds of thousands of medical visits annually. Despite the frequency of sport-related injuries in youth, many practising pediatricians are not comfortable managing these issues, citing lack of teaching and clinical exposure during training. Many studies have found deficits in musculoskeletal (MSK) and sport and exercise medicine (SEM) training in residency programs in North America, including Canadian pediatric residency programs. To address this learning gap, Canadian pediatric residency programs should incorporate more MSK/SEM training and clinical exposure to these issues. A standardized national curriculum in MSK/SEM will help ensure that community pediatricians practicing in Canada are adequately prepared to care for active youth.
This retrospective study of prospectively collected data aimed to identify unique pain and disability trajectories in patients following lumbar discectomy surgery. Patients of this study population presented chiefly with lumbar radiculopathy and underwent discectomy surgery from thirteen sites enrolled in the CSORN registry. Outcome variables of interest included numeric rating scales for leg/back pain and modified Oswestry disability index scores at baseline, 3, 12, and 24 months post-operatively. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct courses in each outcome. Data from 524 patients revealed three unique trajectories for leg pain (excellent = 18.4%, good = 55.4%, poor = 26.3%), disability (excellent = 59.7%, fair = 35.6%, poor = 4.7%) and back pain (excellent = 13.0%, good = 56.4%, poor = 30.6%). Construct validity was supported by statistically significant differences in the proportions of patients attaining the criteria for minimal important change (MIC; 30%) or clinical success in disability (50% or Oswestry score ≤ 22) (p < 0.001). The variable proportions of patients belonging to poor outcome trajectories shows a disconnect between improved disability and persistence of pain. It will be beneficial to incorporate this information into the realm of patient expectation setting in concert with future findings of potential factors predictive of subgroup membership.
Objective : To identify the characteristics of activity-based therapy (ABT) that individuals with spinal cord injury and disease (SCI/D) participate in across the continuum of care. Data Sources : A search of eight databases was conducted from inception to 4 March 2020: Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Emcare, PEDro, APA PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the CENTRAL. The search strategy used terms identifying the population (SCI/D) and concept (ABT). Study Selection : Original studies involving individuals with SCI/D ≥16 years of age participating in ABT interventions >1 session were included in the review. The Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines for scoping reviews were followed. The initial search produced 2,306 records. Title, abstract and full-text screening by two independent reviewers yielded 140 articles. Data Extraction : Data extraction was conducted by three independent reviewers and charted according to key themes. Data fields included participant demographics, ABT interventions, exercises, parameters, technology and setting. Data synthesis included frequency counts and descriptive analysis of key themes. Data Synthesis : Eighty percent of participants were male. Eighty-seven percent of studies included individuals with tetraplegia (26% exclusive). Fifty-six percent of studies occurred in a research lab. Fifty-four percent of studies were single modality interventions encompassing the whole body (71%). Sixteen main types of ABT exercises were identified. The most common were treadmill training (59%), muscle strengthening (36%) and overground walking (33%). Electrical stimulation (50%) and virtual reality (6%) were used in combination with an ABT exercise. Eighty-four types of parameters were identified. Six were general intervention parameters and 78 were specific to the type of ABT exercise. Sixteen main categories of technology were reported. The most common were motorized treadmills (47%) and transcutaneous electrical stimulation (44%). Conclusions : The characteristics of ABT are diverse in scope. The results will inform the content to include in tools that track ABT participation and performance.
Objective: This systematic review will synthesize the qualitative literature on students' experiences of a post-licensure practical nurse to registered nurse bridging program. Introduction: The worldwide shortage of registered nurses has prompted governments and educational institutions to develop alternative pathways to nursing licensure. One strategy used to increase the supply of registered nurses is bridging programs. These grant practical nurses academic credit for previous educational and practical experience, which allows them to complete a Bachelor of Nursing degree in a shorter period of time. However, attrition in bridging programs is a concern. Understanding the experiences of students enrolled in bridging programs will help identify their specific needs and the educational support needed for them to successfully transition into the registered nursing role. Inclusion criteria: This review will include published and unpublished studies that examine the experiences of practical nurses enrolled in bridging programs. Studies published in English will be considered, with no date limitations. Methods: Databases to be searched include CINAHL, MEDLINE, Embase, and ERIC. Gray literature will be searched for in ProQuest Dissertations and Theses and GreyNet International. Reference lists of included studies will also be reviewed to identify additional studies. The critical appraisal of selected studies and the extraction of data will be independently undertaken by two reviewers using JBI methodology. The findings will be pooled using meta-aggregation to produce comprehensive synthesized findings. A ConQual Summary of Findings will also be presented. Systematic review registration number: PROSPERO CRD42021278408.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.