This paper discussed using a bot-based self-report diagnostic tool to identify post-traumatic stress disorder. The authors present information technology for assessing the psychological state of individuals who have experienced traumatic events in a stressful environment. The technology uses the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) and additional questions describing the current psychological environment. The study employed data analysis techniques to identify significant dependencies between respondents’ answers to additional questions about the current environment and their ITQ scores. The bot interface provides a user-friendly platform for respondents to complete the questionnaire. The analytical system, which includes data collection, storage, and processing, allows for flexibility in modifying the questionnaire based on ongoing research.
Background The self-perceived health status of patients undergoing total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) might differ post-operatively due to gender, age, or comorbidities. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) such as the EQ-5D-5L measure the self-perceived health status. This study investigates whether the index score of the EQ-5D-5L is a valid tool for interpreting gender differences in outcomes for patients undergoing THA and TKA. Methods Routine and PROM-data of elective primary THA or TKA patients in two German hospitals between 2016 and 2018 were analyzed. Univariate analysis with Pearson’s chi-square was conducted to identify control variables for gender. To quantify the association between gender and the EQ-5D-5L dimensions, a cumulative odds ordinal logistic regression with proportional odds was conducted. Results Two thousand three hundred sixty-eight THA patients (m = 978; f = 1390) and 1629 TKA patients (m = 715; f = 914) were considered. The regression analysis of the individual EQ-5D-5L dimensions showed that female gender was significantly associated with better self-care (THA and TKA) and better post-operative mobility (THA). In contrast, male gender was significantly associated with less pain/discomfort (TKA) and less anxiety/depression (THA) pre-surgery and 3-months post-surgery. Conclusion Our results confirmed that the self-perceived health status improved after surgery. However, due to the different associations of gender to the individual dimensions of the EQ-5D-5L, the weighted index score clouds the comparability between patients with different gender undergoing THA or TKA. Therefore, we argue to use the individual five dimensions for health status analysis, to reveal relevant additional information.
Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 13 refers to "Climate Action". It is one of the 17 goals established by the United Nations in their 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The primary objective of SDG13 is to take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. It recognises that climate change is a global challenge that requires immediate attention and concerted efforts from governments, businesses, communities, and individuals worldwide. SDG13 permeates a number of SDGs and also influences them in a significant way. Based on the need to contextualise SDG13 and considering its role as one of the central SDGs, this article outlines the links between SDG13 and the other SDGs. It also reports on a survey involving experts from 61 countries. The findings suggest that even though climate change impacts, particularly extreme weather events, are known to disproportionally affect poorer and minoritized communities, the synergies among related goals and climate justice seem to receive less attention. The article concludes by describing some of the means via which synergies between SDG13 and other SDGs may be achieved.
Research has found an association between the perceived sustainability and healthiness of foods and meals between individual consumers. The current study aimed to investigate whether the association between perceived sustainability and healthiness on the individual level is rooted in reality. Moreover, we investigated whether meal or individual characteristics affect this association. In total, 5021 customers of a public canteen rated the sustainability and healthiness of 29 meal options. For determining the actual environmental sustainability and healthiness scores, exact recipes of each meal were analyzed using the NAHGAST algorithm. Results showed a substantial association between perceived sustainability and healthiness at the individual level. However, this perceived relation was unrelated to the overlap between the actual environmental sustainability and healthiness scores of the meals. Moreover, this “healthier = more sustainable” perception was unrelated to other meal characteristics (e.g., vegan content) or individual characteristics (i.e., gender, eating style). However, this association was slightly higher in older than in younger participants. The present study shows in a real-world setting that food consumers seem to evaluate the sustainability and healthiness of meals based on a simple “healthy = sustainable” heuristic which is largely independent of the actual overlap of these dimensions. Future research is needed to shed more light on the nature, sources, and consequences of this heuristic.
Tidal marshes store large amounts of organic carbon in their soils. Field data quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks provide an important resource for researchers, natural resource managers, and policy-makers working towards the protection, restoration, and valuation of these ecosystems. We collated a global dataset of tidal marsh soil organic carbon (MarSOC) from 99 studies that includes location, soil depth, site name, dry bulk density, SOC, and/or soil organic matter (SOM). The MarSOC dataset includes 17,454 data points from 2,329 unique locations, and 29 countries. We generated a general transfer function for the conversion of SOM to SOC. Using this data we estimated a median (± median absolute deviation) value of 79.2 ± 38.1 Mg SOC ha⁻¹ in the top 30 cm and 231 ± 134 Mg SOC ha⁻¹ in the top 1 m of tidal marsh soils globally. This data can serve as a basis for future work, and may contribute to incorporation of tidal marsh ecosystems into climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies and policies.
Chanterelles are one of the most highly valued wild edible mushroom genera worldwide. This work aimed to investigate the nutritional characteristics and volatile compounds’ profile of Cantharellus alborufescens for the first time. Proximate analysis was performed according to the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, while the mineral contents and the volatile compounds were determined using ICP-MS and GC-MS, respectively. C. alborufescens had an average of 25.8% protein, 5.5% fat, 12.7% ash, and 55.9% carbohydrates, including 11.4% fiber per dw of mushroom. Further analyses of the fat and protein contents revealed high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as monosodium glutamate-like amino acids. Linoleic acid (42.0% of fat) and oleic acid (28.6% of fat) were the major fatty acids, while leucine (1.2%) and lysine (0.9%) were the most abundant essential amino acids. The results showed that C. alborufescens contained 3.1 µg/g vitamin D2 and 4.9 mg/g vitamin E per dw, as well as notable quantities of macro- and microelements, such as potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron. GC-MS analysis revealed various volatile compounds such as acetaldehyde, n-hexanal, 3-methylbutanal, 1-octen-3-ol, etc. In conclusion, this study supports the use of C. alborufescens as a food rich in fiber and vitamin E, with a suitable amount of protein and other nutrients.
The global energy landscape faces significant challenges, necessitating a transition toward alternative energy sources to mitigate energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen emerged as a versatile energy carrier with immense potential, particularly in the realm of transportation. However, the lack of a comprehensive hydrogen infrastructure poses a critical barrier to its widespread adoption. By examining various important factors including the pressure level, transported capacity, trailer capacity, pipeline diameter, pressure drop, and transport distance, this study aims to optimize the hydrogen supply chain and improve the cost‐effectiveness of compressed hydrogen gas transportation. Five major delivery modes, encompassing compressed gas trucks and pipelines of varying diameters, are evaluated. This research offers valuable insights into the costs associated with hydrogen delivery within the European context. It reveals that the total levelized cost of hydrogen transportation (LCOHT) ranges from 0.3 to 3.44 € kg⁻¹. These cost fluctuations are observed over transport distances that extend from 25 to 500 km and are dependent upon varying hydrogen demand levels, encompassing quantities of up to 100 000 kg per day. Based on the results, optimal choices for transport infrastructure are identified considering factors such as distance and hydrogen demand.
The most common strategy for interactive sonification is parameter mapping sonification, where sensed or defined data is pre-processed and then used to control one or more variables in a signal processing chain. A well-known but rarely used alternative is model-based sonification, where data is fed into a physical or conceptual model that generates or modifies sound. In this paper, we suggest the Impulse Pattern Formulation (IPF) as a model-based sonification strategy. The IPF can model natural systems and interactions, like the sound production of musical instruments, the reverberation in rooms, and human synchronization to a rhythm. Hence, the IPF has the potential to be easy to interpret and intuitive to interact with. Experiment results show that the IPF is able to produce an intuitively interpretable, natural zero, i.e., a coordinate origin. Coordinate origins are necessary to sonify both polarities of a dimension as well as absolute magnitudes.
Many higher education institutions around the world are engaged in efforts to tackle climate change. This takes place by not only reducing their own carbon footprint but also by educating future leaders and contributing valuable research and expertise to the global effort to combat climate change. However, there is a need for studies that identify the nature of their engagement on the topic, and the extent to which they are contributing towards addressing the many problems associated with climate change. Against this background, this paper describes a study that consisted of a review of the literature and the use of case studies, which outline the importance of university engagement in climate change and describe its main features. The study identified the fact that even though climate change is a matter of great relevance to universities, its coverage in university programmes is not as wide as one could expect. Based on the findings, the paper also lists the challenges associated with the inclusion of climate change in university programmes. Finally, it describes some of the measures which may be deployed in order to maximise the contribution of higher education towards handling the challenges associated with a changing climate.
To enable a safe and reliable operation in future urban air mobility scenarios with a large number of autonomous aerial vehicles, automatic sensing systems will be required during the starting and landing phase as well as through comparatively narrow air spaces typical for urban areas. This paper shows an implementation of a compressive sensing (CS) based obstacle-detection and direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation approach. To this end, a multiple-input multiple-output frequency-modulated continuous wave radar system with two transmit and four receive antenna elements is employed to sense the environment and provide situational awareness from a virtual aperture with eight antennas. Example measurements result from a typical urban air setting with a-priori unknown sparsity. The results show that greater signal dynamics are attained from CS compared to conventional beamforming based DoA estimation techniques. Furthermore, measurements are verified by corresponding time-synchronous lidar measurements. CS-based obstacle detection and DoA estimation is shown to work even in complex measurement environments.
In our research we study self-adapting multi-agent systems in the context of organisation-oriented design combined with the MAPE pattern (monitor, analyse, plan, and execute). We advocate a firstname.lastname@example.org approach for the planning phase to estimate the cost-benefit ratio of possible self-modifications. In this paper we develop key values to describe the dynamics of self-adapting systems. Our main objective is to compare adaption dynamics of similar systems, i.e., systems that differ only slightly, e.g., w.r.t. their organisational networks. We specify the MAPE-based adaption in the formalism of Hornets – a formalism that uses nets as tokens, i.e., they follow the nets-within-nets approach. We identify abstractions of the reachability graph that focus on the adaption aspects of the processes. We develop key measures for adaption processes on these abstracted graphs. The key measures are used e.g., to compare two variations of the same adapting system. The approach is illustrated by a case study: We analyse a Hornet-model of Axelrod’s well-known tournament where the playing agents adapt their strategies during the game.
The organ donation and transplantation (ODT) system heavily relies on the willingness of individuals to donate their organs. While it is widely believed that public trust plays a crucial role in shaping donation rates, the empirical support for this assumption remains limited. In order to bridge this knowledge gap, this article takes a foundational approach by elucidating the concept of trust within the context of ODT. By examining the stakeholders involved, identifying influential factors, and mapping the intricate trust relationships among trustors, trustees, and objects of trust, we aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of trust dynamics in ODT. We employ maps and graphs to illustrate the functioning of these trust relationships, enabling a visual representation of the complex interactions within the ODT system. Through this conceptual groundwork, we pave the way for future empirical research to investigate the link between trust and organ donation rates, informed by a clarified understanding of trust in ODT. This study can also provide valuable insights to inform interventions and policies aimed at enhancing organ donation rates.
In this paper, a responsible business model innovation process is developed based on the existing process of the St. Gallen Business Model Navigator. For its development, a literature review was conducted to formulate requirements that a responsible business model innovation process should fulfil. In particular, the four guiding principles of responsible research and innovation were considered: anticipation, inclusion, reflection, and responsiveness. Based on these findings, several aspects were added to the Business Model Navigator. The focus was on extending the description of a business model along the magic triangle with two additional levels, the environmental one and the social one. Additionally a new step was added in the initiation phase to make the purpose of the process more visible. The results contribute to the current understanding of a responsible business model innovation process, where ethical, social, and environmental aspects are included as core parts of the business model itself.
The war in Ukraine has caused severe disruption to national and worldwide food supplies. Ukraine is a major exporter of wheat, maize, and oilseeds, staples that are now suffering a war-triggered supply risk. This paper describes the background of the problem and illustrates current trends by outlining some of the measures that may be deployed to mitigate the conflict’s impacts on achieving SDG 2 (Zero hunger), especially focusing on ending hunger, achieving food security, improving nutrition, and promoting sustainable agriculture. In order to understand the main research strands in the literature that are related to food security in the context of wars, the authors adopted a bibliometric literature review based on the co-occurrence of terms technique, conducted with 631 peer-reviewed documents extracted from the Scopus database. To complement the bibliometric assessment, ten case studies were selected to narrow down the food insecurity aspects caused by the war in Ukraine. The co-occurrence analysis indicated four different thematic clusters. In the next stage, an assessment of the current situation on how war affects food security was carried out for each one of the clusters, and the reasons and possible solutions to food security were identified. Policy recommendations and theoretical implications for food security in the conflict context in Ukraine were also addressed.
Objectives Quality of life plays an important place in the psychosocial development of children with Cochlear Implants (CI). We assesd health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with CI and in hearing children and determined relationships between HRQoL and other developmental characteristics (social-emotional development, Theory of Mind (ToM), spoken language skills). Methods A longitudinal study was conducted including children with CI and hearing children. We used instruments that are widely employed and have been validated for research. At time 1 social-emotional development, ToM and spoken language skills were assessed.HRQoL was assessed using the generic KINDL questionnaire, as was social-emotional development, 2.5 years later (time 2). Results No significant difference was seen in HRQoL between hearing children and children with CI. We show that the age of detection, the age of hearing care, and the start of early intervention are not related to HRQoL of children with CI, but relationships with some domains of social-emotional development are evident. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of targeted intervention not only to improve spoken language skills at preschool age, but also strengthen social-emotional and social-cognitive competences.
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