Automatic construction progress documentation and metric evaluation of execution work in confined building interiors requires particularly reliable geometric evaluation and interpretation of statistically uncertain as-built point clouds. This paper presents a method for high-resolution change detection based on dense 3D point clouds from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and the discretization of space by voxels. In order to evaluate the metric accuracy of a BIM according to the Level of Accuracy (LOA) specification, the effects of laser range measurements on the occupancy of space are modeled with belief functions and evaluated using Dempster and Shafer's theory of evidence. The application is demonstrated on the point cloud data of multi temporal scanning campaigns of real indoor reconstructions. The results show that TLS point clouds are suitable to verify a given BIM up to LOA 40 if special attention is paid to the scanning geometry during the acquisition. The proposed method can be used to document construction progress, verify and even update the LOA status of a given BIM, confirming valid and BIM-compliant as-built models for further planning.
Deep learning is reaching state of the art in many applications. However, the generalization capabilities of the learned networks are limited to the training or source domain. The predictive power decreases when these models are evaluated in a target domain different from the source domain. Joint adversarial domain adaptation networks are currently the preferred models for source-to-target domain adaptation due to their good empirical performance. These models simultaneously learn a classifier, an invariant representation through an adversarial min-max game, and adapt local structures between domains. For the latter, it is common practice to incorporate pseudo labels that can be, however, unreliable due to false predictions on challenging tasks. This work proposes the Domain Adversarial Tangent Subspace Alignment (DATSA) network, which models data as affine subspaces and adversarially aligns local approximations of manifolds across domains. DATSA addresses the drawbacks of the joint adversarial domain adaptation networks by not requiring pseudo labels for local alignment because it relies on self-supervised learning for subspace alignment. Additionally, DATSA adaptations are explainable to some extent and the results show that they are competitive to other models in terms of accuracy.
In industrial applications continuous wireless connectivity of mobile clients can rarely by guaranteed. Lack of communication negatively impacts the performance of industrial automation systems, e.g. Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) fleets. Utilizing industrial Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs) and an adaptive positioning scheme can reduce the number of disconnections in AGV fleets. Therefore, the performance of the mobile system (e.g. AGV fleet) is improved and factory efficiency increased. In this work procedural simulation is used to examine wireless communication in industrial applications. This method enables the observation of the interaction of mobility control system, network status and robotic system performance independently from a specific environment or scenario. Novel insights on the effectiveness of ad-hoc communication in industrial applications and the correlation of AGV fleet connectedness and AGV fleet transport performance are presented. Additionally, a control method is proposed, which improves the network coverage of an industrial MANET and efficiency of AGV fleets.
An optical measuring method is presented, with which it is possible to measure and evaluate reflective cylindrical surfaces using a combination of deflectometry and subsequent reconstruction of the surface. The system is set up and tested on rolling elements of cylindrical roller bearings. However, it is not limited to this use case and can be applied to other cylindrical specular surfaces. The system distinguishes itself from existing test methods through the combination of high-resolution three-dimensional defect measurement with a very short recording time, and offers the possibility of introducing tolerance limits in the production of cylindrical specular surfaces. With this method, it is possible to record a defect with the dimensions of 1.3 mm by 1.8 mm within 5 s and to reconstruct the absolute depth. The resolution of the system is below 10 μm in both X- and Y-direction, and is therefore sufficiently accurate to detect typical surface defects such as scratches, dents, or deformations. To validate the measured values of the system, the results of an artificially generated 10.35 μm deep defect location were compared with those of a highly accurate mechanical stylus measurement.
Germany, Jordan, and Lebanon’s social, political, and socio-economic structures are influenced by a long history of them receiving refugees and migrants. This was a starting point for the University of Applied Sciences Würzburg (Germany), the German Jordanian University, Yarmouk University (Jordan), and the Lebanese University to engage in an intercultural and professional exchange project on social work in the field of (forced) migration. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) served as a conceptual framework to examine the lives of refugees, community development and social cohesion in receiving societies, and the role of social work in this context. The project concept focused on engaging in cultural dialogue, linking theory to practice, and fostering academic exchange through research projects. The paper provides practical insights into and reflections on the international dialogue project that proved to be an insightful learning experience for students and staff even in exceptional times of crises, exploring the relevance of SDGs for a profiled social work profession and scientific discipline.
In recent years social media became an important part of everyday life for many people. A big challenge of social media is, to find posts, that are interesting for the user. Many social networks like Twitter handle this problem with so-called hashtags. A user can label his own Tweet (post) with a hashtag, while other users can search for posts containing a specified hashtag. But what about finding posts which are not labeled by the creator? We provide a way of completing hashtags for unlabeled posts using classification on a novel real-world Twitter data stream. New posts will be created every second, thus this context fits perfectly for non-stationary data analysis. Our goal is to show, how labels (hashtags) of social media posts can be predicted by stream classifiers. In particular, we employ random projection (RP) as a preprocessing step in calculating streaming models. Also, we provide a novel real-world data set for streaming analysis called NSDQ with a comprehensive data description. We show that this dataset is a real challenge for state-of-the-art stream classifiers. While RP has been widely used and evaluated in stationary data analysis scenarios, non-stationary environments are not well analyzed. In this paper, we provide a use case of RP on real-world streaming data, especially on NSDQ dataset. We discuss why RP can be used in this scenario and how it can handle stream-specific situations like concept drift. We also provide experiments with RP on streaming data, using state-of-the-art stream classifiers like adaptive random forest and concept drift detectors. Additionally, we experimentally evaluate an online principal component analysis (PCA) approach in the same fashion as we do for RP. To obtain higher dimensional synthetic streams, we use random Fourier features (RFF) in an online manner which allows us, to increase the number of dimensions of low dimensional streams.
Die Vaterrolle hat sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten von einem reinen Familienernährer zu einem modernisierten Leitbild aktiver Vaterschaft gewandelt. Im folgenden Beitrag werden unterschiedliche Dimensionen väterlichen Engagements dargestellt und ausgewählte Befunde zur Erwerbssituation und zur Beteiligung der Männer an der Familienarbeit wiedergegeben. Darüber hinaus werden wichtige personen- und partnerschaftsbezogene Einflussfaktoren auf die individuelle Ausgestaltung der Vaterrolle erörtert. Auch der abschließende Blick auf Väter in Scheidungsfamilien und in anderen Familienkonstellationen verdeutlicht, dass das väterliche Engagement insbesondere von den Einstellungen, Haltungen und der Beziehung der beteiligten Elternteile bestimmt wird.
The prevalence of dementia is increasing with the ever-growing population of older adults. Non-pharmacological, music-based interventions, including sensory stimulation, were reported by the Lancet Commission in 2020 to be the first-choice approach for managing the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Low frequency sinusoidal vibration interventions, related to music interventions through their core characteristics, may offer relief for these symptoms. Despite increasing attention on the effectiveness of auditory music interventions and music therapy for managing dementia, this has not included low frequency vibration. This scoping review, following the JBI methodology guidelines, was conducted to investigate participants’ responses to both sound and mechanical vibration, the characteristics of the delivered interventions, methodological challenges, and the specifics of the research experiments reported. An extensive search was conducted in BMC, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE (OvidSP), Pedro, ProQuest Central, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science. Current Controlled Trials, Clinical Trials, and Google Scholar were also searched as well as a hand search in relevant journals. Studies on adults with all types of dementia, investigating tactile low frequency sound or mechanical vibration in any context were considered. Data from eight full-length studies (three RCTs, two quasi-experimental, two case reports, and one qualitative) were extracted using the data extraction table developed by the authors and were included in the analysis and critical appraisal. Issues in quality related to, for example, control groups and blinding. Few studies addressed participants’ subjective responses to the interventions. Reporting on the intervention characteristics was unclear. It appeared more frequent sessions led to better outcomes and home-based interventions potentially addressing the issue of access and feasibility. Future research should include neuroimaging to measure and confirm the hypothesised mechanism of cerebral coherence. Standardised reporting of intervention characteristics is also needed to ensure replicability of the experiments. Higher quality research is needed to investigate the impact and effect of low frequency vibration for the symptoms of dementia and compare outcomes in meta-syntheses.
Even though smaller screen sizes are discussed to be related to negative effects on the attention span and the working memory  or as leading to a negative impact on viewing experience , recent developments of video design and consumption , as well as the general usage of smartphones as video streaming devices [5, 12] imply a shift in general usage behavior, which seems to demand streaming provider to adapt to stand up to the competition. Simultaneously to this movement, a shift from horizontal video formats (landscape) to vertical video formats (portrait) can be registered . The present study aimed to verify the assumption that both video formats have a high acceptance and therefore there can be measured no significant difference in the perceived immersion effect between two groups watching the identical film extract in a vertical or a horizontal video format. For the measurement of the immersion, the Film Immersive Experience Questionnaire by Rigby et al.  was used. The data analyses performing a two-sided independent samples t-test revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two experimental groups. Therefore, the null hypothesis was maintained.
Background Symptom checker apps (SCAs) are accessible tools that provide early symptom assessment for users. The ethical, legal, and social implications of SCAs and their impact on the patient-physician relationship, the health care providers, and the health care system have sparsely been examined. This study protocol describes an approach to investigate the possible impacts and implications of SCAs on different levels of health care provision. It considers the perspectives of the users, nonusers, general practitioners (GPs), and health care experts. Objective We aim to assess a comprehensive overview of the use of SCAs and address problematic issues, if any. The primary outcomes of this study are empirically informed multi-perspective recommendations for different stakeholders on the ethical, legal, and social implications of SCAs. Methods Quantitative and qualitative methods will be used in several overlapping and interconnected study phases. In study phase 1, a comprehensive literature review will be conducted to assess the ethical, legal, social, and systemic impacts of SCAs. Study phase 2 comprises a survey that will be analyzed with a logistic regression. It aims to assess the user degree of SCAs in Germany as well as the predictors for SCA usage. Study phase 3 will investigate self-observational diaries and user interviews, which will be analyzed as integrated cases to assess user perspectives, usage pattern, and arising problems. Study phase 4 will comprise GP interviews to assess their experiences, perspectives, self-image, and concepts and will be analyzed with the basic procedure by Kruse. Moreover, interviews with health care experts will be conducted in study phase 3 and will be analyzed by using the reflexive thematical analysis approach of Braun and Clark. Results Study phase 1 will be completed in November 2021. We expect the results of study phase 2 in December 2021 and February 2022. In study phase 3, interviews are currently being conducted. The final study endpoint will be in February 2023. Conclusions The possible ethical, legal, social, and systemic impacts of a widespread use of SCAs that affect stakeholders and stakeholder groups on different levels of health care will be identified. The proposed methodological approach provides a multifaceted and diverse empirical basis for a broad discussion on these implications. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00022465; https://tinyurl.com/yx53er67 International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) DERR1-10.2196/34026
Falling birth rates and rising life expectancy are leading to global aging. The proportional increase in older people can be observed in almost all countries and regions worldwide. As a result, more people spend their later years in nursing homes. In homes where person-centered care is implemented , residents report greater satisfaction and quality of life. This approach is based on the wishes and needs of the residents. Therefore, the purpose of this scoping review is to explore the wishes and needs of nursing home residents. A scoping review of the literature was conducted in which 12 databases were systematically searched for relevant articles according to PRISMA-ScR guidelines. Both quantitative and qualitative study designs were considered. A total of 51 articles met the inclusion criteria. Included articles were subjected to thematic analysis and synthesis to categorize findings into themes. The analysis identified 12 themes to which the wishes and needs were assigned: (1) Activities, leisure, and daily routine; (2) Autonomy, independence, choice, and control; (3) Death, dying, and end-of-life; (4) Economics; (5) Environment, structural conditions, meals, and food; (6) Health condition; (7) Medication, care, treatment, and hygiene; (8) Peer relationship , company, and social contact; (9) Privacy; (10) Psychological and emotional aspects, security , and safety; (11) Religion, spirituality; and (12) Sexuality. Nursing home residents are not a homogeneous group. Accordingly, a wide range of needs and wishes are reported in the literature, assigned to various topics. This underscores the need for tailored and person-centered approaches to ensure long-term well-being and quality of life in the nursing home care setting.
High throughput sequencing technology leads to a significant increase in the number of generated protein sequences and the anchor database UniProt doubles approximately every two years. This large set of annotated data is used by many bioinformatics algorithms. Searching within these databases, typically without using any annotations, is challenging due to the variable lengths of the entries and the used non-standard comparison measures. A promising strategy to address these issues is to find fixed-length, information-preserving representations of the variable length protein sequences. A systematic algorithmic evaluation of the proposals is however surprisingly missing. In this work, we analyze how different algorithms perform in generating general protein sequence representations and provide a thorough evaluation framework PROVAL. The strategies range from a proximity representation using classical Smith-Waterman algorithm to state-of-the-art embedding techniques by means of transformer networks. The methods are evaluated by, e.g., the molecular function classification, embedding space visualization, computational complexity and the carbon footprint.
This quantitative study focuses on the political engagement of social work students by comparing the extent of voluntary political participation and the factors that influence this type of engagement among Austrian (n = 197), German (n = 2998), and Swiss students (n = 453). Findings indicate that Swiss students are most engaged in political activities, followed by Austrian and German participants. Consistent with the findings of previous scholarship, the results of this study show that social work students prefer to participate in passive activities rather than in active forms of political participation. The study identifies internal political efficacy, political ideology, political interest, membership , and the country of residence as main factors influencing voluntary political participation among social work students. Along with similarities among the countries, this article also identifies and discusses differences between the three countries. Finally, ideas for future research directions are discussed based on the findings of this study.
Recently, we have proposed a new diffusive representation for fractional derivatives and, based on this representation, suggested an algorithm for their numerical computation. From the construction of the algorithm, it is immediately evident that the method is fast and memory-efficient. Moreover, the method’s design is such that good convergence properties may be expected. In this paper, we commence a systematic investigation of these convergence properties.
I study yearly changes in personal well-being combining data on current, retrospective and prospective life satisfaction from the German Socio-Economic Panel. Predicted and remembered changes in life satisfaction are both positive on average and match well, whereas the average year to year-change inferred from reports of current life satisfaction is negative. Retrospective assessments of past well-being are strongly influenced by current life satisfaction, significantly related to past life satisfaction and linked to past predictions of current satisfaction. Due to different problems related to the ordinal measurement scale, changes in subjective reference systems and recall ability, the analysis overall suggests that direct reports of intertemporal changes provide valuable additional information for the analysis of individual well-being.
Definition of the problemThe reform of German guardianship law coming into force in 2023 will remove the term “well-being” from the law. This is intended to emphasise that the legal guardian should be guided by the subjective wishes of the person rather than by an objective understanding of well-being. This article analyses the understanding of well-being underlying the reformed guardianship law in comparison to common conceptions of well-being in philosophy and medical ethics, aiming to promote interdisciplinary understanding between ethics and law.ArgumentsThe justification for the reform emphasises that the law is based on a subjective understanding of well-being. However, this understanding does not correspond to philosophical subjective theories of well-being, according to which only things that a person desires can contribute to her well-being. In contrast, the guardianship law assumes that the fulfilment of certain wishes can lead to objective harm to the person and thus impair her well-being. Negative consequences for the objective well-being of a person are only relevant insofar as they indicate a limit to following current wishes that are based on a natural will and are not an expression of self-determination.Conclusion While the term “well-being” is removed from reformed guardianship law, the law implicitly contains an understanding of well-being comparable to a hybrid conception of well-being from a medical ethics perspective. According to this conception, fulfilment of a person’s wishes generally contributes to her well-being, although certain objective criteria are also taken into consideration.
Zusammenfassung In diesem Beitrag wird die Anwendung von Gradient-Tracking-Verfahren in Multi-Cluster-Spielen untersucht. Neben einer Aufarbeitung relevanter Literatur umfasst die Arbeit einen theoretischen und simulativen Vergleich zwischen zwei bestehenden Gradient-Tracking-basierten Algorithmen. Hierbei wird insbesondere auf die Unterschiede der Kommunikationsarchitekturen eingegangen. In den durchgeführten Simulationen werden die Konvergenzzeiten der Algorithmen in Anwendung auf ein Nash-Cournot-Spiel miteinander verglichen. Es wird deutlich, dass sich eine weniger eingeschränkte Kommunikationsarchitektur zwischen den Clustern positiv auf die Konvergenzzeit auswirkt.
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