Background In South-Eastern Norway, genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 is offered to breast cancer patients by their treating surgeon or oncologist. Genetic counselling from a geneticist or a genetic counsellor is offered only to those who test positive for a pathogenic variant or have a family history of cancer. This practice is termed “mainstreamed genetic testing”. The aim of this study was to learn about patients’ experience of this healthcare service. Methods Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 22 breast cancer patients who had been diagnosed during the first half of 2016 or 2017 at one regional and one university hospital and who had been offered testing by their treating physician. A six-phase thematic approach was used to analyse the data. Results The participants had varied experiences of how and when testing was offered. Three main themes emerged from the analysis: 1. informational and communicational needs and challenges during a chaotic time, 2. the value of genetic testing and 3. the importance of standardised routines for mainstreamed genetic testing. Conclusions Despite the shock of their diagnosis and the varying experiences they had in respect of how and when testing was offered, all of the participants emphasised that genetic testing had been an important part of their diagnosis and treatment. Our results indicate that there is a need for continuous collaboration between geneticists, surgeons, oncologists and laboratory specialists in order to establish simple and robust routines so as to ensure that all eligible breast cancer patients are offered testing at a point when the test result can have an impact on treatment.
Carbon nanotube (CNT) is prepared by chemical vapor deposition method and their electrochemical behaviors for instance oxygen evolution (OER) and hydrogen evolution (HER) reaction have been successfully studied. In recent times, Pt-free electrocatalysts have been greatly attractive in electrochemical hydrogen evolution reactions for the replacement of fossil fuels and development of sustainable energy carriers. Chemical vapor deposition method was used as an efficient way to synthesize CNTs directly. The as prepared free-standing and multifunctional CNT electrodes are used for overall water splitting applications. In this work, we have designed CNT as electrode material as well as current collector using Ni-foil and Ni-foam substrate and their fundamental characterizations confirm the structural, morphological behaviors of CNTs. Moreover, the well-ordered growth of CNT was obtained in Ni-foam CNTs 1 and 2, whereas in the Ni foil CNTs 1 and 2 less growth of CNT and amorphous carbon sponge was exceeded, which was further confirmed by the SEM images. The achieved electrochemical HER results displayed that the Ni-foam-CNT-2 exhibited lower overpotential, smallest Tafel slope and lower resistance value of 110 mV, 240 mV/dec and 0.24 Ω respectively. Moreover, Ni-foam-CNT-2 revealed excellent stability with 86.6 % retention over 20 h. Hence, it is one of the cost-effective and reliable materials for electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction.
Modern research focuses exclusively on the search for relatively inexpensive, highly efficient electrocatalytic materials for the electrocatalytic hydrogen production water splitting reactions. Antimony is a chemical element having four allotropes with three oxidation states. Antimony is a semi-metal with elemental antimony. Recently, elemental antimony (Sb) with an extensive light absorption was recognized as good electrocatalytic for hydrogen evolution reactions. This study focuses on preparation and characterization of antimony nanoparticles for hydrogen evolution activities as explored. We report the structural, optical, vibrational, electrochemical properties of the pristine antimony nanoparticles for efficient catalytic material for electrochemical water splitting applications. The prepared antimony nanoparticles revealed the rhombohedral crystal structure formation with D3d5 (R 3¯ m) space group situated on symmetry C3v sites. In Raman studies, the peak appeared at 110.67 cm⁻¹ corresponds to in-plane longitudinal vibration (Eg) and at 147 cm⁻¹ for out of plane vibration (A1g) for pure antimony. The synergic effect of NMP and ultrasonication yields highly homogeneous antimony nanoparticles as evidenced from morphological analysis. From electrochemical impedance analysis, the solution resistance value of Sb-NMP is 1.67 Ω, which was small in comparison to the pure Sb (1.96 Ω) and Sb-Ball (1.93 Ω) and exhibited the good conductive nature of Sb-NMP nanomaterials. From electrochemical HER analysis, we found that the Sb-NMP showed the low 246 [email protected] mA/cm² overpotential with low 186 mV/dec Tafel slope value. Furthermore, the chronoamperometry study exposed that the electrocatalyst Sb-NMP delivered an exceptional HER performance with high stability of 80% retention for continuous three hours measurements. Therefore, this study may perhaps facilitate the growth of antimony nanoparticles which can be used as an HER catalysts for improving the electrocatalytic HER activity.
Cloud Computing services can be accessed anytime, anywhere via the Internet. The overwhelming growth of cloud data centers over the past decade has increased their costs as energy demands have risen. As a result, higher carbon dioxide emissions and other greenhouse gasses are putting a strain on our ecosystem. The main objective of this study is to reduce the power consumption in cloud computing with no or negligible trade-offs in quality of service. This paper presents a new algorithm called the energy efficiency heuristic using virtual machine consolidation to minimize the high energy consumption in the cloud. By setting two thresholds, hosts are classified into three main classes. The designed model reallocates virtual machines from one physical host to another to minimize energy consumption. The results of the proposed algorithm have been obtained in terms of virtual machine migrations, performance degradation caused by migration, service level agreement violations, and execution time, showing a significant improvement over state-of-the-art techniques.
Smart cities refer to place-specific collaborative systems where multiple actors collaborate to collectively address public problems. However, smart city initiatives regularly frame citizens as the weakest link, as passive consumers rather than active creative agents. This article argues that power imbalances between citizens and other organisational participants structurally mute citizens' voices, ultimately compromising smart cities' aims. Living laboratories are a popular smart city intervention that have the potential to address this power imbalance and empower citizens to influence smart city development. This research theoretically and empirically explores this role of living labs through a multiple-case study of urban living labs in the region of Catalonia. The findings uncover a ‘power banking’ mechanism which, coupled with other critical factors, facilitates the effectiveness of such initiatives. The considerable efforts required to engage citizens at a fairly basic level suggest that incorporating citizens into smart city models is more challenging than simplistic Quadruple Helix discourses convey.
Global investments in offshore wind energy are expected to escalate over the coming decades, fueled by improvements in technology, declining costs, and increasing political support. The complexity, scale, and location of these developments make international ownership and export of electricity more feasible. We examine how the general public's acceptance of wind energy will be affected by a political shift in focus from onshore to nearshore or offshore locations, from local or national dominance of ownership to international dominance, and from meeting local or national needs to meeting international ones. We use a nationwide choice experiment with 1612 individuals in Norway to reveal the preferences for these attributes and apply a mixed logit regression model to estimate the willingness to pay to avoid certain outcomes. We show that, although respondents prefer offshore and nearshore locations to onshore ones, they are even more concerned with maintaining local or national control both through ownership and intended use of the added electricity. Although the preferences for national ownership are strong for both nearshore and offshore alternatives, the preference for meeting national needs becomes less important when wind energy developments are located farther off the coast. Three wind energy scenarios are used to further investigate these preferences: 1) international consortium for offshore wind energy, 2) national alliances for nearshore wind energy, and 3) local energy communities for onshore wind energy. We also discuss how a shift to nearshore and offshore wind energy can be enabled by paying greater attention to people's concerns over national control of wind energy resources.
Activated carbon is one of the multi functional materials which promotes the electrochemical catalysis for hydrogen production in greener way. In the present work, the fruit shells of Tamarindus indica have been used to synthesize the carbon structure at different temperatures by chemical vapour deposition method. The structural confirmation has been done by XRD analysis which authenticates the crystalline nature of activated carbon with hexagonal crystal structure. XRD analysis revealed 2 peaks at 2θ of 23°-29° indexed to (0 0 2) plane reflection (hexagonal crystallographic structure) and disclosed crystalline nature of activated carbon. From RAMAN spectroscopic technique, the appearance of D and G bands at ∼1358 and ∼1586 cm⁻¹ elucidates formation of graphitic phase of carbon. The ratio of ID/IG is found to be almost ∼0.84, indicates low level of disorder and the graphitic nature of the samples. Morphological analysis has been done using SEM on the synthesized samples which reveals the presence of voids and cracks on the surface of the material and the size of the particle is about few micrometer. The synthesized material T-800 °C displays the low overpotential of 221 mV and 490 mV at 10 mA/cm² and 50 mA/cm² compared with that of T-700 °C (230 [email protected] mA/cm² and 546 [email protected] mA/cm²) and T-900 °C (269 [email protected] mA/cm² and 547 [email protected] mA/cm²). Electrochemical impedance study informs the solution resistance value of prepared samples are 1.91, 1.60 and 1.63 Ω respectively. The sample T-800 °C exhibits low Rs indicates the improved conductivity, which enhances the catalytic activity in favor of HER. The fabricated electrode of T-800 °C exhibits excellent electrochemical properties and stability with the retention of 51.7 %.
In real-life applications, resources in construction projects are always limited. It is of great practical importance to shorten the project duration by using intelligent models (i.e., evolutionary computations such as genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) to make the construction process reasonable considering the limited resources. However, in the general EC-based model, for example, PSO easily falls into a local optimum when solving the problem of limited resources and the shortest period in scheduling a large network. This paper proposes two PSO-based models, which are resource-constrained adaptive particle swarm optimization (RC-APSO) and an input-adaptive particle swarm optimization (iRC-APSO) to respectively solve the static and dynamic situations of resource-constraint problems. The RC-APSO uses adaptive heuristic particle swarm optimization (AHPSO) to solve the limited resource and shortest duration problem based on the analysis of the constraints of process resources, time limits, and logic. The iRC-APSO method is a combination of AHPSO and network scheduling and is used to solve the proposed dynamic resource minimum duration problem model. From the experimental results, the probability of obtaining the shortest duration of the RC-APSO is higher than that of the genetic PSO and GA models, and the accuracy and stability of the algorithm are significantly improved compared with the other two algorithms, providing a new method for solving the resource-constrained shortest duration problem. In addition, the computational results show that iRC-APSO can obtain the shortest time constraint and the design scheme after each delay, which is more valuable than the static problem for practical project planning.
We experimentally investigate how and when the public responds to government actions during times of crisis. Public reactions are shown to follow different processes, depending on whether government performs in exemplary or unsatisfactory ways to the COVID‐19 pandemic. The ‘how’ question is addressed by proposing that negative moral emotions mediate public reactions to bad government actions, and positive moral emotions mediate reactions to good government actions. Tests of mediation are conducted while taking into account attitudes and trust in the government as rival hypotheses. The ‘when’ question is studied by examining self‐regulatory moderators governing the experience of moral emotions and their effects. These include conspiracy beliefs, political ideology, attachment coping styles and collective values. A total of 357 citizens of a representative sample of adult Norwegians were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and a control group, where complaining, putting pressure on the government and compliance to Covid‐19 policies were dependent variables. The findings show that negative moral emotions mediate the effects of government doing badly on complaining and pressuring the government, with conspiracy beliefs moderating the experience of negative moral emotions and attachment coping moderating the effects of negative moral emotions. The results also show that positive moral emotions mediate the effects of government doing well on compliance with COVID‐19 regulations, with political ideology moderating the experience of positive moral emotions and collective values moderating the effects of positive moral emotions.
Localization in underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN) faces an imminent threat when the triangulating anchor node starts to malfunction. Traditional geometric approaches are insufficient to cope with the survivability of UWSN topology. To address these issues, this paper presents a symplectic geometry for identification of the malicious anchor node. Consequently, a geodesic search algorithm (GSA) based Target localization is proposed which reduces the positioning error by exploiting the phase-space constancy of the underwater acoustic sensor network topology to effectively triangulate the target node despite its mobility. First, a malicious anchor node model is presented. The node movement is expressed in the form of “ripple region”. GSA is then proposed which effectively frees the node metastasis from anchor node geometry, thereby making the underwater system more survivable and resilient. Simulation results evaluate the survivability of the geodesic formalism in terms of the reduced penalty incurred by node movement, as well as the reduced impact of anchor node malfunction. An improvement of 13.46% and 9.26% reveals the utility of the geodesic technique in aquamarine sensor deployments, which would be beneficial in underwater resource exploration and defense planning.
Visual methods have been emphasised as alternative and complementary to traditional data collection methods in research with children and as useful tools in presenting conceptual and analytical frameworks. In their capacity to evoke the non-rational and material aspects of life, visual methods are also particularly beneficial in exploring everyday, taken for granted, institutional food practices. This article describes the way in which two sets of visual methods, namely representations and researcher-created data , were utilised within a study on a changing food practice in a Norwegian kindergarten. The representation is of a conceptual model, featuring Hedegaard’s cultural-historical wholeness approach and Fullan’s change model, which is visually presented. With this visualized conceptualisation, the study realises the goal of understanding the societal, institutional and individual perspectives in the change process. The researcher-created data included visual materials and video observations, exemplifying the change outcomes in relation to children’s experiences and participation in the “new” meal situation as well as their liking of, acceptance and consumption of the new food. This article concludes that the visual methods adopted are helpful both in conceptualisation and in data collection and generate important insights about the change of food practices.
This ethnographic case study investigates how teachers and leaders in a Norwegian primary school perceive and promote an inclusive school environment for newly arrived migrant children through music. The analysis draws on two aspects of inclusion. The first is on whose terms inclusion takes place and whether newcomers have the opportunity to transform the existing social order. The second is the boundaries of inclusive practices: inclusion and exclusion are seen as processes separated by a boundary that, once crossed, can result in exclusion despite good intentions. The case is a primary school with a dedicated introductory class for newly arrived migrant children. The data collection instruments were participant observation, interviews and field conversations over a period of 10 months. There was a participatory element to the fieldwork in connection with the school’s ongoing development work to create an inclusive environment. Three socio-musical spaces were identified. The findings suggest that inclusive music practices face obstacles at individual, organisational and discursive levels. Fields of tension are identified relating to boundaries around what cultural expressions are welcomed and represented in the school; visibility and performance of home cultures; and exclusion and self-exclusion through musical markers of belonging.
In this study, zeolite sodalite SOD (50NaO2:Al2O3:5SiO2), zeolite LTA (2NaO2:Al2O3:1.926SiO2) and zeolite FAU (16NaO2:Al2O3:4SiO2) of different structures were synthesized successfully through simple conventional hydrothermal crystallization technique without using any template agent. Morphological analysis of three different types of zeolites revealed that the samples exhibit three different shapes such as the “Raspberry-like”, “Dice” cube like and “Octahedral” shaped morphology respectively. The thermal stability of materials was found to be about 4.8%, 14.6% and 20.5% for synthesized zeolites SOD, LTA and FAU respectively. From the N2 adsorption-desorption studies of the synthesized samples, adsorption types of IV and I were observed. CO2 adsorption of the synthesized zeolite SOD, LTA and FAU were examined at a pressure range from 0 to 101.325 kPa at a constant temperature of 297.15 K. The highest adsorption capacity of 3.7 mmol/g was obtained for zeolite FAU. The synthesized zeolite was studied using a nonlinear regression curve fit to determine the adsorption isotherm model using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. It has been found that the synthesized zeolites have a large electric field gradient due to which they can strongly adsorb quadrupole of CO2 molecules.
The Food and Health subject is a mandatory subject in primary and lower secondary schools in Norway and has many similarities to the internationally known subject Home Economics. This study aimed to examine how learning activities are structured in Food and Health education, both from the teacher’s and the student’s perspective. Momentary time sampling was used as the observation method, and we created “lesson signatures” of the Food and Health education based on the observational data. “Lesson signature” is a term used for an aggregate number of observed teaching sessions, and is intended to reveal specific external patterns, considering time use, organisation and teaching patterns. Data were collected from 23 observed Food and Health lessons from sixth and ninth grades in Norway. The signatures show that although the activity level of both teachers and students was high, teachers controlled and regulated the lessons. Teaching methods consisted mainly of group work. Students spent a small proportion of the lesson listening, and conversation and discussion as a collective were virtually absent.
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