This paper presents a review of the unusual occurrences of various marine species found upstream in the Neretva River and its wider delta zone in the last two decades. The occurrences of at least eight different marine species were reported by local fishermen, representing very rare records of these species in the upstream areas of rivers. Although some of these species generally inhabit both saltwater and brackish waters, their occurrences high upstream are probably the consequence of changes in hydrological conditions in Neretva River. Namely, more intense saltwater intrusion into the river observed in the last two decades provides suitable conditions for mass penetration of euryhaline organisms high into the Neretva River. In this biodiversity rich area which hosts a significant number of endemic species, such phenomena can threaten the local freshwater communities.
Today's class organisation and types of work have not changed much through history. The changes that have occured penetrate slowly into educational systems. New solutions and educational organisation should be carefully planned in order to improve the effectivness of education. This research aimed to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of different practices, to evaluate the effects of group work and compare it to other types of work. Group work, emanating from developmental and social psychological traditions, confirms the importance of interaction in classrooms. The main aim of this research was to study its effects on pupils' achievement, attitudes to schooling and social climate within classrooms, to find out whether group work led to learning and motivational increase and to give further recommendation.
We believe that the preschool period is key to encouraging the development of all existing potentials in children, and proper detection and multiple stimulation can develop more intensively and express the child’s talent best in the preschool development period. The crucial role in this is played by the family, but also by the educational institutions in which children spend a large part of their time. Therefore, the role of the pedagogue as a professional associate in the educational institution for the proper detection of gifted children, and the design, guidance and interpretation of ways and effects of working with them is very important.The topic of this professional paper is the recognition of giftedness in kindergarten, a look at pedagogical practice and ways of working with potentially gifted children in some preschool institutions in the Sarajevo Canton. The paper briefly presents the theoretical framework, necessary for understanding the topic and the concept of giftedness, as well as other related concepts and definitions. In order to determine how to identify gifted children in one of the kindergartens in the Sarajevo Canton, a potentially gifted four-year-old V.Z. was identified and monitored. from Sarajevo through a case study.
Records of European catfish Silurus glanis in the Neretva River delta (Adriatic Sea basin) in Croatia are reported. The first occurrence of this non-native species was reported via social network which led to its timely detection by researchers. Origin of introduction is unknown but it is most likely the case of human-mediated introduction. The importance of social networks as a useful tool for the timely detection of non-native fish species, as well as the importance of raising awareness about the impacts of biological invasions, is discussed in this paper.
Generation Z falls into the internet generation because it is the first generation born after the popularisation of the internet. Even though scientists don’t agree on when this generation starts and when it ends, after all, it is believed that the generation Z is made of people that are born in the nineties until today. Their parents belong to the millennial generation that is born in the eighties. Generation Z is the first generation that was raised as a part of the trend of being in the publics' eye, always posting about their lives on social networks. This potentially makes them an egocentric generation and a generation that does not have enough empathy. Although empathy is one of the key characteristics for happiness, generation Z finds happiness in their personal appearance and they care a lot about the opinions of others, that is, they care about the number of likes and the number of followers on social networks. Even though empathy is a key trait of happiness, generation Z finds happiness in physical appearance, and in others' opinion, that is they care about how many likes and how many followers on social networks they have. The purpose of this paper is to examine emotional empathy with the generation that is born in the late nineties, until generations 2006-2007, on a sample of 200 primary and high school students with an assumption that later generations are more empathic and that there is a difference between male and female subjects, that is that females are more empathic. Also, the paper provides case reports that represent the clinical population and not the average representatives of this generation and whose psychological problems may be associated with excessive use of the Internet and social networks. The results of the research indicate that the feeling of insecurity and lack of empathy in this generation is a risk factor for the development of low self-esteem and self-confidence, and ultimately more severe mental disorders, which can be reduced and prevented by a different approach to this generation.
The goal of the present study was to examine the predictors of reading speed and reading comprehension in third-grade students from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH). The sample consisted of 168 third-grade students (86 boys, 82 girls) attending regular schools in Canton Sarajevo, BIH. We examined the effects of phonological awareness (phoneme deletion and rhyming), rapid automatized naming (RAN) of letters and objects, semantic fluency, working memory, and processing speed, on three reading speed tasks and a reading comprehension task. For the reading speed tasks, total amount of explained variance was 33% for reading a text passage, 40% for word reading and 36% for pseudoword reading. The most important predictors of reading speed tasks were phoneme deletion task and RAN: Letters. On the other hand, the model explaining reading comprehension was much less predictive and explained about 11% of variance. Significant predictors of reading comprehension were working memory and processing speed. The results of this study are very informative in creating better models of reading. This in turn will help create better reading intervention programs and potentially reduce the number of children with reading disabilities.
This observational clinical study was composed of two substudies: a non-comparative one (n = 166), testing only lysozyme-based compounds (LBCs), and a comparative substudy (n = 275), testing both LBCs and bicarbonate-based local compounds (BBCs) on the healing of oral mucositis during radio- or chemotherapy. The density of ulcerations has decreased significantly after the treatment with lysozyme in both substudies. The density of ulcerations in the radiotherapy group was lower in patients treated with LBCs compared to patients treated with BBCs (p < 0.001). In the chemotherapy group, reduction of ulceration density was similar with both LBCs and BBCs. The LBCs reduced pain intensity during the intake of solid food and speech more than BBCs in both patient cohorts (p < 0.05). In the radiotherapy cohort, pain intensity when consuming liquid foods was reduced more with LBCs than with BBCs (p < 0.05). No adverse events were recorded. This study demonstrates the advantages of treating oral mucositis during radiotherapy or chemo-therapy with LBCs.
Learning to read is one of the most important academic accomplishments in the early grades of elementary school. Knowing what factors contribute to reading ability would improve instructional practices. The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of semantic fluency, phonological fluency, rapid naming, inhibitory control, selective attention, and visual motor integration on reading fluency in 140 second and third grade students. The results of this study indicated that significant predictors of reading fluency were: selective attention, semantic fluency, inhibitory control, and rapid naming. However, the association between predictor variables and reading fluency was moderated by the students' grade. The article concludes with some suggestions on how to improve reading fluency in elementary school children, given that all predictors are susceptible to instruction.
Background Verbal fluency (VF) is a good indicator of a child’s academic prowess and later academic success. The goal of the present study was to examine the association between VF and inhibitory control. An additional goal was to examine the developmental trajectories of VF in relation to the grade and gender of the children. Material/Methods. The sample for this study consisted of 210 children attending grades 1 to 3. Children’s performance was measured on two VF tasks: semantic fluency and phonological fluency. As a measure of inhibitory control we used a number of commission errors committed on the Multiple Choice Reaction Test. Results The results of this study indicate the lack of association between VF and inhibitory control. Children improved significantly in VF from grade 1 to grade 3. In relation to gender, girls outperformed boys on the test of phonological fluency but not on the test of semantic fluency. Conclusion Given the importance of VF, these skills need to be tackled during the elementary school period and even earlier in preschool.
Early math skills are a good predictor of later academic success. Finding what factors influence math performance might help educators create better and more efficient math programs. The goal of the present study was to assess the relationship of math achievement and verbal fluency, selective attention, visual-motor integration and inhibitory control. An additional goal was to assess the effect of gender and grade on math achievement. The sample for this study comprised 210 children from grades 1 to 3 (107 boys, 103 girls). Children were individually ad-mi nistered a math test and tests of various predictor measures. The significant predictors of math achievement were verbal fluency, selective attention, visual-motor integration, and in-hibitory control. The proposed model explained around 70% of the variance in the math scores. There were no gender differences in the math scores. Given the fact that all the predictors used in this study are very susceptible to inclusion in instruction, their incorporation in an early age curriculum might significantly improve math skills at a later age. Background:
Acquisition of the theory of mind (TOM) is a very important milestone in the development of preschool children. TOM is especially important for the development of children's social skills. The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of age, gender and executive functions (EF) on the acquisition of TOM. The sample in this study consisted of 116 preschool children aged 36-72 months (mean age 58.8 months, SD=9.5 months). In relation to the child's gender, there were 56 girls (48.3%) and 60 boys (51.7%). The Sally Anne test-a task purporting to measure TOM, was used as a dependant variable and age, gender, and EF measures were used as the predictors. Logistic regression was used as a method to determine the effects of predictors on TOM. The results of this study indicated that success on the TOM test can best be predicted by the inhibitory control, followed by verbal fluency and child's age. The gender of the child was not associated with TOM acquisition. The overall model explained between 27% and 38% of the variance in the TOM scores. Inhibitory control is the executive function that had the greatest predictive power for the results on the theory of the mind task. The findings of this study can help early interventionists in the modification of existing preschool curricula, so that they include more activities that would foster the development of the theory of mind in preschool children. Future studies should aim to find a better model of theory of mind predictors by examining the effects of other executive function constructs , such as working memory.
Semantic fluency (SF) is a suitable indicator of preschool verbal abilities and can be used as a predic-tor of later school success. This research examined the effects of executive functions (EF) and theory of mind (TOM) on semantic fluency in preschool children. Dimensional Card Sorting test was used as an instrument of executive functions and the Sally-Anne test was used as a measure of theory of mind. The sample for this research comprised 116 preschool children, 60 boys, 56 girls, aged 38-72 months. The results of this research revealed a statistically significant effect of EF on SF (p=.03). The effect of TOM on SF was statistically non-significant, although approaching statistical significance (p=.06). There were no interaction effects of EF and TOM on SF. Findings of this research strongly suggest the need for EF training activities in preschool children. Preschool institutions of 21st century need to have curricula aimed at fostering EF skills.
We present the results of the long-term optical monitoring campaign of active galactic nuclei (AGN) coordinated by the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science. This campaign has produced a remarkable set of optical spectra, since we have monitored for several decades different types of broad-line (type 1) AGN, from a Seyfert 1, double-peaked line, radio loud and radio quiet AGN, to a supermassive binary black hole candidate. Our analysis of the properties of the broad line region (BLR) of these objects is based on the variability of the broad emission lines. We hereby give a comparative review of the variability properties of the broad emission lines and the BLR of seven different type 1 AGNs, emphasizing some important results, such as the variability rate, the BLR geometry, and the presence of the intrinsic Baldwin effect. We are discussing the difference and similarity in the continuum and emission line variability, focusing on what is the impact of our results to the supermassive black hole mass determination from the BLR properties.
Based on the belief that professional competences can partially be developed through professional training a cycle of ten educational workshops was designed. Combining theoretical knowledge, quality practice examples and discussions, the workshops strived to improve professional teacher competences. The assumed outcome was determined by difference between initial and summative participants’ self-evaluation results. Reliability of the “Teacher self-evaluation questionnaire” was determined through application of Cronbach`s Alpha coefficient and is high regarding all scales (0.919 ≤ λ ≤ 0.950). The sample is adequate and includes participants from both workshops cycles – global, held in United Kingdom and local, held in Croatia. The results of the empirical non-experimental research indicate that upon completion, in the second subsample, in which the workshops lasted for ten weeks, there was a statistically significant (p0.01) difference regarding teachers’ self-evaluation of knowledge (t=−3.566) and skills (t=−3.316) for cooperation with parents compared to initial results. Neither sample exhibits a statistically significant difference regarding self-evaluation of attitudes. Teachers estimate that they have developed knowledge and skills necessary for cooperation with parents by the systematic training in a specific period of time which allows for verification and practice of learned skills.
The quality of educational processes with children of preschool age and long-term educational outcomes are largely related to the work quality of teachers. Lifelong learning and professional development, as predictors of quality, need to be regarded as an ongoing task for kindergarten teachers. Findings of an empirical study of Croatian kindergarten teachers’ views (N = 388) on professional development point to a link between teachers’ intrinsic motivation and their professional development. Motivation explains 46.87% of the variance Personal commitment to professional development. A slight positive correlation was found between the level of formal education and the frequency of professional development (r = .216, p < .01). Although the level of education of kindergarten teachers is not a good independent predictor, it affects readiness to self-fund professional development (p < .01). As for the significance of conferences as a form of professional development, participants of the study identified them as an effective opportunity (M = 4.68, SD = .52), promoting both quality practices (M = 4.69, SD = .54) and exchange of experiences (M = 4.68, SD = .56). The length of participants’ professional work experience affects their assessment of the significance of practitioners’ networking as a way of improving the quality of everyday practices (F = 1.43, p < .05).
Quality of life (QOL) is one of the most researched topics in the field of disability in the last 30 years. However, there are few studies that examined the QOL in relation to the type of disability and self-reported health status. The goal of the present study was to examine the QOL in people with disabilities in relation to the type of disability and self-reported health status. The sample for this study consisted of 286 people with disabilities who were interviewed using the Personal Outcomes Scale as a measure of QOL. The results of this study revealed statistically significant differences in the self-reported QOL between people with different types of disabilities. The results also revealed a moderating effect that self-reported health status had on QOL across disability categories. There were no interaction effects of self-reported health status and disability category on the QOL. Generally, people with intellectual disability reported lower QOL than people in other disability categories. Self-reported health status had a significant impact on the QOL across the disability groups. Non-governmental organizations can, through their policies and practices, enhance the person-referenced QOL outcomes.
Background/Aim. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is currently the gold standard for glucose monitoring in the patients with diabetes. The aim of the present study was to examine the level of success in implementing international guideline targets with regard to glycaemic control in the patients with type 2 diabetes in the Republic of Srpska. This study also aimed to determine the association of albuminuria with the glycaemic control and lipid levels in this patient population. Methods. The participating diabetic patients were those registered in the project titled ’’Estimation of the quality of glycoregulation and presence of vascular complications in the persons with diabetes in the Republic of Srpska.” The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study including 1037 patients. HbA1c was determined by a turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay used Roche Diagnostics. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, and HDL-C were determined by reagents from Roche Diagnostics (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) as well as albumin and creatinine in the urine. Results. Mean value for HbA1c was 7.35 ± 1.61% (57 ± 18 mmol/moL). The 49.46% of all participants achieved target values of HbA1c (< 7% or 53 mmol/moL) and 40.30% had albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) < 30 mg/g. When the patients were divided according to HbA1c (with HbA1c < 7%, 519 patients, and HbA1c ≥ 7.0%, 510 patients) the ACR values were different between these groups (39.00 vs. 79.50, p < 0.001). We found no significant difference with respect to lipid status between the groups. Conclusion. The patients with type 2 diabetes in the Republic of Srpska, in a large percentage, did not meet targets for glycaemic control. Improvements are necessary in the treatment and maintenance of this disease process to ensure achievement of goals in management of diabetes, which in turn would decrease longstanding complications of type 2 diabetes.
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Kneza Mihajla Viševića Humskog bb, 88000, Mostar, HNZ, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Head of institution
Ivica Radovanović, PhD (Rector)
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