Flower plants are popular all over the world and important sources of ornamental plants, bioactive molecules and nutrients. Flowers have a wide range of biological activities and beneficial pharmacological effects. Flowers and their active ingredients are becoming more and more popular in the preparation of food, drugs and industrial products. This paper summarizes the active ingredients, pharmacological activities and applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries of flower plants in recent years. In addition, the possible molecular mechanism of pharmacological effects of flower plants were also discussed. 302 active constituents from 55 species of flower plants were summarized, including flavonoids (115), terpenoids (90), phenylpropanoids (20), alkaloids (13), organic acids (27) and others (37). The pharmacological effects of flower plants are very extensive, mainly including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-virus, and hypoglycemic. The mechanisms of anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and hypoglycemic activities present the characteristics of multi-way and multi-target. Because of its rich nutrients, bioactive ingredients and plant essential oils, and its wide sources, flower plants are widely used in food, beverage, cosmetics and drug research. Flower plants also play an important role in pharmaceutical industry, food industry and other fields.
Food allergy has become a significant public health problem affecting a large number of people worldwide. Maternal obesity causes inflammation and alters the immune system of offspring, which may exacerbate their food allergy. The aim of this study was to determine whether offspring mice born to obese mothers would have more serve reactions to cow’s milk protein-induced food allergy, and further investigate the underlying mechanisms. Female offspring BALB/c mice of mothers with normal and high-fat diets were sensitized with β-lactoglobulin (BLG), respectively. Maternal obesity increased the serum immunoglobulin E and mouse mast cell protease levels, though did not have significant influence on anaphylactic symptom score, core temperature and diarrhea rate of offspring mice after BLG sensitization. Furthermore, maternal obesity led to a lower level of occludin mRNA expression in BLG -sensitized mice. The mice born to obese mothers exhibited increased mRNA expression levels of GATA-3, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 in jejunum after BLG sensitization, indicating maternal obesity intensified Th2-type biased immune responses. In conclusion, maternal obesity exerted exacerbating effects on the responsiveness of their offspring to cow’s milk protein sensitization.
It is a challenge to enhance the catalytic activity of the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the poison-tolerance capacity in the practical application. Here, we report the construction of Pt/Ni-CeO2 catalyst via Ni doping, which exhibited the excellent toluene catalytic performance, as well as remarkably improved water-resistance and SO2-tolerance. The electron energy loss spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations demonstrated that the doped Ni species induced the generation of abundant oxygen vacancies from bulk to the surface, improving the redox property, activation of oxygen species, and adsorption capacity of toluene molecules. Moreover, the Pt-NiO interfacial structure was formed by the thermal-driven Ni species to the adjacent Pt species, which could modify the electronic and chemical properties of Pt, thus restraining the adsorption of water and SO2 molecules. This investigation provides new insights into the activation of oxygen species via oxygen vacancies, and anti-poison activity via surface modification engineering for catalyst development in practical applications.
This is the first report on a polysaccharide (RCJ2-Ib) isolated from Rosa Chinensis Flos. RCJ2-Ib was obtained through the extraction with water, precipitation with ethanol, separation with DEAE-52 column and purification with DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column and Sephadex G100 column. GC, FT-IR and NMR analyses revealed that RCJ2-Ib (3.3 kDa) was a 1,4-linked polymannuronic acid containing substantial β-D-anomers units. The anticoagulant effect of RCJ2-Ib evaluated by using rabbit ear venous blood and an acute blood stasis rat model showed that RCJ2-Ib had obvious anticoagulant activity in regulating endogenous and exogenous coagulation pathways and reducing serum thromboxane B2 and endothelin-1. In addition, RCJ2-Ib could also increase the number of Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli. As a result, RCJ2-Ib has the potential to inhibit thrombosis and maintain the intestinal environment.
The linear 2-arboricity of a graph G is the least number of forests which decomposes E(G) and each forest is a collection of paths of length at most two. A graph has property Pk, if each subgraph H satisfies one of the three conditions: (i) δ(H)≤1; (ii) there exists xy∈E(H) with degH(x)+degH(y)≤k; (iii) H contains a 2-alternating cycle. In this paper, we give two edge-decompositions of graphs with property Pk. Using these decompositions, we give an upper bound for the linear 2-arboricity in terms of Pk. We also prove that every plane graph with no 12+-vertex incident with a gem at the center has property P13, and graphs with maximum average degree less than 6k−6k+3 have property Pk, where k≥5 is an integer.
In this paper, we investigate the alliance strategy in an Online Retailing Supply Chain (ORSC). Three alliance models in addition to one no alliance model are built and examined. The no alliance model as a benchmark is developed to characterize the alliance motivation for each supply chain member. Afterwards, we identify the optimal alliance strategy and the final alliance equilibrium. The results show that the manufacturer always has motivations to form an alliance with each of other two members, while the retailer and the platform may form an alliance only when the agency rate is relatively low. Moreover, under certain conditions, all supply chain members could achieve a win-win-win result in the manufacturer-retailer and manufacturer-platform alliance models, but fall into a lose-lose-lose situation in the retailer-platform alliance model. Additionally, it is interesting that a higher agency rate makes the retailer more profitable when the platform and manufacturer enter into an alliance. Finally, we find that each of the three alliance models may be the final equilibrium, which is largely dependent on channel competition and the agency rate.
Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA), ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and the newly discovered complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox Nitrospira) are responsible for ammonia oxidation, which is the first and rate-limiting step of nitrification. A better understanding of the complex responses of AOA, AOB and comammox Nitrospira to inorganic and organic fertilization regimes is critical to get the whole picture of soil nitrification. Here, we investigated the abundances and community compositions of AOA, AOB and comammox Nitrospira in a fluvo-aquic soil under different fertilization strategies: nitrogen fertilizer reduction treatments (CK, PK, 50 % NPK and 75 % NPK), conventional fertilizer treatment (100 % NPK), N fertilizer reduction with organic manure substitution treatments (25 % OMNPK, 50 % OMNPK, 100 % OMPK and 200 % OMPK). The results indicated that 100 % NPK treatment significantly increased AOB abundance, while the abundances of AOA and comammox Nitrospira were enhanced significantly by 100 % and 200 % OMPK treatments. Principal coordinate analysis indicated different fertilization strategies had greater effect on the communities of AOB and comammox Nitrospira than those of AOA. Fertilizer application (other than CK) decreased the relative abundance of Nitrosospira cluster 3b of AOB while increased the relative abundance of Nitrosospira cluster 3a.2. Fertilizer, especially high manure application increased the relative abundance of comammox Nitrospira clade A.2 but decreased the relative abundance of clade B. Both redundancy analysis and mantel test showed AOB and comammox Nitrospira communities were regulated by more soil factors than AOA community. These results suggested the communities of AOB and comammox Nitrospira were more sensitive than AOA community to different fertilization strategies in a fluvo-aquic soil of northern China.
The papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) family contains many proteolytic enzymes involved in plant growth and development, leaf senescence, immunity, and stress responses. However, little is known about these enzymes in pepper. We identified 35 PLCPs, which were divided into nine subfamilies based on evolution phylogeny, including four RD21 (responsive to desiccation 21), two CEP (cysteine endopeptidase), two XCP (xylem cysteine peptidase), three XBCP3 (xylem bark cysteine peptidase 3), one THI, ten SAG12 (senescence-associated gene 12), three RD19 (responsive to desiccation 19), one ALP (aleurain-like protease) and eight CTB (cathepsin B-like). The identities of PLCPs were revealed by analyzing conserved motifs, domains and gene structures. An analysis of the putative promoter regions (2 kb upstream regions of the start codon) revealed the enrichment of plant growth, environmental stress and phytohormone signaling cis-elements. Expression profiling revealed diverse patterns of CaPLCPs family members over various tissues. Transcriptional profiling showed a distinct pattern of expression under abiotic stress. Silencing CaCP34 promoted leaf senescence induced by salt and osmotic stress. In contrast, CaCP34 overexpression enhanced the tolerance of pepper to leaf senescence induced by salt and osmotic stress. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the CaPLCPs have various roles in developmental senescence and resistance in pepper.
In this study, a novel adsorbent (PMo12@RH-MCM-41) was synthesized through impregnation method using waste rice husk and phosphomolybdic acid (PMo12) as the silica source and active center, respectively. The regular fibrous-like structure of RH-MCM-41 with hierarchical pores provides a high percentage of exposed PMo12 sites, enhancing the desulfurization activity of PMo12. PMo12@RH-MCM-41 exhibited excellent desulfurization ability in comparison with PMo12 and RH-MCM-41, demonstrating the synergistic effect between PMo12 and RH-MCM-41. The efficient transformation of H2S to elemental S with a yield of 61.3 % was achieved at room temperature. The PMo12@RH-MCM-41 regenerated by hot air purging can maintain the stable desulfurization ability for more than 8 cycles. The mechanism analysis demonstrated the redox ability of PMo12 in the heterogeneous desulfurization system. This work provides important insights for the application of polyoxometalates in solid-phase desulfurization, and broadens high-value utilization patterns of agricultural waste biomass.
As climate change intensifies, fires events are predicted to increase in forest ecosystems. Fire alters the ecosystem structure and consequently, the hydrological cycle. However, little is known about the impacts of forest fire on stemflow. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the short-term response of stemflow production to low-severity fire in a coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest. Results demonstrated low-severity fire changed stemflow yield and had insignificant effect on the correlation between stemflow efficiency and rainfall or plant morphological variables. In unburned site Quercus acutissima and Pinus massoniana and in burned site Q. acutissima and P. massoniana, stemflow percentage averaged 3.86, 0.37, 1.20, and 0.47 %, whereas funneling ratio averaged 38.8, 4.2, 11.4, and 5.1, respectively. Fire substantially decreased the stemflow percentage and funneling ratio of Q. acutissima (P < 0.05) and slightly enhanced P. massoniana (P > 0.05). The responses of stemflow production to fire differed significantly between oak and pine trees. Fire made Q. acutissima become less effective in funneling rain to the forest ground, which is attributed to that the scaly bark was burned to highly furrowed bark that delivers less water to tree base. Burned P. massoniana was more productive in draining stemflow relative to unburned trees and is attributed to the bark which was still flaky regardless of. Additionally, the higher canopy openness allows more rain to funnel to the trunk. Stemflow efficiency was reduced in response to fire and limited the transfer of water and nutrients from canopy to soil and can reduce the competitiveness of Q. acutissima after fire disturbance.
The development of an efficient and environmentally friendly method for remediating groundwater contaminants under neutral conditions has been a significant challenge. Herein, a natural organic ligand cysteine (CYS), was introduced to improve the redox cycling of iron species for improved degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in a ferric ion (Fe³⁺) catalyzed sodium percarbonate (SPC) process. The Fe³⁺/CYS/SPC presented pH adaptability around a neutral environment and enriched degradation for TCE compared to other organic ligands (EDTA, BA, and TA) in the Fenton system. The addition of only 0.9 mM CYS in Fe³⁺/SPC promoted the generation of vital Fe²⁺ ions from 0.02 mM to 0.85 mM resulting in increased TCE removal from 67 % to about 92 %. The inorganic cations (Ca²⁺, Na⁺, K+, and SO4²⁻) showed negligible effect while anions Cl⁻, and HCO3⁻ inhabited the TCE degradation to 67 % and 25 % respectively at higher concentrations (50 mM). The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and scavenging experiments affirmed the generation of OH and O2⁻ radicals responsible for TCE removal. Through dechlorination, possible degradation mechanisms with intermediate and final products were hypothesized. The CYS can promote contaminant remediation in groundwater by enhancing the reduction of Fe³⁺ to Fe²⁺ and forming a complex with Fe³⁺. Overall, this research will provide a long-term solution for the practical treatment of hazardous contaminants in groundwater.
A novel porous phosphomolybdate-based poly(ionic liquid) catalyst containing 70 % water (PDIM-PMo-W70%) was assembled with H3PMo12O40 (HPMo) and poly-[3-dodecyl-1-vinylimidazolium] bromine (PDIMBr), and characterized by FT-IR, UV–vis, XRD, XPS, Contact angle test, SEM, TEM, TGA, and N2 adsorption–desorption analysis. The turnover frequency (TOF) value of PDIM-PMo-W70% for (dibenzothiophene) DBT removal can reach 41.15 h⁻¹ at 50 °C, which is 35.47 and 9.92 times higher than that of HPMo and PDIM-PMo. The catalyst could be recycled at least five times without a significant change in catalytic activity. The water content of the catalyst, reaction temperature, the molar ratio of H2O2/S, catalyst dosage and different sulfur-containing compounds upon oxidative desulfurization (ODS) performance were studied in detail. Most notably, the effects of water on the microstructure and catalytic activity of polyoxometalate-based poly(ionic liquid) were systematically investigated for the first time. As well as the water absorption behavior on the catalyst was reversible, and the dehydrated catalysts after soaking in water could still show excellent catalytic activity. In addition, a reasonable reaction mechanism was proposed with the aid of EPR analysis and radical quenching experiments.
The perfect optical vortex (POV) has additional potential uses in optical trapping and optical communication, due to its diameter being independent of its topological charge. In this study, we demonstrate a double-ring vortex beam with adjustable spacing between the two rings; its size is also only minimally affected by the change of topological charge. To our knowledge, the beam satisfies the double-ring POV concept. The Fourier transform of a Bessel beam embedded with an axicon phase can theoretically produce such a beam. The experimental findings support the numerical results, demonstrating that the ring spacing between two rings can be modulated via the conical parameter, expanding the superposition of double-ring beams and that the two rings always keep the same topological charge value. We also consider the vortex array created by the double-ring beam, as well as the beam’s shape. Optical trapping, orbital angular momentum multiplexing, and optical communication could all benefit from the changeable ring spacing of a double-ring vortex beam.
Bacterivorous nematodes are one of the dominant microbial organisms and play an important role in shaping the bacterial community and hormone dynamics in rhizosphere soils. It has been found that the presence of bacterivorous nematodes potentially regulate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content in soils by interacting with the status of IAA-producing bacteria, and eventually act on the growth of plant roots. However, the mechanism behind this interaction in broad soil ecosystems remains unknown. This study reveals the interaction between bacterivorous nematodes and the soil bacterial community, especially IAA-producing bacteria, based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The results of DGGE showed that the bacterial diversity in soil was increased by inoculation of nematodes during certain periods of plant culture, and was also affected by the genotype of the Arabidopsis thaliana (Johannes Thal, 1577) plants. The variation in soil bacterial communities among the treatments with different genotypes of A. thaliana and nematodes indicated that the soil bacterial community structure was affected by both genotype and nematode grazing. Furthermore, we measured the root architectures of four genotypes of A. thaliana, including wild type (Col-0), two IAA-insensitive mutants (Axr5 and Axr3–1), and DR5::GUS transgenic type (IAA sensitive) under different conditions of bacterivorous nematode inoculation. We found that the root architecture of the IAA-sensitive A. thaliana developed more tips and slender roots under inoculation with activated bacterivorous nematodes, while the root architectures of auxin-insensitive A. thaliana mutants showed no significant differences between alive and inactivated bacterivorous nematodes, even though the IAA content increased in the soil under inoculation with alive nematodes. This study confirms that the presence of bacterivorous nematodes in soils increases the soil IAA content significantly by regulating the bacterial community structure, which leads to an accumulation of auxin in the root tips of A. thaliana, and eventually enhances the plant root growth.
Adolescents' attitudes toward the future and their ability to plan are linked with life satisfaction. However, whether there is a reciprocal longitudinal relation between future time perspective (FTP) and life satisfaction needs to be examined. Based on 5 waves of data from Chinese adolescents (N = 479, M = 14.53 years old, SD = 1.77, 53.7 % females), we aimed to examine the developmental trajectories of and longitudinal association between FTP and life satisfaction using the latent growth curve model and cross-lagged panel model. Results found that FTP increased during adolescence and life satisfaction followed an inverted U-shape over time. And all cross-lagged effects of FTP on life satisfaction were positive and significant, demonstrating that more positive and less negative views about the future and the ability to plan contribute to adolescents' life satisfaction. Results also showed that life satisfaction at wave1/wave4 positively predicted subsequent FTP. But no cross-lagged effects of life satisfaction on FTP were found at wave2/wave3, indicating that life satisfaction promotes the initial development and outcome of FTP. Such findings contribute to understanding the temporal association between FTP and life satisfaction for adolescents.
In this article, we study curvatures on a strongly convex (weakly) Kähler-Finsler manifold. First, we prove that the holomorphic sectional curvature is just half of the flag curvature in a holomorphic plane section on a strongly convex weakly Kähler-Finsler manifold. Second, we compare curvatures associated to the Rund connection with curvatures associated to the Chern-Finsler connection or the complex Berward connection on a strongly convex Kähler-Finsler manifold. Finally, we discuss relationships between flag curvatures and holomorphic bisectional curvatures, and compare two kinds of S-curvatures on a strongly convex Kähler-Finsler manifold.
The conversion of CO2 cycloaddition to value-added cyclic carbonates is of considerable interest owing to the renewable greenhouse gas and 100 % atomic economy. However, it is still a big challenge to develop low-cost and high-efficient catalysts. Here, we report a facile design way, in a single step, for the creation of robust catalytic nanoreactors for heterogeneous catalyst in the cycloaddition of CO2 to cyclic carbonates. The Al(III)-porphyrin-based porous organic polymer catalysts exhibited remarkably high efficiency for propylene carbonate with turnover frequencies of up to 443.6 h⁻¹ at room temperature and atmospheric pressure without solvent, which notably surpasses most previously reported heterogeneous catalysts and relevant homogeneous catalysts. Even using dilute CO2 (15 % CO2 in N2), a TOF up to 27.0 h⁻¹ could be afforded under ambient conditions (25 °C, 1 bar) by Al-Por-POP-2, which showed high stability for recyclability up to 10 times without a significant decrease. These studies provided a simple and efficient synthetic strategy in favor of mass production and future industrial application for the cycloaddition of CO2 with low cost and high efficiency.
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are important phenolic secondary metabolites. Red walnut ‘RW-1’ is rich in PAs, but little information is available on the regulation mechanism of PA biosynthesis. Here, we reported a MYB transcription factor from ‘RW-1’, designated JrMYB12, which acted as a positive regulator in PAs accumulation. Sequence alignment showed JrMYB12 protein belongs to TT2-type R2R3 MYB transcription factor because of its TT2 domain. The expression of JrMYB12 gene was positively correlated with the accumulation of PAs and the expressions of PA-related genes (JrLAR and JrANR) in red walnut. JrMYB12 protein localized to the nuclear and showed transcriptional self-activation activity. The expression of key genes related to PA biosynthesis (AtCHS, AtDFR, AtANS, and AtANR) was up-regulated in transgenic JrMYB12 overexpression Arabidopsis lines, and the content of PAs in leaves and seed coat increased significantly. However, the overexpression of JrMYB12 gene did not cause the change of the key anthocyanin related gene AtUFGT expression in Arabidopsis. Yeast two-hybrid showed that JrMYB12 and JrbHLH42 proteins had obvious interaction, and dual-luciferase assays showed that the two proteins could form a complex to significantly enhance the promoter activity of PAs biosynthesis structural genes JrLAR and JrANR alone or together. Collectively, our research revealed the regulatory mechanism of PA biosynthesis in red walnut, and will be useful for manipulating proanthocyanidins accumulation in walnut and other plants.
In this study, a newly discovered fungal strain Penicillium ortum MJ51 was isolated from lignite collected from a coal mine in Yunnan Province, China. The strain was then utilized to convert solid Yunnan lignite to liquid value-added chemicals. It solubilized 36.4% of the raw lignite and 82.0% of lignite pretreated with nitric acid within 8 days. The extracellular metabolites and enzymes secreted by MJ51 were detected dynamically, along with an analysis of the organic element composition, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the raw lignite, pretreated lignite, and their bio-solubilized residues and soluble fractions. The results suggested that extracellular metabolites including alkaline substances and surfactants, secreted by MJ51 were the primary contributors to the depolymerization of lignite, because the lignite-solubilization ability of MJ51 was correlated with pH and surface tension of the culture. Moreover, extracellular enzymes, such as lignin peroxidase and esterase, secreted by MJ51 participated in the degradation of lignite despite their poor activity. Furthermore, MJ51 could introduce CO into the structure of raw lignite in the same way as HNO3. Under the associated action of extracellular alkaline substances, surfactants, and enzymes, the hydrogen bond in coal was rebuilt, the complex aromatic skeletons were opened, and the attached long aliphatic side chain was cut off. The pretreated lignite could be thoroughly degraded by MJ51 than raw lignite as it had a lower degree of aromatic condensation, shorter aliphatic side chain and more carbonyl groups. The soluble bio-solubilized fractions of lignite contained aliphatic and aromatic compounds, and their derivatives.
Legumecereal crop rotation is considered a sustainable intensive rotation model that can reduce nitrogen (N) inputs, improve soil quality, increase biodiversity and reduce environmental pollution risks. However, compared with Gramineaecereal rotations, quantitative assessment of the effects of legumecereal rotations on grain yield and N use of subsequent cereal crops are lacking. There is also no comprehensive analysis of factors explaining the change in yield effects of subsequent cereal crops, or the differences in these effects, depending on whether the grains of the legume crops are harvested. Here, a meta-analysis of the effects of legumewheat (LW) and Gramineaewheat (GW) rotations on wheat yield and N use was conducted based on 453 observations from 62 studies published worldwide. Our results suggested that compared with GW rotations, LW rotations had a positive effect on wheat yields. Wheat yield was significantly increased by 21.28 % and 31.71 % (P < 0.05) under legume-harvested grainwheat (LHGW) rotation and legume that non-harvested grainwheat (LNHGW) rotation systems, respectively. The positive benefits of legume crops on wheat yield were reduced to some extent by their harvest. The main factors affecting wheat yield were fertilization rates and climate and soil types, with weight ratios of 0.32, 0.21 and 0.16, respectively. For fertilization rates, wheat yield benefits decreased with increases in N fertilizer inputs, and we identified significant positive benefits in temperate, subtropical and Mediterranean climates (P < 0.05). For soil types, sandy and loamy sand soils with low clay contents generally had the best wheat yield benefits. Furthermore, compared with GW rotations, LW rotations increased N use efficiency by 8.57 % on average, which was significantly affected by N inputs (P < 0.05). Therefore, the introduction of legume crops into the GW rotation system can increase wheat yields and reduce N applications regardless of whether legume grains are harvested. Moreover, legume crops have the best wheat yield benefits under low N input conditions, which can make an important contribution to the sustainable intensification of global wheat production.
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