The utilization of adsorptive nonwovens as a pretreatment unit may lead to novel, cost-efficient wastewater treatment technologies with remarkable properties for environmental protection, such as efficient adsorption of antibiotics. This paper uses graphene-modified nonwoven (GMN) to examine (i) how the adsorption of tetracycline (TCY)—especially since this antibiotic is frequently detected in the environment—takes place on an environmentally relevant concentration scale, and (ii) what factors influence the antibacterial and antifungal properties profile of this material class. This study demonstrates that combining graphene particles with commercial textile auxiliaries clearly enhances the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the modified nonwoven materials. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the TCY residues at ng/mL scale. The adsorption results follow Henry and Redlich–Peterson isotherms and emphasize the adsorption process at low concentration levels of TCY. Therefore, the appropriately designed GMNs have a great potential application for wastewater treatment in sewage plants. Statistical analysis (skewness and kurtosis) of nonwovens and modified nonwovens morphology allowed us to determine the parameters influencing the growth of fungi in such structures. GMN structures are capable of adsorbing antibiotics; a two-fold reduction of TCY was obtained in the studies.
Bangladesh’s ready-made garment sectors have evolved to increase market share in the global textile supply chain. Textile sectors heavily rely on energy and groundwater consumption during production; mainly, textile dyeing mills contribute to the carbon footprint and water footprint impact to the environment. Textile dyeing mills have become one of the major industries responsible for the continuous depletion of groundwater levels and severe water pollution to the environment. Reduction of long-term key performance indicators (KPI) can be set to a baseline by reducing energy and groundwater consumption in textile dyeing mills. This study has analyzed the energy and groundwater consumption trend based on 15 textile dyeing mills in Bangladesh in 2019. The average dyed fabric production of 15 textile dyeing mills in 2019 was 7602.88 tons by consuming electricity and groundwater, and discharging treated effluent wastewater to the environment, in the amounts of 17,689.43 MWh, 961.26 million liters, and 640.24 million liters, respectively. The average KPI of treated effluent discharged wastewater was 97.27 L/kg, and energy consumption was 2.58 kWh/kg. Considering yearly 5% reduction strategies of groundwater and energy consumption for each factory could save around 355.43 million liters of water and 6540.68 MWh of electricity in 10 years (equivalent to 4167.08-ton CO2 emission).
The following analysis deals with the validation study for the already published thermal simulation of the human body-clothing-environment system through wear trials. Three test persons and a clothing system were selected for this study. The simulation process chain includes 3D scanning, clothing fit considering the deformation properties of fabrics, 3D analysis of air gaps between skin and clothing, and thermophysiological analysis of the human body taking into account different metabolic rates. Moreover, subjective wear trials were performed in a climatic chamber to validate the simulation results. The results show good validation for the core body and mean skin temperature, however, discrepancies were observed on comparing the local skin temperatures. The presented simulation approach offers a holistic solution for product development in the areas of sportswear, workwear, outdoor, and protective clothing.
The aim of this work is to develop a new type of carbon-ceramic membranes for the removal of pharmaceutical substances from water. The membranes were prepared by the chemical modification method using an organosilicon precursor—octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODTS). Graphene oxide, multi-walled carbon nanotubes with carboxylic groups, and single-walled carbon nanotubes were used in the modification process. The filtration properties and adsorption properties of the developed membranes were tested. In order to characterize the membrane, the water permeability, the change of the permeate flux in time, and the adsorbed mass of the substance were determined. Additionally, the surface properties of the membranes were characterized by contact angle measurements and porosimetry. The antibiotic tetracycline was used in the adsorption tests. Based on the results, the improved adsorption properties of the modified membrane in relation to the unmodified membrane were noticed. Novel ceramic membranes modified with MWCNT are characterized by 45.4% removal of tetracycline and permeate flux of 520 L·h·m−2·bar−1. We demonstrated the ability of modified membranes to adsorb pharmaceuticals from water streams that are in contact with the membrane. Novel membranes retain their filtration properties. Therefore, such membranes can be used in an integrated filtration–adsorption process.
Sleep is a fundamental need for humans. On average 1/3 of the lifetime is spent in bed. Important for a healthy sleep is the duvet. This should have sufficient heat insulation and should ensure a dry bed climate at the same time. The thermophysiological comfort of classic duvets can be rated via skin model and thermal manikin. The simultaneous detection of dry and moist heat flux of duvets is now not possible. The lecture presents results of the German funded project AiF 19522 N “Bed Cave and Comfort”. Within the project the interaction of thermophysiological comfort during sleeping and the bed cave was investigated. Duvets with different filling materials (down and feathers, polyester, animal hair as well as new developments) were examined according the classical, thermophysiological evaluation method for sleep comfort. Furthermore, a new evaluation method for duvets with the sweating, thermal manikin Sherlock (Newton type, Thermetrics) was developed. During the measurement, a realistic sleep situation can be reconstructed with the sweating, thermal manikin. All measured data were validated by monitored sleep test within a climatic chamber.
Fitting test in movement are an important issue not only in work and sports wear since garment should not restrict the range of motion. Therefore, dynamic anthropometry is a major research topic. Until now, only static position could be captured. Still, it is not known how body geometry changes in dynamic movement. In IGF project “Mobilityrestrictions” photogrammetry scanner “Little Alice” was investigated regarding 4D. It enables serial recording in seconds. The aim of the research project was beside other to identify differences between static and dynamic body measurements. Scanner “Little Alice” has never been utilized for body form analysis. Therefore, a basic research was performed. Several parameters were examined by iterative tests before scan procedure was defined. Three work or sport related movements were defined and compared to standard position: Biceps curl, leg flex and squat. The changes in scan surface were investigated by a three-step analysis: body measurements, cross sections and a 3D analysis. Scan procedure was performed by six test subjects German sizes 50 and 58, age group 25 – 55 years. The results show that photogrammetry can be utilized to investigate body geometry changes due to movement. Body surface deviations have been investigated. Thus, not in all cases there were differences between static and dynamic scans. Yet, body geometry alters. 4D scanning enables comprehensive analysis of body geometry changes due to movement. Body measurement and surface alterations can be visualized and quantified. Scans of motions may be used to validate 3D simulation avatars.
We present an automated point-of-care testing (POCT) system for rapid detection of species- and resistance markers in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at the level of single cells, directly from nasal swab samples. Our novel system allows clear differentiation between MRSA, methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS), which is not the case for currently used real-time quantitative PCR based systems. On top, the novel approach outcompetes the culture-based methods in terms of its short time-to-result (1 h vs. up to 60 h) and reduces manual labor. The walk-away test is fully automated on the centrifugal microfluidic LabDisk platform. The LabDisk cartridge comprises the unit operations swab-uptake, reagent pre-storage, distribution of the sample into 20 000 droplets, specific enzymatic lysis of Staphylococcus spp. and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) of species (vicK) – and resistance (mecA) -markers. LabDisk actuation, incubation and multi-channel fluorescence detection is demonstrated with a clinical isolate and spiked nasal swab samples down to a limit of detection (LOD) of 3 ± 0.3 CFU μl⁻¹ for MRSA. The novel approach of the digital single cell detection is suggested to improve hospital admission screening, timely decision making, and goal-oriented antibiotic therapy. The implementation of a higher degree of multiplexing is required to translate the results into clinical practice.
The detection of shedded fibers in effluents from textile washing has attracted much attention due to its reported contribution to microplastic pollution. Commonly used analytical methods for fiber detection in liquids are based on filtration with subsequent microscopic analysis and/or gravimetric weighing. These approaches are time-consuming and prone to errors. In this study, an approach based on dynamic image analysis was applied in order to set up an efficient method to analyze fibers in effluents from washing processes. In an initial validation step, reliable information on the counts of fibers and the morphological characteristics were confirmed. For wastewaters from polyester-cotton blends, the chemical nature of the fiber debris (natural vs. synthetic origin) was determined by combining the dynamic image analysis with a chemical pre-treatment. In this study, dynamic image analysis was revealed as a rapid, non-destructive, precise, and reliable technology for the characterization and quantification of the fiber debris, offering a promising approach for fiber analysis in liquids.
The choice of a comfortable pillow is essential for good sleep. The filling material for pillows should be bulky, resilient and comfortable. For reasons of price, availability and resilience, polyester is the most commonly used filling material. Its drawbacks, however, lie in poor moisture management and a lack of biodegradability. This is the first study of the physical and microclimate properties of pillows with carded filling containing lyocell fiber. Pillow samples were manufactured on an industrial production line. Their carded fillings were rolled and comprised either 30% or 50% lyocell, blended with polyester (virgin and recycled), high elastic triexta and biodegradable polylactide fibers. In simulated sleeping conditions, using a thermal sweating manikin, it was proven that pillows with fillings made of 50% lyocell blended with polyester demonstrated an enhanced microclimate through much better moisture management than pillows with fillings made from pure polyester. It was also found, under use and care conditions, that lyocell affected the sensorial properties of pillows. Pillow form stability and height regain correlated with lyocell’s linear density. A higher lyocell content (50%) improved the form-keeping characteristics of pillows after repeated washing and drying. The type of lyocell used had only a minor effect on the compression resilience of the filling and perception of pillow firmness. The evaluators perceived higher pillows as firmer. The developed new methods for the evaluation of pillow quality and the results of this study can be of practical relevance in the bedding industry, where the reduction of non-biodegradable raw material is strategically important.
Background: Antibacterial clothes are classified as a complementary treatment in line with antisepsis, although meta-studies are unable to find significant improvements of eczemas. Methods: The antibacterial effectiveness of conventional AD clothes was compared across each other by (i) standard suspension tests for the appraisal of antibacterial products and (ii) a real-life setup of affected AD skin using S. aureus colonised artificial skin, to assess if functional clothes are effective under practical wear conditions. Additionally, the interaction of the fibre types with a moisturising cream was evaluated during a real wearing situation and after domestic laundry. Results: In the real-life setup simulating dry skin microenvironment, all samples failed to reduce S. aureus. Silver and zinc-fabrics showed a slight activity only under unrealistic moist conditions. When using standard suspension tests, samples differed considerably in their antibacterial effectiveness, where silver and zinc endowed fibres outperformed AEGIS endowed silk fabrics. Garments absorbed the cream dependent on the particular fibre types. Furthermore, domestic laundry was unable to completely remove the cream. Conclusion: Considerable differences in the antibacterial effectiveness of conventional AD clothes were revealed. Under practical (dry) wear conditions, garments were unable to modify skin colonization with S. aureus, although effectiveness can be triggered by wetting the garments. Remnants of moisturising cream remain on the fibres after laundry.
The aim of this project is to develop an ergonomically based and motion-oriented size system. New concepts are required in order to be able to deal competently with complex requirements of function-oriented workwear and personal protective equipment (PPE). Body dimensions change through movement, which are basis for motion optimized clothing development. This affects fit and ergonomic comfort. The situation has to be fundamentally researched in order to derive well-founded anthropometric body data, taking into account kinematic requirements of humans and to define functional dimensions for clothing industry. Research focus shall be on ergonomic design of workwear and PPE. There are huge differences in body forms, proportions and muscle manifestations between genders. An improved basic knowledge can be provided as a result, supporting development as well as sales of motion-oriented clothing with perfect fit for garment manufacturers.
The comfort aspect in the vehicle interior is becoming increasingly important. A high comfort level offers the driver a good and secure feeling and has a strong influence on passive traffic safety. One important part of comfort is the climate aspect, especially the microclimate that emerges between passenger and seat. In this research, different combinations of typical seat materials are used. Fourteen woven and knitted fabrics and eight leathers and its substitutes for the face fabric layer, one foam, one non-woven and one 3D spacer for the plus pad layer and for the support layer three foam types with variations in structure and raw material as well as one rubber hair structure were investigated. To characterise this sample set by thermo-physiological aspects (e.g. water vapour resistance Ret, thermal resistance Rct, buffering capacity of water vapour Fd) regular and modified sweating guarded hotplates were used according to DIN EN ISO 11092. The results of the material characterisation confirm the common knowledge that seat covers out of textiles have better water vapour resistance values than leathers and its substitutes. Subject trials in a driving simulator were executed to rate the subjective sensation while driving in a vehicle seat. With a thermal, sweating Manikin (Newton Type, Thermetrics) objective product measurements were carried out on the same seat. Indeed the subject trials show that every test subject has his or her own subjective perception concerning the climate comfort. The results of the subject trials offered the parameters for the Newton measuring method. Respectively the sweating rate, sit-in procedure, ambient conditions and sensor positions on and between the seat layers must be comparable with the subject trials. By taking care of all these parameters it is possible to get repeatable and reliable results with the Newton Manikin. The subjective feelings of the test subjects, concerning the microclimate between seat and passenger, provide the evaluation of the Manikins output (Rc and Re values).
Marine alginates are well established in wound management. Compared with different modern wound dressings, marine alginates cannot prove superior effects on wound healing. Alginates from bacteria have never been studied for medical applications so far, although the microbial polymer raises expectations for improved binding of wound factors because of its unique O-acetylation. Due to its possible positive effects on wound healing, alginates from bacteria might be a superior future medical product for clinical use. To prove the binding capacity of microbial alginates to pathophysiological factors in chronic wounds, we processed microbial alginate fibres, produced from fermentation of the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 9046, into needle web dressings and compared them with commercial dressings made of marine alginate. Four dressings were assessed: Marine alginate dressings containing either ionic silver or zinc/manganese/calcium, and microbial alginate dressings with and without nanosilver. All dressings were tested in an in?vitro approach for influence on chronic wound parameters such as elastase, matrix metalloproteases-2, tumour necrosis factor-?, interleukin-8, and free radical formation. Despite the alginate origin or addition of antimicrobials, all dressings were able to reduce the concentration of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-8. However, microbial alginate was found to bind considerable larger amounts of elastase and matrix metalloproteases-2 in contrast to the marine alginate dressings. The incorporation of zinc, silver or nanosilver into alginate fibres did not improve their binding capacity for proteases or cytokines. The addition of nanosilver slightly enhanced the antioxidant capacity of microbial alginate dressings, whereas the marine alginate dressing containing zinc/manganese/calcium was unable to inhibit the formation of free radicals. The enhanced binding affinity by microbial alginate of Azotobacter vinelandii to pathophysiological factors may be interesting to support optimal conditions for wound healing.
Apart from testing the functional properties, the testing of comfort parameters is very important in the case of military clothing. As the performance of the soldiers is directly connected to the clothing comfort, a perfect balance between functional properties and comfort is required. This chapter covers the most important comfort parameters and their testing methods. Other important areas, the fit of clothing as well as head protection systems, are also covered in detail.
Metal mordanting, or the application of metal salts, is a common method of improving the light fastness in dyeing with natural colourants. This review presents the results from a survey of the literature on metal mordanting to assess what levels of correlation exist between mordant-induced effects (changes in colour and colour depth) and the changes in light fastness, what is known about the mechanisms of mordant-induced improvements of light fastness, and how the salt levels used in coloration processes compare with the limits on metal levels in wastewater and on the dyed substrates. No strong interrelationships are found between the mordant-induced effects and light fastness improvements. Knowledge about mechanisms of mordant effect on light fastness appears, in large part, to be derived from empirical correlations. However, as light fastness is affected by a multitude of factors, the correlations do not always hold true. It is found that residual metal contents in spent dye/mordanting liquors are generally not reported. However, with rough calculations, it is estimated that, with even the lowest reported salt concentrations, the metal contents in spent liquors exceed environmental release limits. The metal contents on dyed substrates are also not generally reported, but similar estimations show that the contents of heavy metal on dyed substrates (when copper and chromium salts are used as mordants) also exceed limits. On the basis of these observations, the authors make suggestions for elements to be included in investigations on furthering the use of natural colourants in textile dyeing.
This chapter on the finishing and quality control of jeans starts with the process flow of different treatments involving both dry and wet processes. It further discusses the different printing techniques for creating multiple designs on denim jeans. Detailed sections follow on the finishing of denim fabrics as well as the different functional finishing treatments that can provide technical properties for denim garments. Further, the final trimming and pressing operations are dealt with. Finally, in the quality control section, the potential defects like strength loss, shading, stains, yellowing and seaming defects that influence marketability or serviceability of denim garments are discussed and the possible remedies are suggested.
This chapter starts with the consideration of Life Cycle Assessment principles in denim manufacture. It further talks about the environmental impacts of cotton production and dyes, including indigo and sulphur dyes. The effects of different reducing agents and process chemicals are then discussed, as well as upcoming possibilities such as electrochemical reduction. There follow sections on combined dyeing processes and minimal application technologies. Further, the environmental aspects of auxiliaries and finishing chemicals are reviewed, followed by discussion of garment washing and finishing processes. Finally, the impacts of denim distribution and retail are detailed, and future trends are outlined.
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