While the recent discussion on Art. 25 GDPR often considers the approach of data protection by design as an innovative idea, the notion of making data protection law more effective through requiring the data controller to implement the legal norms into the processing design is almost as old as the data protection debate. However, there is another, more recent shift in establishing the data protection by design approach through law, which is not yet understood to its fullest extent in the debate. Art. 25 GDPR requires the controller to not only implement the legal norms into the processing design but to do so in an effective manner. By explicitly declaring the effectiveness of the protection measures to be the legally required result, the legislator inevitably raises the question of which methods can be used to test and assure such efficacy. In our opinion, extending the legal compatibility assessment to the real effects of the required measures opens this approach to interdisciplinary methodologies. In this paper, we first summarise the current state of research on the methodology established in Art. 25 sect. 1 GDPR, and pinpoint some of the challenges of incorporating interdisciplinary research methodologies. On this premise, we present an empirical research methodology and first findings which offer one approach to answering the question on how to specify processing purposes effectively. Lastly, we discuss the implications of these findings for the legal interpretation of Art. 25 GDPR and related provisions, especially with respect to a more effective implementation of transparency and consent, and provide an outlook on possible next research steps.
Background Since 2015, the German Prevention Act has obligated social security agencies to support prevention and health promotion in the university setting, particularly for students, through measures and structural development in terms of content and funding. The German Network for Health Promoting Universities took part in these processes and assessed the situation on the basis of 5 years of experience. The strategy paper based on this with the recommendations for action is presented in excerpts.Objectives The aim of the article is to present the complex structures and developments in the context of the German Prevention Act and to show the requirements that have not yet been implemented at the interface between universities. The focus is on the implementation of the recommendations for action at the level of the federal states and the targeted addressing of the responsible actors, including universities and student unions.Materials and methodsThe recommendations for action of the “Health Promotion Strategy 2019–2022 for Universities” (as of January 2020) are updated from official statistics (university statistics, financial results of the statutory health insurance) and a literature and internet-based inventory.Results and conclusionsThe analysis of the implementation of the German Prevention Act shows a number of previously unrealized requirements for the university settings. This includes the lack of cooperation between the social security agencies and the implementation of the jointly agreed fields of action (e.g., health literacy) for students. At the level of the 16 federal states, universities have not been taken into account as a setting in the state framework agreements. One reason is the lack of classification of young adults in their own phase of life: “Healthy in vocational training and studies”.
Zusammenfassung Während im IT-Projektmanagement agile Methoden seit vielen Jahren in der Praxis Zuspruch finden, werden im IT-Controlling überwiegend noch klassische Methoden eingesetzt. Der Beitrag untersucht die Fragestellung, ob und wie die im IT-Controlling eingesetzten Methoden auch agilen Paradigmen folgen und Methoden des agilen IT-Projektmanagements adaptiert werden können.
Zusammenfassung Vor dem Hintergrund der Covid-19-Pandemie hat sich das Home-Office in Deutschland seit dem Jahr 2020 weit verbreitet und wird seitdem bei vielen Arbeitgebern als neue Arbeitsmethode genutzt. Der Einsatz von Home-Office kann verschiedene positive als auch negative Effekte auf die Beschäftigten und den Arbeitgeber sowie die Gesellschaft allgemein haben. Damit von möglichst vielen positiven Effekten profitiert werden kann, ist ein gutes Home-Office Konzept erforderlich. Welche Anforderungen an ein solches Konzept bestehen und welche Voraussetzungen grundlegend mit der Nutzung von Home-Office verbunden sind, wird in dem Beitrag aufgezeigt. Dabei werden von technischen bis hin zu sozialen Aspekten Anforderungen verschiedener Arten berücksichtigt, welche durch eine durch den Autor durchgeführte Studie gebildet worden sind. Im Fokus dieses Beitrages sollen die kritischen Erfolgsfaktoren für das ideale Arbeiten im Home-Office stehen, also die Anforderungen, welche ausschlaggebend für die erfolgreiche Umsetzung eines Home-Office Konzeptes sind und Einfluss auf die wahrgenommenen Effekte des Home-Office haben. Die im Beitrag aufgeführte Studie des Autors wurde im Rahmen der Abschlussarbeit von Herrn Jeske durchgeführt, auf welcher der Beitrag basiert.
In her recent article, Bender discusses several aspects of research–practice–collaborations (RPCs). In this commentary, we apply Bender's arguments to experiences in engineering research and development (R&D). We investigate the influence of interaction with practice partners on relevance, credibility, and legitimacy in the special engineering field of product development and analyze which methodological approaches are already being pursued for dealing with diverging interests and asymmetries and which steps will be necessary to include interests of civil society beyond traditional customer relations.
Die Medikalisierungs- und die Kompressionsthese sind zwei „konkurrierende“ Ansätze in Bezug auf die Frage, in welchem Gesundheitszustand ein längeres Leben, insbesondere die Lebensjahre in höherem Alter verbracht werden. Neben der individuellen Bedeutung von Quantität und Qualität der Lebensjahre ist die Relevanz dieser Frage für das Gesundheitswesen hoch, denn nicht nur in der Vergangenheit ist die Zahl bzw. auch der Anteil der älteren Menschen gestiegen, es wird im Kontext des demografischen Wandels ein weiterer Anstieg, auch der Lebenserwartung, prognostiziert – und die Auswirkungen auf die Versorgungsbedarfe bzw. Ausgaben im Gesundheitswesen können beträchtlich sein.
Recent experimental evidence suggests that mebendazole, a popular antiparasitic drug, binds to heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and inhibits acute myeloid leukemia cell growth. In this study we use quantum mechanics (QM), molecular similarity, and molecular dynamics (MD) calculations to predict possible binding poses of mebendazole to the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding site of Hsp90. Extensive conformational searches and minimization of the five mebendazole tautomers using the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ theory level resulted in 152 minima. Mebendazole-Hsp90 complex models were subsequently created using the QM optimized conformations and protein coordinates obtained from experimental crystal structures that were chosen through similarity calculations. Nine different poses were identified from a total of 600 ns of explicit solvent, all-atom MD simulations using two different force fields. All simulations support the hypothesis that mebendazole is able to bind to the ATP binding site of Hsp90.
Zusammenfassung Wir berichten über einen 67jährigen Patienten, bei dem eine avaskuläre Knochennekrose des Kopfes des dritten Mittelhandknochens mittels Knorpel-Knochen-Transplantat aus dem resezierten ipsilateralen Os pisiforme behandelt wurde.
This paper explores the role of artificial intelligence (AI) in elite sports. We approach the topic from two perspectives. Firstly, we provide a literature based overview of AI success stories in areas other than sports. We identified multiple approaches in the area of Machine Perception, Machine Learning and Modeling, Planning and Optimization as well as Interaction and Intervention, holding a potential for improving training and competition. Secondly, we discover the present status of AI use in elite sports. Therefore, in addition to another literature review, we interviewed leading sports scientist, which are closely connected to the main national service institute for elite sports in their countries. The analysis of this literature review and the interviews show that the most activity is carried out in the methodical categories of signal and image processing. However, projects in the field of modeling & planning have become increasingly popular within the last years. Based on these two perspectives, we extract deficits, issues and opportunities and summarize them in six key challenges faced by the sports analytics community. These challenges include data collection, controllability of an AI by the practitioners and explainability of AI results.
Nanomedicine strategies were first adapted and successfully translated to clinical application for diseases, such as cancer and diabetes. These strategies would no doubt benefit unmet diseases needs as in the case of leishmaniasis. The latter causes skin sores in the cutaneous form and affects internal organs in the visceral form. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) aims at accelerating wound healing, reducing scarring and cosmetic morbidity, preventing parasite transmission and relapse. Unfortunately, available treatments show only suboptimal effectiveness and none of them were designed specifically for this disease condition. Tissue regeneration using nano-based devices coupled with drug delivery are currently being used in clinic to address diabetic wounds. Thus, in this review, we analyse the current treatment options and attempt to critically analyse the use of nanomedicine-based strategies to address CL wounds in view of achieving scarless wound healing, targeting secondary bacterial infection and lowering drug toxicity.
Novel methods for contingency analysis of gas transport networks are presented. They are motivated by the transition of our energy system where hydrogen plays a growing role. The novel methods are based on a specific method for topological reduction and so-called supernodes. Stationary Euler equations with advanced compressor thermodynamics and a gas law allowing for gas compositions with up to 100 $$\%$$ % hydrogen are used. Several measures and plots support an intuitive comparison and analysis of the results. In particular, it is shown that the newly developed methods can estimate locations and magnitudes of additional capacities (injection, buffering, storage etc.) with a reasonable performance for networks of relevant composition and size.
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD, SDG 4) and human well-being (SDG 3) are among the central subjects of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this article, based on the Questionnaire for Eudaimonic Well-Being (QEWB), we investigate to what extent (a) there is a connection between EWB and practical commitment to the SDGs and whether (b) there is a deficit in EWB among young people in general. We also want to use the article to draw attention to the need for further research on the links between human well-being and commitment for sustainable development. A total of 114 students between the ages of 18 and 34, who are either engaged in (extra)curricular activities of sustainable development (28 students) or not (86 students), completed the QEWB. The students were interviewed twice: once regarding their current and their aspired EWB. Our results show that students who are actively engaged in activities for sustainable development report a higher EWB than non-active students. Furthermore, we show that students generally report deficits in EWB and wish for an improvement in their well-being. This especially applies to aspects of EWB related to self-discovery and the sense of meaning in life. Our study suggests that a practice-oriented ESD in particular can have a positive effect on the quality of life of young students and can support them in working on deficits in EWB.
Background There is a lack of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) data regarding mid- to long-term myocardial damage due to Covid-19 in elite athletes. Objective This study investigated mid-to long-term consequences of myocardial involvement after a Covid-19 infection in elite athletes. Methods Between January 2020 and October 2021, 27 athletes of the German Olympic centre Rhineland with confirmed Covid-19 infection were analyzed. 9 healthy non-athlete volunteers served as control. CMR was performed in mean 182 days (SD 99) after initial positive test result. Results CMR did not reveal any signs of acute myocarditis in regard to the current Lake Louise criteria or myocardial damage in any of the 26 elite athletes with previous Covid-19 infection. Nevertheless, 92 % of the athletes experienced a symptomatic course and 54 % reported lasting symptoms for more than 4 weeks. In one male athlete CMR revealed an arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and this athlete was excluded from the study. Athletes had significantly enlarged left and right ventricle volumes and increased left ventricular myocardial mass in comparison to the healthy control group (LVEDVi 103.4 vs. 91.1 ml/m 2 p=0.031; RVEDVi 104.1 vs. 86.6 ml/m 2 p=0.007; and LVMi 59.0 vs. 46.2 g/m 2 p=0.002). Conclusion Our findings suggest that the risk for mid-to long-term myocardial damage seems to be very low to negligible in elite athletes. No conclusions can be drawn regarding myocardial injury in the acute phase of infection nor about possible long-term myocardial effects in the general population.
Background: Lung cancer is the worldwide leading oncological cause of death in both genders combined and accounts for around 40–50% of brain metastases in general. In early-stage lung cancer, the incidence of brain metastases is around 3%. Since the early detection of asymptomatic cerebral metastases is of prognostic value, the aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of brain metastases in early-stage lung cancer and identify possible risk factors. Methods: We conducted a retrospective multicentric analysis of patients with Stage I (based on T and N stage only) Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) who had received preoperative cerebral imaging in the form of contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. Patients with a history of NSCLC, synchronous malignancy, or neurological symptoms were excluded from the study. Analyzed variables were gender, age, tumor histology, cerebral imaging findings, smoking history, and tumor size. Results were expressed as mean with standard deviation or median with range. Results: In total, 577 patients were included in our study. Eight (1.4%) patients were found to have brain metastases in preoperative brain imaging. Tumor histology was adenocarcinoma in all eight cases. Patients were treated with radiotherapy (five), surgical resection (two), or both (one) prior to thoracic surgical treatment. Other than tumor histology, no statistically significant characteristics were found to be predictive of brain metastases. Conclusion: Given the low incidence of brain metastases in patients with clinical Stage I NSCLC, brain imaging in this cohort could be avoided.
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