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ABSTRACT: Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experiencing acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are at high risk for clinical events. In the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial, ticagrelor versus clopidogrel reduced the primary endpoint of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke after ACS, but increased the incidence of dyspnea, which may lead clinicians to withhold ticagrelor from COPD patients. Methods and Results In 18 624 patients with ACS randomized to treatment with ticagrelor or clopidogrel, history of COPD was recorded in 1085 (5.8%). At 1 year, the primary endpoint occurred in 17.7% of patients with COPD versus 10.4% in those without COPD (P<0.001). The 1‐year event rate for the primary endpoint in COPD patients treated with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel was 14.8% versus 20.6% (hazard ratio [HR]=0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54 to 0.97), for death from any cause 8.4% versus 12.4% (HR=0.70; 95% CI: 0.47 to 1.04), and for PLATO‐defined major bleeding rates at 1 year 14.6% versus 16.6% (HR=0.85; 95% CI: 0.61 to 1.17). Dyspnea occurred more frequently with ticagrelor (26.1% vs. 16.3%; HR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.28 to 2.30). There was no differential increase in the relative risk of dyspnea compared to non‐COPD patients (HR=1.85). No COPD status‐by‐treatment interactions were found, showing consistency with the main trial results. Conclusions In this post‐hoc analysis, COPD patients experienced high rates of ischemic events. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel reduced and substantially decreased the absolute risk of ischemic events (5.8%) in COPD patients, without increasing overall major bleeding events. The benefit‐risk profile supports the use of ticagrelor in patients with ACS and concomitant COPD. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00391872.
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ABSTRACT: The management of asthma treatment is likely to change in coming years, with the development of a more personalized approach. Biological therapies targeting Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) offer new treatment pathways for patients with severe asthma and high Th2 activity. Bronchial thermoplasty is the only treatment for severe asthma that could provide a long standing effect, but many questions still remain and its use is restricted to clinical research. Weight loss should be a goal during long-term management of obese asthmatics. Involvement of a new inflammatory pathway including IL-1 and IL-17 in a murine model of obesity and asthma may lead to new therapies in this subgroup of asthmatics. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: To assess whether outpatient cervical ripening at 41 0/7 weeks of gestation with the nitric oxide donor isosorbide mononitrate reduces cesarean delivery rates in nulliparous women with an unfavorable cervix. We recruited nulliparous pregnant women with a Bishop score less than 6 in a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Women received 40 mg vaginal isosorbide mononitrate or a placebo at 41 0/7, 41 2/7, and 41 4/7 weeks of gestation. They returned home between visits. At 41 5/7 weeks of gestation, for women who had not yet given birth, labor was induced with oxytocin or prostaglandins, depending on cervical status. We needed 685 women per group to detect a 25% reduction in the cesarean delivery rate, the primary outcome measure, from 25% in the placebo group to 18.75% in the isosorbide mononitrate group (1-β=0.8, α=0.05, two-sided). The NOCETER (NO donors for reduction of CEsareans at TERm) trial was a negative study. The cesarean delivery rate was 27.3% (185/678) in the isosorbide mononitrate group and 27.2% (186/684) in the placebo group (relative risk 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-1.19). None of the maternal secondary efficacy outcomes differed between groups. Side effects were more common among women receiving isosorbide mononitrate than in the placebo group (78.8% [534/678] compared with 27.9% [191/684], relative risk 2.82, 95% CI 2.49-3.20). Composite perinatal morbidity did not differ between groups. Outpatient cervical ripening with vaginal isosorbide mononitrate for prolonged pregnancy in nulliparous women does not reduce cesarean delivery rate. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00930618. : I.
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