Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin
Recent publications
Marine litter pollution is a global environmental problem, found in all oceans and with substantial impacts on marine ecosystem services, maritime economic activity, public health, and aesthetics. To develop socially acceptable policies to foster behavioral change, it is necessary to understand the perceptions of practical measures to curb marine litter pollution by key stakeholders. We employ a Best-Worst Scaling approach to investigate preferences of fishers for implementing abandoned, lost, and otherwise discarded fishing gear (ALDFG) control measures to curb marine litter pollution in Vietnam. The results show that the perceived effectiveness of proposed measures to address ALDFG varies among fishers and between fisheries, implying a “one size fits all” approach would not work in this context, though there are areas of agreement. While fishers perceive ‘awareness raising’ and ‘onshore collection’ to be most effective measures, the use of ‘biodegradable gear’ and ‘gear-lost reports’ are perceived least effective in combating ALDFG. Our results suggest the improvements of waste facilities in ports, on small islands, and in coastal areas to encourage fishers to dispose of their unwanted gear appropriately, coupled with targeted awareness-raising programs to increase fishers' awareness of ALDFG impacts on marine environment.
Research is limited on how accumulated international experience and decision-making style propel internationalising SMEs toward brand orientation. Our study builds a model of the process on classical and entrepreneurial brand management principles plus the firm's applied experience and decision-making logics. An online survey of 235 internationalising SMEs found that adopted decision-making logic mediated the relationship between cumulative international experience and international brand orientation. We conclude that managers and planners must select the most appropriate approach to international brand management permitted by available international firm-specific experience if they are to achieve strong international brand orientation and superior financial performance.
Classification and regression trees offer straightforward methods of attributing importance values to input features, either globally or for a single prediction. Conditional feature contributions (CFCs) yield local, case-by-case explanations of a prediction by following the decision path and attributing changes in the expected output of the model to each feature along the path. However, CFCs suffer from a potential bias which depends on the distance from the root of a tree. The by now immensely popular alternative, SHapley Additive exPlanation (SHAP) values appear to mitigate this bias but are computationally much more expensive. Here we contribute a thorough, empirical comparison of the explanations computed by both methods on a set of 164 publicly available classification problems in order to provide data-driven algorithm recommendations to current researchers. For random forests and boosted trees, we find extremely high similarities and correlations of both local and global SHAP values and CFC scores, leading to very similar rankings and interpretations. Unsurprisingly, these insights extend to the fidelity of using global feature importance scores as a proxy for the predictive power associated with each feature.
The decisive and decision-making challenges of business investment are for the good development of enterprises. In order to have a better market advantage of chemical granules for enterprises, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is constructed to analyze the company's performance. Under the environment of state-owned enterprises and foreign enterprises competing for market resources together, building a performance evaluation system suitable for the development stage of the company can adjust the planning strategy and analyze its own disadvantages in time. When analyzing the effective combination of performance appraisal and enterprise development, as well as the effective communication between employees and enterprise managers, feedback information is obtained through the experimental results. Under this analysis condition, this paper describes the feasibility and soundness of the AHP model system for enterprises, and what favorable decision-making methods can be provided for later development. Based on the selection of performance evaluation indicators, AHP analysis can clearly get the weight of each indicator and the correlation between them, in order to improve and build a new system of evaluation indicators. This paper concludes the following: (1) based on the analysis of enterprise performance appraisal indicators, using the AHP model evaluation method to calculate the indicators, the optimized indicators for the performance appraisal of the comprehensive and efficient significantly improved. (2) Comparing the traditional AHP calculation with the optimized model calculation, the results show that under the optimized calculation, the index is more concise and the fluctuation is reduced, which reduces the burden on administrators. (3) In the membership degree of index evaluation grade, the membership degree with an excellent grade is 0.9, which shows that the index plays a very important role in evaluation. (4) According to the development indicators of enterprises in recent years, it is found that the growth rate of resources is growing slowly, the demand for the talent market is still in a stable state as always, and its financial resources have increased by 120% in 2016.
In order to better understand the current situation of Chinese public sports, this paper studies Chinese public sports. According to SATI3.2 statistics, 71 newsletters have published a total of 903 articles, of which 40 newsletters have one article, 19.7% of the newsletters have 2–9 books, and 17 magazines have more than 10 issues. The results show that by measuring data, we can better understand the current state of China’s public services. This paper uses the method of bibliometric analysis to sort out and summarize the policies, characteristics, hotspots, and trends of China’s public service field under the social network environment. The survey shows that the education sector has paid less for public entertainment in recent years. The research direction is system, equity, government procurement, interest, capital allocation, strategy, and supply chain. This paper highlights that the shortcomings of public sports research in our country: “public sports services” and “public sports services” are not integrated; there are many macrostudies on public service sports but few microstudies; there is no track and field research for special public groups. This paper puts forward research guidance for China’s public sports services and, at the same time, strengthens the research on public services of different products of rural sports development, strengthens the research on the intelligence of sports public services, and strengthens the research on the role of public sports. Governments at all levels support and strengthen research on public sports service standards, strengthen research on public sports performance measurement measures, and strengthen public sports balance research.
Definition of the problemThe results of decisions made at the macro and meso levels of the healthcare system sometimes extend far into the areas of inpatient care. There, they may conflict with the needs of patients and influence the conditions of medical action.ArgumentsIt is possible that, in view of increasing financial pressure, the hospital’s interests in maintaining the status quo may influence patient-related decisions to the detriment of patients and hospital staff.Conclusions Hospital managers must therefore ask themselves how they intend to appropriately deal with this situation. An organizational ethic approach, which makes use of the unquestionably available scope for action at the meso level, is presented as a tool for solving this problem. It is shown how by designing the subfunctions of the hospital management system and their implementation, e.g., by means of the subfunctions planning and control, hospital management is supported in implementing the values set for the hospital and in implementing the doctor’s freedom to sustainably maneuver in such a way that the physician’s can meet the demand for medical services—despite the above-mentioned influences—in an ethically and legally justifiable manner that is also economically reasonable. It is important to develop an organization that can fulfill its institutional responsibility towards patients (and staff), for which not only the physician–patient relationship but also the hospital–patient relationship is a relationship of care based on mutual trust.The present text refers, among other things, to contributions in Ethik in der Medizin, Volume 33, Issue 2. How the organizational ethical approaches described there can be implemented in hospital daily life is shown based on an example.
Supply chain resilience (SCR) is imperative for operation and performance continuity in the presence of disruptions. One of the important SCR capabilities is end-to-end visibility which can be supported by Blockchain technology in facilitating transparency, traceability, and trust in using data and information. Meanwhile, Blockchain can change and enhance the existing efficiency- and novelty-oriented business model design (BMD). However, the impact of Blockchain-supported BMD on SCR and firm performance has not been investigated so far. This study fills this research gap and empirically examines the relationships among BMD, SCR, and firm performance with consideration of Blockchain technology and using data collected from Chinese firms. Our findings contribute to the literature by revealing the antecedents of SCR and its mediating role between Blockchain-enabled BMD and firm performance. We also provide insights into enhancing SCR in light of the Blockchain-supported BMD. Our research offers several important findings. We demonstrate that companies with high strategic emphasis on BM efficiency can achieve higher firm performance and SCR through Blockchain usage than those without such a focus. This emphasizes the importance of process transparency and information symmetry which can be implemented by Blockchain. Blockchain-enabled novelty-centered BMD significantly enhances the agility part of SCR. SCR can improve firm performance acting as an intermediary between efficiency-centered BMD and firm performance.
Purpose In a service society, the assessment of climate-relevant environmental impacts of services is of increased importance. In the few Product Category Rules (PCRs) for cleaning services available to date, it is noticeable that employee mobility and service-related management are excluded from the assessment. This practice is critically questioned in the following study. The aim is to show that a calculation of the carbon footprint of services that integrates employee mobility and service-related management provides a better basis for finding ways to reduce their environmental impact. Methods Key figures on the CO2e emissions of services are examined in exemplary case studies using the example of cleaning, maintenance and reception with regard to the possible share of emissions caused by employee mobility and service-related management activities. For the case studies located in Germany, characteristic values of the equipment, operating materials or mobility used for the service are obtained from available Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). In the absence of EPDs, a simplified estimate is made according to the VERUM method based on the proportion of materials in the product. The case studies compare the carbon footprint of a service by omitting and including employee mobility and service-related management. Results The analysed case studies show an impact share between 32 and 69% for employee mobility and between 10 and 26% for service-related management activities in an integrated carbon footprint of services. The emissions caused by employee mobility and service-related management therefore have a dimension that should not be neglected. Conclusions From these findings, the necessity is derived to include the emissions from the mobility of operational staff and service-related management in future PCRs for services in order to improve the comparability of services. Optimisation efforts of companies must also start at these points of the service organisation.
Die Betriebswirtschaftslehre trifft Aussagen über das Wirtschaften in Betrieben. Diese müssen, zur Erfüllung ihrer Aufgabe, der Fremdbedarfsdeckung knapper Güter, güterbezogene Funktionen (z. B. Beschaffung, Produktion oder Absatz) sowie Managementfunktionen (z. B. Organisation oder Rechnungswesen) unter Wahrung des ökonomischen Prinzips erfüllen. Die dazu notwendigen funktionalen Entscheidungen sind in einen Rahmen konstitutiver Entscheidungen bezüglich der Existenz des Betriebes, seiner rechtlichen Verfassung sowie seines Verhältnisses zu anderen Betrieben eingebettet.
We use machine learning techniques to quantify trade tensions between US and China. Our measure matches well‐known events in the US‐China trade dispute and is exogenous to the developments on global financial markets. Local projections show that rising trade tensions leave US markets largely unaffected, except for firms that are more exposed to China, while negatively impacting stock market indices and exchange rates in China and EMEs. We complement these findings with additional evidence suggesting that the US‐China trade tensions have been interpreted as a negative demand shock for the Chinese economy rather than as a global risk shock.
Most countries still have a significant gender gap in labor force participation, and this gap is especially large for immigrants. Despite this gap, Germany introduced various forms of home care allowances in the last decade. Parallel to the extension of early child care and the inclusion of a legal claim for it, from 2013 to 2015, a nationwide home care allowance existed for parents who did not use public child care for children aged one or two years. After 2015, home care allowances continued to exist in several German federal states. Some politicians strongly criticized this transfer for allegedly decreasing work incentives, particularly for mothers with lower labor market integration, such as immigrant mothers. Using federal state differentiated data obtained from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we investigate the impact of a home care allowance on the labor market participation of mothers. For both native-born and especially immigrant mothers, the effects are significantly negative. We conclude that a home care allowance has negative effects on the labor force participation of mothers of young children, irrespective of the legal claim for and the extension of public child care.
Against the background of severe global sustainability challenges, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are called to integrate sustainability aspects into research and teaching, hereby supporting the development of sustainability competencies of students (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2017). Within this context, a new teaching format, that applies the Service Design methodology to tackle sustainability-related real-world challenges, was designed and conducted at a German University of Applied Sciences in autumn/winter 2021. The teaching format was evaluated by participating students respective its contribution to the fostering of their sustainability key competencies. This paper describes the developed format and outlines how and why it helped students to develop key competencies. It thereby contributes to a highly relevant and increasingly considered research stream dealing with teaching effectiveness and the impact of pedagogical approaches on sustainability-related competencies (Cebrián, Junyent, & Mulà, 2020).
Increased electricity consumption along with the transformations of the energy systems and interruptions in energy supply can lead to a blackout, i.e., the total loss of power in an area (or a set of areas) of a longer duration. This disruption can be fatal for production, logistics, and retail operations. Depending on the scope of the affected areas and the blackout duration, supply chains (SC) can be impacted to different extent. In this study, we perform a simulation analysis using anyLogistix digital SC twin to identify potential impacts of blackouts on SCs for scenarios of different severity. Distinctively, we triangulate the design and evaluation of experiments with consideration of SC performance, resilience, and viability. The results allow for some generalizations. First, we conceptualize blackout as a special case of SC risks which is distinctively characterized by a simultaneous shutdown of several SC processes, disruption propagations (i.e., the ripple effect), and a danger of viability losses for entire ecosystems. Second, we demonstrate how simulation-based methodology can be used to examine and predict the impacts of blackouts, mitigation and recovery strategies. The major observation from the simulation experiments is that the dynamics of the power loss propagation across different regions, the blackout duration, simultaneous unavailability of supply and logistics along with the unpredictable customer behavior might become major factors that determine the blackout impact and influence selection of an appropriate recovery strategy. The outcomes of this research can be used by decision-makers to predict the operative and long-term impacts of blackouts on the SCs and viability and develop mitigation and recovery strategies. The paper is concluded by summarizing the most important insights and outlining future research agenda toward SC viability, reconfigurable SC, multi-structural SC dynamics, intertwined supply networks, and cross-structural ripple effects.
This study analyses firms’ labour demand when employers have at least some monopsony power. It is argued that without taking into account (quasi-)monopsonistic structures of the labour market, wrong predictions are made about the effects of minimum wages. Using switching fractional panel probit regressions with German establishment data, I find that slightly more than 80% of establishments exercise some degree of monopsony power in their demand for low-skilled workers. The outcome suggests that a 1% increase in payments for low-skilled workers would, in these firms, increase employment for this group by 1.12%, while firms without monopsony power reduce the number of low-skilled, by about 1.63% for the same increase in remuneration. The study can probably also be used to explain the limited employment effects of the introduction of a statutory minimum wage in Germany and thus leads to a better understanding of the labour market for low-skilled workers. JEL Codes: J23, J42, C23, D24
This paper assesses the relationship between decision utility and experienced utility of recreational nature visits. The former is measured as the travel cost to reach that site as routinely used by the travel cost method (TCM), and the latter is operationalized through visit‐related subjective well‐being (SWB). As such, the analysis is a test of convergent validity by examining whether ex ante TCM‐based assessment of recreational value reflecting decision utility corresponds to stated ex post SWB, reflecting experienced utility. It explores to what extent utility revealed by counts of nature visits are associated with self‐reported, visit‐related SWB relating to that same visited site. The analysis uses two existing datasets providing information on (i) 3672 recreational visits to green/blue spaces in England over the course of four years and (ii) 5937 recreational visits to bluespace sites across 14 European countries over one year. Results show a positive association between travel cost and visit‐related SWB while controlling for trip frequency and a large set of covariates, suggesting convergent validity of the two utility concepts. A breakdown by travel mode suggests this relationship only holds for trips involving motorized transport and is not present for habitual, chore‐like walking visits to the recreational site.
The author investigates the different influences of labor shortage on wages in firms with or without collective bargaining agreements. In addition to training, technological solutions, and organizational flexibility, employers can also offer higher wages at a constant employment level to fill vacancies if the current payments are lower than the marginal revenue of the workers. Firms with collective bargaining agreements probably already pay wages according to marginal revenue or, in the case of rent sharing, above it, and the remuneration is probably also not adjusted. Using wage regressions with panel data for German establishments, this paper shows that collective bargaining and a lack of skilled workers can lead to higher wages. However, the latter only applies to firms that are not bound by collective agreements. Hence, wage differentials between these firms decrease, providing further explanation for a countercyclical development of the wage premium from the collective bargaining agreement. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12122-022-09334-1.
As the recent COVID-19 pandemic crisis has shown, global supply chains and value adding networks are vulnerable to changes on the economic, business, technological, and social environment. Therefore, there is a need of facilitating and transforming supply chains in a more efficient, resilient, and sustainable way. The aim of this paper is to analyze the importance and the impact of digital technologies to the transformation of supply chain management, through an examination of potential use cases and implementation strategies and under a methodological framework related to the supply chain operations reference (SCOR) model, which is connected to the principles of lean thinking.
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Daniel Karl Detzer
  • Department of Business and Economics (FB 1)
Roland M. Mueller
  • Department of Business and Economics (FB 1)
David Zellhöfer
  • Department of Public Administration (FB 3)
Dmitry Ivanov
  • Department of Business and Economics (FB 1)
Dagmar Monett
  • Computer Science Department
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Campus Schöneberg, Haus A Raum A 2.34, Badensche Straße 52, 10825, Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Head of institution
Prof. Dr .Andreas Zaby
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