Correcting lisps in speech can prove to be of great difficulty to many, as they may be unaware of whether they are lisping. To help those affected, we have developed a simple algorithm for the real-time identification of the sigmatismus lateralis in ”S” sounds within speech via analysis in the frequency domain. The algorithm identifies peaks within the lisp’s frequency band after calibration. A frequency band of 3000-4000 Hz has been identified to be generally accurate for lisp and 2500-3000 Hz for the correct pronunciation for a single male test subject. The algorithm splits given speech recordings into smaller segments and compares the number of lisps and non-lisps detected in these segments to categorize. From tests, it was concluded that a segment length of 0.5 s produces the best results. The algorithm does not detect every lisp section, however it does not raise false positives. Our implementation in Julia with multi-threaded per-file analysis is able to analyze 20 files of lengths between 5 s and 10 s within 0.21 s on a Qualcomm Snapdragon 860 smartphone chipset, meaning analysis is far faster than real-time. The proposed algorithm is a simple prototype algorithm capable of realtime analysis of audio in the frequency domain to identify whether lateral lisps are the dominant sibilant pronunciation in a given window. The method was only tested for a single test subject. However, a calibration algorithm capable of adjusting parameters to new individuals is proposed. The algorithm itself should be easily expandable to identify other speech impediments.
Developments in computational omics technologies have provided new means to access the hidden diversity of natural products, unearthing new potential for drug discovery. In parallel, artificial intelligence approaches such as machine learning have led to exciting developments in the computational drug design field, facilitating biological activity prediction and de novo drug design for molecular targets of interest. Here, we describe current and future synergies between these developments to effectively identify drug candidates from the plethora of molecules produced by nature. We also discuss how to address key challenges in realizing the potential of these synergies, such as the need for high-quality datasets to train deep learning algorithms and appropriate strategies for algorithm validation.
The incorporation of new technology into existing human activities can be challenging. Numerous models have been proposed in human-computer interaction (HCI) to guide research and analyze effects. However, bridging the gap between experimental data and real-world applications often proves to be difficult. In the last decades, post-cognitivistic approaches have been developed to explain human cognition and the relation between humans and their environment. In this paper, we present a novel framework to systematically describe and analyze challenges in the context of HCI from multiple perspectives. It extends Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and is enriched by contemporary philosophical perspectives (enactivism, pattern theory of self and post-phenomenology). The proposed framework is further illustrated by applying it to an immersive telementoring prototype system.
Hypertension incidence increases with age and represents one of the most prevalent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clonal events in the hematopoietic system resulting from somatic mutations in “driver” genes such as Tet2 are prevalent in elderly individuals in the absence of overt hematologic disorders. This condition is referred to as age-related clonal hematopoiesis (ARCH), and it is a newly recognized risk factor for CVD. It is unknown whether ARCH and hypertension in the elderly are causally related and, if so, what are the mechanistic features. Objective: Given that the aging process increases the prevalence of hypertension and ARCH, the current experimental study was designed to test the effect of ARCH in hypertension incidence. Methods and Results: A murine model of adoptive bone marrow transplantation to nonconditioned mice was employed to examine the interplay between ARCH and hypertension. Mice carrying Tet2-deficiency in hematopoietic cells resulted in elevated systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) as early as one day after challenge with a sub-pressure dose of angiotensin II (Ang II) 200ng/kg/min; SBP (day 1 Tet2 -/- : 148 mmHg± 4 vs. WT: 129±2 mmHg, P=0.002); day 9 Tet2 -/- 159±7 mmHg vs. WT: 139±5 mmHg, P<0.05), and DBP (day 1, Tet2 -/- : 108 ±3 mmHg vs. WT: 100±1 mmHg, P<0.005; day 9, Tet2 -/- : 111 ±4 mmHg vs. WT 107±3 mmHg). The ARCH Tet2 model of CH led to greater macrophage infiltration in the kidney, aorta and mesentery after Ang II compared with WT-treated mice. The Tet2-/- CH condition led to renal NLRP3 inflammasome activation and elevated renal levels of IL (interleukin)-1β (Tet2 -/- 1.4 vs. WT: 0.96, P<0.005) and IL-18 (Tet2 -/- 1.56 vs. WT: 1.18, P<0.005) after Ang II administration. Interestingly, administration of the inflammasome inhibitor MCC950 reversed hypertension seen in the mouse model of Tet2 -/- CH. Conclusion: Our data show that a sub-pressor dose of Ang II promotes hypertension due to elevated renal immune cell infiltration in a Tet2-CH model, promoting IL1-β and IL-18. These data suggest that Tet2 -/- CH carriers could be at elevated risk for the development of hypertension, and that NLRP3 inhibitors could be useful for treating hypertension in this population.
Zusammenfassung: Die von Janusz Korczak (eigentlich Henryk Goldszmit) in den Jahren 1926-1939 in Polen herausgebrachte Zeitung Kleine Rundschau von und für Kinder und Jugendliche (poln. Mały Przegląd) war ein wöchentlich erscheinendes Medium, das nicht nur in der damali-gen Zeit dazu beitrug, den Stimmen von Kindern Gehör zu verschaffen, ihnen eine Möglichkeit zu geben sich auszudrücken und sich gegenseitig zu verbinden, sondern ist auch heute noch eine bedeutende Ressource, in der die Perspektiven von Kindern der damaligen Zeit sichtbar werden. Die Kinder positionieren sich als kompetente Wissende und als Expertinnen und Experten ihrer Lebenswelt. Themenübergreifend explizieren sie ein Wissen über sozial-konstruierte Ordnungen und eine Differenz entlang sozial-zeitlicher Lebensphasen in Verbindung mit unterschiedli-chen Rechten und Pflichten. Abstract: The newspaper Little Review (in Polish: Mały Przegląd), published by and for children and adolescents by Janusz Korczak (originally Henryk Goldszmit) in Poland in 1926-1939, was a weekly medium that helped to make children's voices heard. It gave them a way to express themselves and connect with their peers. It is today still a significant resource about children's perspectives at the time. The children position themselves as competent conversants and experts in their lifeworld. Across numerous topics, they illustrate knowledge of socially constructed orders and differences along social-temporal life phases regarding various rights and duties.
Zusammenfassung Rechte von Kindern und Jugendlichen im Kontext der stationären öffentlichen Jugendhilfe werden immer wieder missachtet. So werden im Spannungsfeld von Hilfe und Kontrolle Wohngruppen aus der Perspektive der dort lebenden jungen Menschen zu „Räumen der Besonderung“. Die Forschungsperspektive der Sozialpädagogischen Nutzer_innenforschung bietet eine Möglichkeit, das Recht der Kinder und Jugendlichen auf einen eigensinnigen Standpunkt zu realisieren.
Background Per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) have received increasing scientific and political attention in recent years. Several thousand commercially produced compounds are used in numerous products and technical processes. Due to their extreme persistence in the environment, humans and all other life forms are, therefore, increasingly exposed to these substances. In the following review, PFAS will be examined comprehensively. Results The best studied PFAS are carboxylic and sulfonic acids with chain lengths of C4 to C14, particularly perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). These substances are harmful to aquatic fauna, insects, and amphibians at concentrations of a few µg/L or less, accumulate in organisms, and biomagnify in food webs. Humans, as the final link in numerous food chains, are subjected to PFAS uptake primarily through food and drinking water. Several PFAS have multiple toxic effects, particularly affecting liver, kidney, thyroid, and the immune system. The latter effect is the basis for the establishment of a tolerable weekly dose of only 4.4 ng/kg body weight for the sum of the four representatives PFOA, PFOS, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2020. Exposure estimates and human biomonitoring show that this value is frequently reached, and in many cases exceeded. PFAS are a major challenge for analysis, especially of products and waste: single-substance analyses capture only a fragment of the large, diverse family of PFAS. As a consequence, sum parameters have gained increasing importance. The high mobility of per and polyfluorinated carboxylic and sulfonic acids makes soil and groundwater pollution at contaminated sites a problem. In general, short-chain PFAS are more mobile than long-chain ones. Processes for soil and groundwater purification and drinking water treatment are often ineffective and expensive. Recycling of PFAS-containing products such as paper and food packaging leads to carryover of the contaminants. Incineration requires high temperatures to completely destroy PFAS. After PFOA, PFOS and a few other perfluorinated carboxylic and sulfonic acids were regulated internationally, many manufacturers and users switched to other PFAS: short-chain representatives, per- and polyfluorinated oxo carboxylic acids, telomeric alcohols and acids. Analytical studies show an increase in environmental concentrations of these chemicals. Ultra-short PFAS (chain length C1–C3) have not been well studied. Among others, trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is present globally in rapidly increasing concentrations. Conclusions The substitution of individual PFAS recognized as hazardous by other possibly equally hazardous PFAS with virtually unknown chronic toxicity can, therefore, not be a solution. The only answer is a switch to fluorine-free alternatives for all applications in which PFAS are not essential.
Geschäftsbanken und Sparkassen sehen sich seit einigen Jahren mit einem disruptiven Wandel konfrontiert. Dieser resultiert einerseits aus der fortschreitenden Digitalisierung, die nahezu alle Bankdienstleistungen und Geschäftsprozesse tangiert. Andererseits müssen sich Banken im technologischen Wandel gegenüber neuen Konkurrenten behaupten.
Die empirische Untersuchung in dieser Arbeit adressiert im Wesentlichen zwei Problemstellungen: Erstens gilt es, das multidimensionale Konzept des Kundenerfolgs aus Banksicht über ein multikriterielles Erfolgsmaß so zu operationalisieren, dass es als Ergebnis-Einsatz-Relation im Sinne einer aggregierten Effizienzkennzahl objektiviert gemessen werden kann. Zweitens sollen bankinterne, bankexterne und periodenexterne Determinanten des so aggregierten Kundenerfolgs identifiziert und hinsichtlich ihres Wirkzusammenhangs analysiert werden.
Im Bankgeschäft mit Mittelstandskunden stehen insbesondere regional tätige Geschäftsbanken und Kreditinstitute vor der Herausforderung, bankbetriebliche Steuerungsmechanismen datengetriebener auszurichten. Die vorliegende Arbeit leistet dazu einen Beitrag, indem mit der Data Envelopment Analysis ein effizienzorientiertes Erfolgsmaß zur Steuerung des Kundenportfolios vorgeschlagen und einer Determinantenanalyse unterzogen wurde.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.