Hindustan University
  • Chennai, India
Recent publications
The review was carried out to create awareness among individuals, government and non-governmental organizations on the roles of complementary foods for growth and development of infants in developing countries. Literature on complementary foods was critically assessed. Breast milk and complementary foods have been responsible for optimal growth and development of a young child. The period during which other foods or liquids containing nutrients are given to a young baby, along with breast milk, is considered to be complementary feeding. Information has been reported that breast milk becomes insufficient to meet the required nutrients for growth and development after six months. Therefore, the introduction of complementary foods is strongly required for sustainable growth. Unlike in developing countries, the use of complementary foods in the developed countries is well controlled, because of improved technologies, moderate to high incomes and government supports where needed. Conclusively, there is a need to sensitize nursing mothers on the importance of complementary foods for the growth and development of their children. Besides, there is also a need for government interventions to reduce the costs of such foods and to increase their accessibility, especially in the rural areas.
Magnesium doped nickel ferrite spinel nanostructured were prepared using a microwave combustion method. The structural characterization by XRD analyses confirmed that undoped NiFe2O4 showed a single phase cubic spinel structure. However, with increasing Mg²⁺ concentration in the range 0.1 to 0.5 induced the crystallization of secondary α-Fe2O3 phase. The cubic nanostructured exhibited an average crystallite size between 20–35 nm. The presence of tensile/compressive strain in Mg²⁺ doped NiFe2O4 was determined from Williamson–Hall (W–H) method. The appearance of FT-IR bands at around 435, 459, and 581 cm⁻¹, characteristics of spinel cubic and rhombohedral stretching modes. The optical band gap as determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) decreases with increasing Mg²⁺ content due to the quantum confinement effect. Surface morphology showed nanosized crystalline grains agglomerated with spherical shapes and energy dispersive X-ray analyses was used to examine the elemental composition of the Mg²⁺ doped NiFe2O4 spinel nanoparticles and confirmed the presence of nickel, magnesium, iron and oxygen elements. Magnetization–Field (M−H) hysteresis curves revealed the appearance of ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The as-fabricated Mg²⁺ doped NiFe2O4 spinel nanostructures were evaluated for the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B under visible light irradiation for atmospheric conditions. When a small amount of H2O2 was added during photocatalysis, indicating the samples possessed photo-Fenton like catalytic activity. This type of spinel nanoparticles behaves as an efficient catalyst with high efficiency around above 99%.
Finite mixture models are broadly used in model-based clustering approaches for heterogeneous data. Model-based clustering techniques attempt to optimize the fit between the given data and some mathematical model. This paper compares finite mixtures of non-normal distributions such as lognormal, geometric skew normal, skew Laplace, skew-t, and skew normal for model-based clustering approaches. The model selection criteria and parameter estimation for the finite mixture of the non-normal distribution are also discussed. The comparative study was carried out based on the new initialization technique for obtaining the initial component parameters in the EM algorithm. This comparative study is illustrated using real datasets.
The material properties degradation of the internal scarf repaired samples under the low velocity impact was investigated through FE-simulation results. In the FE model, Hashin failure criteria was used in order to recognize the damage and material properties degradation. In this research work the range of scarf repair was tested under out-plane load for each scarf angle FE model was created and impact energy was employed to it. The FE result revealed that the contact force, impact time and absorbed energy increase with rising of scarf angle.
Functional foods contain health-promoting ingredients, which make them beneficial to humans and potentially help in disease prevention or treatment. The demand for functional foods is growing not just in the developed regions, but also in the developing regions of the world such as in Africa due to heightened consumer awareness on the role of foods in human health. African functional foods are foods of African origin that possess various characteristics like prebiotic, probiotic, satiety, immune modulation, stress-reduction, improved memory, and cardiovascular benefits. Traditionally fermented functional foods prepared from cereals like maize, millet, or sorghum abound in many African countries. Traditional fermentation, often spontaneous, utilizes a mixed culture of microorganisms mostly belonging to the lactic acid bacteria and yeast groups. The present review corroborated these pieces of information into the famous African functional foods and beverages, their sources, and quality attributes. Furthermore, functional foods were explained in very clear terms while evaluating the relationship between functional foods and African consumer's health benefits. The study peaked at future work and further considerations on the potential of common functional foods from Africa, which are cheap and readily available to the people. ARTICLE HISTORY
The driving concept of students’ sports training involves a unique activity that is often tightly correlated to students’ efficiency and varies with the momentum of sports training. Supervised learning is one of the smart methods with positive results in the fields of classification techniques. Due to the excessive currency unit associated with sports, sports forecasting is a growing area that must be well predicted. Therefore, in this paper, sports training based on the supervised learning (STSLM) model has been proposed to evaluate and predict student sports efficiency. STSLM models are based on various variables, such as traditional student ratings, performance, and efficiency. The emphasis is on the efficiency of students predicting sports outcomes. STSLM defines evaluation methods, information sources, effective models for testing students’ sports training, and unique challenges to forecast sports outcomes. The experimental results have been performed. The suggested STSLM model enhances the efficiency ratio of 96.3%, injury prevention level of 98.2%, fitness level of 95.5%, evaluation ratio of 98.8%, and training optimization ratio of 97.2% compared to other existing approaches.
Mycotoxins are among the major food contaminants, especially in Africa and in many developing countries. Contamination by mycotoxins has greater consequences in terms of both human and animal health as well as economics of these countries. This phenomenon may impact negatively Africa’s food availability and food security scenarios. This review evaluated mycotoxins in foods, safety of foods, consumer health and Africa’s food security. This review also gave comprehensive information on socio-economic implications of mycotoxins of foods and the effects on food security in Africa. In Africa, information concerning food contamination by mycotoxins is very scanty and the problem of storing agricultural produce under poor storage conditions that may predispose food to fungal infestation and subsequent mycotoxin contamination are common in African countries. Consumption of mouldy produce or food contaminated with mycotoxins and the dangers of mycotoxicoses as well as the impact on public health necessitated a comprehensive approach to reduce the impact on public health and consumer safety. The challenges of food shortages, wars and conflicts, poor governance and planning in African countries have increased the problems of mycotoxins in Africa. In order to improve food safety, consumer health and availability of needed food by the teeming African population, education and enlightenment of Africans on the economic and health implications of mycotoxins are very crucial. The major techniques for control and mitigation of mycotoxins need to be explained to consumers. A robust regulatory control and effective analyses and detection of mycotoxins as well as good produce handling and storage are important to stem the tides of effects of mycotoxins in foods in Africa countries to improve consumer health and food security.
This review examines the nexus of poverty, malnutrition and diseases in Africa, the challenges, implications and their mitigation. The paper takes a critical look at available literatures on the primary causes, modes, implications and solutions to the problems of poverty, malnutrition and diseases in Africa continent. Poverty and malnutrition are outcomes of uncontrolled rapid population growth, inefficient agricultural and industrial practices, high debt profile of many African countries due to poor governance and corruption, diseases such as AIDS epidemic, malaria, Ebola virus and COVID-19 pandemic, poor and inadequate health infrastructure and armed conflicts. African poverty scenario entails non-availability of basic human needs which makes many Africans to be very poor. Despite abundance of natural resources, the gross domestic product per capita of many African countries is among the lowest of list of nations of the world. According United Nation in 2009, 22 of 24 nations among the “Low Human Development” nations of the world on the UN’s Human Development Index were found in sub-Saharan Africa. Out of the 50 countries on the United Nation list of least developed countries, 34 of them were in Africa. According to FAO data over 200 million people in sub-Saharan Africa were undernourished in 2014-2016. The prevalence of undernourishment in sub-Saharan Africa rose from 181 million in 2010 to 222 million in 2016. In 2016, Africa had the highest prevalence of undernourishment in the world and estimated to be 20% of the population. While this was alarming in Eastern Africa where one-third of the population is suspected to be undernourished. In a similar data, World Bank also found that sub-Saharan Africa Poverty and Equity Data was 47% with over 500 million people in abject poverty in 2012. Poverty is the major cause of hunger and malnutrition in Africa while hunger and malnutrition escalated the problem of diseases in African continent. Poverty has continued to torment Africa as a result of poor and harmful economic policies, conflict and war, environmental factors like drought and climate change and population growth, poor leadership and greed. With the advent of COVID-19, the problem of poverty, malnutrition and diseases has been escalated and in many African countries people find it difficult to make ends meet.
This study evaluates the quality of blends of fermented cassava flour (Lafun) and pigeon pea flour and stiff Amala-lafun produced from the blends. The blends were produced using five different proportions of fermented cassava flour and pigeon pea flour in ratio 90:10 (CPF), 80:20 (CPP), 70:30 (PCF), 60:40 (FCP), 50:50 (PCA), with cassava flour (CFM) and pigeon pea flour (PFD) as the control samples. Their proximate, functional, pasting and sensory parameters were determined. The results obtained showed that significant differences (p<0.05) existed in the values of proximate, functional, pasting and sensory parameters. The protein content ranged from 2.06% for (CFM) to 7.45% (PFD), ash content 2.97% (CFM) to 0.82% (PFD), fibre content 3.30% (CFM) to 5.53% for (PFD), moisture content from 3.30% for (PCA ) to 5.53% for (PFD) but the carbohydrate content varied from 79.53% for (PFD) to 90 for (CFM). Water absorption capacity of the blends decreased with increase in pigeon pea inclusion. The bulk density 0.51% for (CFM) to 0.65% for (PCA) and swelling power 11.51% for (CFM) to 13.13% for (PCA) varied significantly (p<0.05) among the samples. An increased in pigeon pea flour inclusion in the fermented cassava flour affected the sensory scores significantly.
This paper presents a bibliometric review of several techniques applied to the EMG signals. We reviewed research papers, which were specifically applied for the EMG signals. The EMG signal contains a huge amount of data, thus the EMG signal research grabs the significance of advanced techniques and analysis of data, which are capable of handling ‘Big Data’. Several noise reduction techniques were discussed and it was found that the wavelet-based noise reduction is a promising technique for EMG classification. More prominent feature extraction and classification techniques and their performance were also reviewed. The modern EMG signal analysis mainly emphasizes feature learning, which is specifically ‘deep learning’, which combines feature extraction and classification, also to improve classification accuracy. A performance analysis of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) was done in the later sections.
Fossil fuel depletion and pollution are calling for alternative, renewable energies such as biofuels. Actual challenges include the design of efficient processes and catalysts to convert various feedstocks into biofuels. Here, we review nanoferrites heterogeneous catalysts to produce biodiesel from soybean and canola oil. For that, transesterification is the main synthesis route and offers simplicity, cost-effectiveness, better process control, and high conversion yield. Catalysis with nanoferrites and composites allow to obtain yields higher than 95% conversion with less than 5.0 wt.% of catalyst loading at 80 °C in 1–2 h. More than 90% conversion yields can be achieved with a moderate alcohol/oil molar ratio, i.e., between 12:1 to 16:1. Catalyst recovery is easy due to the magnetic properties of nanoferrite, which can be effectively reused up to 4 times with less than 10% loss of catalytic efficiency.
Water is a very essential thing for all forms of life’s in our Ecosystem. Society has the various forms of water demands such as the Domestic needs, Commercial needs, Institutional and industrial water needs, Water for public use and the Fire demand. But due to increase in population and urbanisation the utmost water resource is now under serious threat due to exploitation of water resource and the unsustainable usage of water. The immediate need of the existing situation is sustainable usage of water at all parts of the world. Water resource is an important criteria for Irrigation activities. Tropical countries like India is totally rely on Irrigation to overcome their food demand for their existing population. It is been calculated that the 50 percent of water demand will gets increase towards irrigation in India by the year 2025. This demand can be only achieved by increasing the effectiveness of irrigation. Tank irrigation is much popular in the southern state of India like Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu the second largest place in India for the implementation of Tank Irrigation. Nearly 589 thousand hectares of agricultural land in Tamil Nadu covers under the tank irrigation system. This system covers 23 percentage of overall tank irrigation system in India. There are 39,202 tanks, in-charge of Public Works Department (PWD includig Ex-Zamin tanks) and Panchayat Unions, in Tamil Nadu. The research was conducted at Deevanur tank, which is situated in Deevanur village in at Tindivanam Taluk of Vilupuram District in Tamil Nadu, India, This study emphases on the impact generated on Deevanur tank due to the laying of Buried PVC pipe line in sluice command area. The outcome of the study shows that the crop cultivated area 56% and cultivation of paddy crop in second season is well flourished.
A solar pond (SP) is a remarkable growth of renewable energy technology that has stored solar energy for storage purposes and is used in many solar thermal applications. It is also utilized for many purposes, such as heating, cooling, space heating, air conditioning, and many more. The present paper shows the use of an SP to improve the yield of solar still (SS) by providing hot water through the heat energy stored in it. It also reveals the use of shallow and mini SPs with SS to improve yield. Various future research works on SS using SPs have also been included in this paper. From the current review paper, it was concluded that the SP increases the yield of the SS.
This paper explores the novel approach towards bio-reduction using Couroupita guianensis flower extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent in the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. The experiments were conducted at a constant temperature of [Formula: see text]C. The surface plasmon resonance band of silver and gold nanoparticles occurred at 420[Formula: see text]nm and 540[Formula: see text]nm, respectively. The investigation proved that the formation of silver nanoparticle started within 7[Formula: see text]min and it was completed at end of 6[Formula: see text]h, while in the case of gold nanoparticles the reaction completed in 5.30[Formula: see text]h. The characterization of the formed nanoparticles was performed using transmission electron microscope, zeta potential and x-ray diffraction studies. The size of the silver and gold nanoparticles ranged between 10[Formula: see text]nm and 18[Formula: see text]nm and 5[Formula: see text]nm and 28[Formula: see text]nm, respectively. The effectiveness of cotton fabric impregnated with silver and gold nanoparticles was tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.
In this paper, the influence of multi-impact on the scarf repaired composite laminate was explored. FE (Finite element) model of repaired and original composite laminates under multi-impact was observed employing Hashin failure damage criteria. The impact performance of the repaired laminates were compared with the original laminates visa -vis impact response such as the contact force, the impact time duration, absorbed energy and the impact damage region. Each impact response of repaired and original laminates was compared to each other. It was observed that with each progressive impact, there was a decrease in the strength of composites in both cases. The computational result also demonstrates that the top face experienced more damage compared to the bottom face, the reasons to which can be attributed to tensile and compression effect. FE analysis also establishes a correlation between absorbed energy and damage induced in the laminates after the impact.
Technological advancements are triggering disruptive inventions in the teaching and learning process. The introduction of massive online courses offers students many opportunities to enroll in any course they choose, transcending geographical barriers. However, online learning puts responsibility for learning on the learners and lack faculty-student and peer-peer direct interactions. The instructor's role also must be redefined to provide support and collaboration in the online environment. Recent research reports poor student retention and completion rates in such courses and there is a lack of effective frameworks and gap in research related to identifying key factors and finding solutions to these problems. A multi-faculty e-learning framework is proposed based on a theoretical model highlighting important factors to address these problems. Experimental results of an ANOVA analysis done on student performance data collected in a multi-faculty setup provided empirical evidence for its effectiveness in improving the student learning outcomes.
An extensive experimental investigation has been performed to understand the seismic behaviour of the beam-column joint when sustainable materials are used. The structural joint between the encased concrete-filled steel tubular (ECFST) column and reinforced concrete (RC) beam is the scope of the study and the sustainable concrete used in the experiments are made with the addition of fly-ash and steel fibres. In the typical connection studied in this investigation between the ECFST column and RC beam, a problem of continuity of the longitudinal reinforcement of the beam at the joints to the other side is encountered. This interruption is overcome by the provision of pre-fabricated steel loops in the joint. This study discusses about the seismic characteristics of the joints such as hysteresis behaviour, lateral load capacity, ductility, energy dissipation capacity, rigidity degradation and brittleness index when the steel loop is provided at the joint and the fly-ash and steel fibre are used in the concrete. Also, impact of the various numbers of rings in the steel loop assembly and the addition of fly-ash and steel fibre were studied to obtain the optimum combination to satisfy the seismic performance. The results indicate that the steel loops at the joints substantially increased the seismic performance of the ECFST column and RC beam joint which was also supported by the higher ductility and energy dissipation capacity due to the fly-ash and the steel fibre present in the concrete. Also the replacement of cement by fly-ash up to 10% in the concrete does not reduce the lateral load capacity and other seismic criteria which lead to lesser carbon di-oxide emission to the environment and utilization of industrial waste with no compromise in the performance.
The morphology, phase structure, saturation magnetization and coercive force of untreated, cryogenically treated and cryogenically treated and tempered cobalt samples has been investigated for studying the changes in microstructure, and magnetic properties. The result illustrates a noteworthy variation in the phase structure of cobalt after the cryogenic treatment. The saturation magnetization was unaffected, whereas an improvement in the coercive force has been detected. The XRD peak intensity of cryogenic cryogenically treated cobalt specimen reveals the cobalt phase transformation exhibiting a higher ε-Co (hexagonal structure), which shoots up the coercive force. Additional tempering after cryogenic treatment has an insignificant effect on the analyzed properties.
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Kuppan Chetty Ramanathan
  • School of Mechanical Sciences
Sivankalai Sivankalai
  • School of Library Sciences
Preethi Vijayarengan
  • School of Building Sciences
Anitha S. Pillai
  • School of Computing Sciences
Chennai, India
Head of institution
Mr.Ashok V