Based on panel data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for the years 1998 to 2018, we investigate the association between paternal childcare and parental economic well-being after separation in Germany. Referring to the post-separation year, we explore a sample of 176 separated couples with resident mothers and nonresident fathers, where fathers differ in their childcare involvement during weekdays. We propose equivalized annual net household income after exchange of alimony and child maintenance payments among the ex-partners as a novel indicator of parental economic well-being. Our study reveals the importance of considering both paid and received alimony, and child maintenance payments in analyzing post-separation economic well-being. Fathers’ childcare engagement during weekdays is not significantly associated with maternal post-separation income. Resident mothers take up the major or even full childcare burden. On the other hand, fathers with non-zero childcare hours manage to combine some paternal engagement with intensified employment. Mothers, however, fail to gain substantial ground on the labor market, which is unlikely to be due to differences in human capital, but rather due to persistently high maternal childcare involvement. We conclude that neither high levels of own resources, nor receiving help with childcare during the week shield resident mothers from economic deterioration after separation.
Zusammenfassung Die Einstellungen gegenüber Menschen mit Schizophrenie haben sich in den letzten Jahren verschlechtert. Wir argumentieren, dass dies mit einem Prozess der Ökonomisierung des Sozialen zusammenhängt, der insbesondere in der marktradikalen Fassung des Neoliberalismus den Wettbewerbscharakter in der Gesellschaft als prior platziert hat. Der kalkulatorische Umgang mit sich selbst ist individuell wie gesellschaftlich dominant. In den letzten Jahren ist daraus ein anhaltender Trend zur Selbstoptimierung entstanden, der auch inklusive Qualitäten besitzt: Wer mithält, gehört dazu. Auf der anderen Seite beinhaltet er aber auch eine exkludierende Qualität. Menschen mit Schizophrenie werden im Zuge dessen verstärkt als potenziell belastend bilanziert, als Minderung der eigenen Chancen. Dies trägt möglicherweise zu den beobachteten negativen Einstellungsveränderungen bei.
It is often stated that certain occupations in Germany, because of “ Demographic Change “, are dwindling, implying a labor shortage. We investigate the 10-year wage growth of young employees entering the labor market in different occupations. Our findings suggest that regional labor market tightness in occupational fields significantly explains wage growth. Individuals who start their careers in a tighter labor market enjoy higher wage growth than workers in more relaxed labor markets. We identify some occupational fields where the effect is especially strong, such as several engineering groups, IT occupations, technicians, and some commercial occupations. Interestingly, health-care occupations reveal a reverse relation.
Abstract Crises challenge labor markets and their (institutional) actors – the COVID-19-crisis made this particularly clear in terms of speed, extent and duration. How labor market policy actors act not only depends on the actual course of the crisis, but also on the positions of the actors themselves. For both the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs and the Federal Employment Agency (BA), it can be said that there was at least a partial anticipation of crisis developments, on which the pandemic-related measures were able to refer organizationally. Using the BA as an example, the article empirically illustrates how the transition from a hierarchical organized administration strongly combined with the principles of New Public Management to a problem-driven crisis actor with flexible responsiveness could succeed. This diagnosis is embedded in conceptual considerations along the lines of the debates on governance and the question of the necessity of opening up spaces of actions within state institutions.
The central aim of this publication was to answer the questions: which central challenges currently exist for counsellors in Europe and which will occur in the coming years and how to master these challenges with a transnational focus. In the first part, the anthology first approached this question theoretically and thus derived the necessity and project idea of the Academia+ project. There were two main objectives for the Academia+ project which should be briefly reflected upon again:
The contribution aims at two levels: first, it outlines the basic structure and logic of the Academia+ project (2018–2021). To this end, it identifies the basic needs of counsellors and career guidance practitioners and the resulting key challenges. In addition, he exemplifies the project logic and procedure in the three thematic areas “counselling migrants and refugees”, “future work” and “demographic change”. The project has two central objectives at this point: the first one is to support and consolidate the exchange and transnational training of counsellors in Europe, and the second target is to focus on the development of training programmes to address current key challenges in labour market and counselling. The anthology, and thus this contribution and the Academia+ project, sees itself first and foremost as a space for transnational exchange, with national perspectives on European challenges and a transnational synthesis.KeywordsAcademia+Vocational trainingCounsellingGuidanceMigrantsDemographical changeFuture work
In the last few decades, a series of changes have been perceived in our society (demographic and sociological, technological, labour market, business organisation, cultural, values…) that affect the perspective of vocational guidance and require modifications in guidance intervention. Guidance plays a very special role in these changes that characterise the current society, as it actively participates in the changes and innovations that are required by the current situation and also in the future.In light of the current needs, guidance should be seen, from a holistic, comprehensive and critical perspective, as a process of mediation, interrelation and facilitation of different processes of transformation and/or social change throughout life (lifelong guidance) where guidance professionals are regarded as agents of change and innovation, with the need to guarantee quality and equity in guidance as added values.This chapter identifies and describes the most notable changes in the current society that affect Career Guidance and Counselling (CGC) and require modifications in guidance intervention. In particular, it examines some of the challenges and perspectives for CGC in Spain, focusing mainly on counselling for migrants and refugees, the changing jobs of the future as well as demographic change and the ageing of the working population.KeywordsCareer Guidance and Counselling (CGC)Migrants and refugeesDigitalisationDemographic change
Introduction: In Germany, the prevalence rates for alcohol use disorders amount to approx. 6%, while about 3% are diagnosed as being alcohol dependent. Only 10% of the patients are undergoing treatment. There are apparent deficits with respect to early interventions. The internet presence of "Ohne Alkohol mit Nathalie" (OAmN) (Abstinence with Nathalie) ameliorates options for early treatment interventions using a web-based design; however, this intervention has not been evaluated to date, especially with respect to previous treatments. Methods: Over a 4-week period, 4 different channels of OAmN posted announcements for a survey participation introducing a link leading to a web-based survey questionnaire on the domain oamn.jetzt. The questionnaire offered open and closed as well as multiple choice questions regarding alcohol use patterns and attempts to change the problematic drinking behavior. Results: Out of 2022 participants 84.3% (n = 1705) stated to have or have had a problem with alcohol use, 17.7% (n = 302) had a diagnosis of alcohol dependence by a physician or psychologist and only 21% (n = 529) had been in therapy before. The majority of responders (85.5%, n = 1457) had stopped alcohol use before participating in the survey. Most of them (48.5%, n = 705) were assisted by OAmN, 97.5% (n = 1662) had been employed while having the abovementioned problem use of alcohol, 34.3% (n = 570) rated their job performance as "very good" and 43.2% (n = 718) as "good". Discussion: This pilot study revealed that OAmN can reach people affected by problematic drinking behavior who had not been in contact with the professional medical system for addiction treatment despite having a problematic alcohol use combined with the willingness to quit.
Further and continuing education is not only important for individual employability, but also for regional development. Therefore, improving participation in further and continuing education and removing barriers to participation are key concerns of regional education governance. The present study was conducted in a peripheral region of Rhineland-Palatinate in western Germany, where the annual participation rate in continuing education is relatively low compared to other geographic areas in Germany. This quantitative study was designed to understand: (1) To what extent do adult learners engage in continuing education within their habitual lifelong learning process? (2) Which circumstantial factors influence their participation in continuing education? And (3) What are the barriers hindering their participation? The authors found that for two-thirds of adult learners, a precondition for their enrolment in a continuing education course was the satisfaction of both work-related and private life-related factors. The authors’ findings point towards the need for flexible study programmes which learners can fit to the demands of their work and life.
Background: The rising number of people using methamphetamine leads to an increasing need for treatment options for this patient group. Evidence-based research on the efficacy of treatment programs for methamphetamine users is limited. Due to specific characteristics of methamphetamine users, the question arises whether established treatment methods for individuals using other substances can be effective for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence as well. We hypothesize that there are significant differences between the two groups that may affect the effectiveness of treatment and worsen the prognosis of treatment outcomes for methamphetamine users compared to consumers of other substances. Aim: To investigate potential differences in cognitive functioning and psychopathology between methamphetamine users and other substance users and possible correlations with treatment outcomes. Methods: A total of 110 subjects were recruited for an observational, longitudinal study from a German inpatient addiction treatment center: 55 patients with methamphetamine dependence and 55 patients with dependence of other substances ("OS group"). Both groups were examined at beginning (baseline) and end of treatment (after 6 mo) with regard to treatment retention, craving, cognitive functioning, psychosocial resources, personality traits, depression, and other psychiatric symptoms. Instruments used were Raven's IQ test, Mannheimer craving scale, cognitrone cognitive test battery, NEO personality factors inventory, Hamilton depression scale, Becks depression inventory, and a symptom checklist. The statistical methods used were χ 2-test, t-test and multiple mixed ANOVAs. Results: A total drop-out rate of 40% (methamphetamine-group: 36.4%; OS-group: 43.6%) was observed without significant differences between groups. At baseline, methamphetamine-group subjects significantly differed from OS-group individuals in terms of a lower intelligence quotient, fewer years of education, slower working speed, and decreased working accuracy, as well as less cannabinoid and cocaine use. Methamphetamine-group subjects further showed a significantly lower score of conscientiousness, depressive, and psychiatric symptoms than subjects from the OS-group. In both groups, a reduction of craving and depressive symptoms and an improvement of working speed and working accuracy was noted after treatment. Conclusion: There are differences between methamphetamine users and users of other drugs, but not with regard to the effectiveness of treatment in this inpatient setting. There are differences in cognitive function and psychopathology between methamphetamine and other drugs users. The existing treatment options seem to be an effective approach in treating methamphetamine dependence.
Was passiert, wenn die Entwicklung von persönlichen Projekten mehr an die Entwicklung der Person, ihrem Wunsch nach Selbstverwirklichung und ihren sozialen Möglichkeiten angebunden wird? Es werden Beispiele für persönliche Projekte beschrieben. Ein Projekt, das nach einer Suchphase in eine berufliche Neuorientierung führt. In einem anderen Projekt werden Achtsamkeitsbasierte Interventionen in den Schulalltag integriert. Das Projekt Feuchte Schnauze beschreibt, wie die Arbeit mit einem Sozialhund aufbaut wird. Raum für sich selber, Flow erleben und Zeit für Achtsamkeit sind die Perspektiven des Projekts my room. Ideen, Wünsche werden so zu Projekten, gehören dann zu der Lebenswelt der Person und werden Teil der Identität. Ausgangslagen sind entwickelt aus dem Weg des Erkundens persönlicher und sozialer Ressourcen. Die Beispiele geben Einblick in die Entstehungs- und Entwicklungswelten der Projekte. Es wird deutlich, wie subjektiv und individuell, die Projektentwicklungen verlaufen
Zusammenfassung In diesem Beitrag wird anhand der Rekonstruktion eines amtlichen Konzepts zur ‚Fallsteuerung‘ plausibel gemacht, dass die Tätigkeit der Sozialen Arbeit im Feld der gesetzlichen Sozialhilfe in der Schweiz von einem Spannungsfeld zwischen Organisationsrationalität und Professionsrationalität geprägt ist. Der für professionalisierte Soziale Arbeit theoretisch als konstitutiv begründbare Einzelfallzugang wird durch die organisational verbindlich gesetzte Einteilung von Klient*innen unter standardisierte Kategorien bedroht, und das Gewährleisten der Fallspezifität wird in die Verantwortung der einzelnen Fachkräfte übertragen. Die Befunde der Rekonstruktion werden in Bezug gesetzt zu professionstheoretischen Überlegungen, insbesondere zur These einer bisher schwach ausgeprägten Professionalisierung der Sozialen Arbeit und der Notwendigkeit eines professionalisierten beruflichen Habitus.
In addition to restrictions in training companies, vocational schools were also closed due to the coronavirus pandemic in Germany. After the unexpected first lockdown, it was the challenge of all those involved to draw lessons from the emergent weaknesses in the system and to prepare for further school closures. These preparations primarily involved shifting to digital learning platforms. This article uses a simple and easy to understand research design and focuses from a practical point of view on the results of a quantitative online survey conducted by the University of Applied Labour Studies Mannheim among 143 apprentices in southern Germany on the differences between the first and second school closures with regard to live communication with teachers, attention to apprentice concerns by the vocational school, access to digital devices, and the use of these devices. The results of the survey show that, according to the apprentices’ assessments, the vocational schools were able to improve live communication as well as better attend to the apprentices’ concerns between lockdowns. In addition, the apprentices were able to improve their own digital devices and competencies and, to a large extent, make up for deficits. They were better able to use digital devices and software during the second school closure compared to the first. Gender differences were observed. However, despite significant improvements, there is still a need to modernize and innovate, which should be considered in future digital developments at schools.
The practical approach to problem-solving and the opening up of possibilities is responsible for the unbroken popularity of G. Egan’s book “The skilled helper”. He recognised from the outset that there was a tension between behavioural science psychology, on the one hand, and humanistic psychology, on the other. In all editions of his book, Egan tried to combine the two psychological directions, recognising that the behaviourist counselling always needed humanising. It was important for him not only to present a model of helping but also to provide counsellors with a set of techniques and skills to make his approach actually work.
In the 1980s and 1990s, brief counselling, especially solution-focused brief counselling, challenged many of the assumptions of earlier theories and models. These earlier models have emphasised that real change was only possible when clients fully understand the true nature of their problems. Solution-focused counselling offers new ways of thinking about counselling, because this model focuses on the potentials rather than the weaknesses or limitations of the clients. The collaborative nature of solution-focused counselling reinforces a sense of autonomy and equality in counselling for ethnic minority clients.
The important question for each counsellor is: which procedures should be used for which individual, when and under which conditions? The idea of a general counselling theory was not new. But because of the wide acceptance of Ivey’s microcounselling, his main assumptions about an integrated approach had an immense impact on the way counsellors were trained and educated. Ivey places great emphasis on theory integration and multicultural counselling as a “fourth force”.
In order for young people and adults to be able to accept and cope with the processes of change in society and the labour market, it will be increasingly important in vocational and career guidance to refer to the corrective function of competences on the often-one-side orientation of guidance towards vocational interests or motivations. The competence constellations can be divided into four sub-classes: the technical competence, on the one hand and, on the other hand, the methodological, social and personal competence classes. A critical aspect is the transferability of the categories for describing competence requirements in occupation and professional activities. The use of AI-supported procedures enables the systematic recording of competence descriptions of occupational alternatives tailored to the client by the counsellor through machine learning (ML).
We are still amazed at how new theories in the therapeutic and non-therapeutic fields keep emerging and are the focus of interest for a while and then sink back into insignificance. The psychodynamic theory, the cognitive-behavioural theory and the existential-humanist theory belong to those approaches that continue to exert the greatest influence. Allen E. Ivey calls them the “three forces of guidance”.
Our ISM model focuses on individual decision-making processes and use the knowledge that is particularly helpful in career decision counselling. ISM is not oriented towards how one should make professional decisions and solve problems, but how the individual decision-making takes place and how counsellors can help with this process in a counselling relationship. This counselling process is understood as a simulation of imagined cognitive-affective information processing procedures in the client within the framework of a learning process oriented towards the counselling goal. The descriptive models of human decision-making, which are oriented towards individual information needs and behaviour seem more appropriate to professional-ethical norms of counselling.
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