Violence against women and girls is a major public problem globally. This study had conducted to assess women and girls safety and security in public transport and identify factors contributing to violence in Hawassa city, Ethiopia. Data used in the study have been obtained from 199 randomly selected respondents (36.7% women and 63.3% girls), and in addition, 24 focus group discussion members have also participated. Binary Logistic Regression had employed for quantitative data analysis. Data from focus group discussions were analyzed qualitatively using narrative analysis. The types of violence identified were physical, sexual, and psychological. The finding shows that 50.8% of women and girls have experienced more than one type of violence while using public transport. The results indicated that six variables significantly contributed to violence. These variables were age, marital status, type of public transport used, travel time, facilities, and management of public transport services. The result indicates that violence against women and girls in public transport is a serious threat to women’s safety and security to access their mobility in the city. Therefore, cities must focus on developing gender-sensitive public transport service plans and policies that consider women and girls unique needs in public transportation.
Fresh water fish is considered a source of good quality proteins and essential fats. Frying is among widely used fish preparation techniques globally. Deep-frying oil quality with repeated uses, has been a concern. This research investigated the influence of frying oil stability (expressed as levels of peroxide values (0.2, 1.2 meq/kg) and free fatty acids (0.05, 0.13% palmitic acid)) over repeated uses (1,6 cycles) on the oxidative stability and essential nutrients of fried fish using a response surface approach, with the objectives of generating information relevant for the improvement of community health outcomes, with a special focus of this particular research was on trends, but not optimization. The frying oil and fried fish quality were adequately explained by response surface model and supported by principal component analysis. The result showed that the oxidative stability of both the frying oil and fried fish were deteriorating over the reuse cycles of the frying oil (with increasing trends of unhealthy fats, saturated and trans) corresponding to decreasing trends in the healthy fat components and vitamin A). It was also indicated that the essential fats (omega 3, omega 6, cis, vitamin A), were decreased while the risky fats (saturated, trans) were increased along with the frying cycles. The result revealed the urgent need for regulating frying oil and fried food qualities, particularly in developing countries.
There has to date been limited research on the economic valuation of local outdoor recreational services to inform policy and practice. This study attempts to fill this gap by estimating the annual recreational value of Tabor Mountain Recreational Park, an open-access recreational site in Hawassa City (also known as Awassa City), Ethiopia. This study employs single-bounded dichotomous choice and open-ended elicitation methods using primary and secondary data collected from 260 urban residents during June–August 2019. A complementary assessment of the determinants of local visitors’ willingness-to-pay (WTP) is also carried out. Descriptive statistics and a binary logistic regression model were used to analyze the survey data. Overall, 87%and 98% of the respondents were willing to accept the initial bid value and to give non-zero maximum WTP, respectively. On average, a local resident makes/intends to make 2.57 visits per month paying a mean entrance fee of ETB 28.33 per visit, which represents approximately ETB93,498,000 per year. Furthermore, average monthly income and the afternoon visiting-time preference of local visitors had a positive effect on individuals’ WTP. Initial bid value, frequency of visits per month, number of dependent families, and age of local visitors had a negative effect on WTP. The substantial annual local recreational value estimate of Tabor Mountain Park reveals the potential of local financing alternatives for sustainable development and management of environmental resources in similar settings
Background COVID-19 pandemic has a devastating impact on the economies and health care system of sub-Saharan Africa. Healthcare workers (HWs), the main actors of the health system, are at higher risk because of their occupation. Serology-based estimates of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HWs represent a measure of HWs’ exposure to the virus and could be used as a guide to the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the community and valuable in combating COVID-19. This information is currently lacking in Ethiopia and other African countries. This study aimed to develop an in-house antibody testing assay, assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among Ethiopian high-risk frontline HWs. Methods We developed and validated an in-house Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for specific detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain immunoglobin G (IgG) antibodies. We then used this assay to assess the seroprevalence among HWs in five public hospitals located in different geographic regions of Ethiopia. From consenting HWs, blood samples were collected between December 2020 and February 2021, the period between the two peaks of COVID-19 in Ethiopia. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected using questionnaire-based interviews. Descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine the overall and post-stratified seroprevalence and the association between seropositivity and potential risk factors. Results Our successfully developed in-house assay sensitivity was 100% in serum samples collected 2- weeks after the first onset of symptoms whereas its specificity in pre-COVID-19 pandemic sera was 97.7%. Using this assay, we analyzed a total of 1997 sera collected from HWs. Of 1997 HWs who provided a blood sample, and demographic and clinical data, 51.7% were females, 74.0% had no symptoms compatible with COVID-19, and 29.0% had a history of contact with suspected or confirmed patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The overall seroprevalence was 39.6%. The lowest (24.5%) and the highest (48.0%) seroprevalence rates were found in Hiwot Fana Specialized Hospital in Harar and ALERT Hospital in Addis Ababa, respectively. Of the 821 seropositive HWs, 224(27.3%) of them had a history of symptoms consistent with COVID-19 while 436 (> 53%) of them had no contact with COVID-19 cases as well as no history of COVID-19 like symptoms. A history of close contact with suspected/confirmed COVID-19 cases is associated with seropositivity (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.8; p = 0.015). Conclusion High SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence levels were observed in the five Ethiopian hospitals. These findings highlight the significant burden of asymptomatic infection in Ethiopia and may reflect the scale of transmission in the general population.
This study investigated binding forms of cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in 28 sediment samples from inlet to outlet of three Zambian wetlands receiving mining effluents. Use was made of a modified Tessier metal binding fractions procedure. Due to storage artefacts, the original aim of investigating the effects of redox potential (Eh) changes, starting from extremely low Eh, was suspended. Instead, use was made of the new, not often explored opportunity for replicate sample division into three categories of varying redox potential and pH. Additionally, in line with the original research aim, two sediments from each wetland were investigated for their response to increasing Eh. The results showed overall high trace metal contents, with a need for remedial actions for Co and Cu in the first, Cu in the second, and Pb in the third wetland. Rather independent of Eh and pH, Co was often found in the residual fraction (F5), as well as in the oxidizable (F4) and reducible (F3) fraction. Cu was generally dominant in F5 and F4 fractions, with low F3 prevalence, indicating a high organic matter affinity. Pb distribution among binding forms showed small variations within and across wetlands, F5, F4, and F3 fractions dominating. In the above observations, statistical analysis showed that, among the 28 sediment samples across wetlands, the influence of Eh and pH on binding forms were generally found to be not significant, being ‘overruled’ by other sedimentological factors. With increasing Eh, the decrease in the oxidizable (F4) fraction was smaller than expected in eight of 18 tests. The Risk Assessment Code (RAC) method, based on the exchangeable fraction (F1) plus carbonate fraction (F2), showed that some sediments turned from “unsafe” to “safe,” and vice versa, with increasing Eh. The “total metals method” does not show bioavailability, whereas RAC does not use the metal contents. Thus, the two methods should be used together to improve the prediction of potential toxicity.
Recognizing entities and their corresponding roles are important in human activity recognition. In light of recent advancements, the primary emphasis is recognizing the abstract activities involving person‐person interaction. The contribution of this work is proposing an architecture, which utilizes the knowledge of the human body parts coordinates in role detection of each individual. The network preprocesses the coordinates to build intra‐body and inter‐body features. The extracted features build the relationship between the interacting bodies and learn the temporal relation corresponding to each role using the human memory‐inspired hierarchical temporal memory. The model is tested on vague samples of mutual actions in the experimental work. The model is found robust in action and role recognition tasks and performed well per expectations.
Background Evidence indicates that a significant proportion of women drink alcohol during pregnancy. Studies have also suggested that prenatal alcohol consumption was associated with a wide range of adverse outcomes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to systematically summarize the available evidence on the epidemiology of alcohol consumption among pregnant women in Ethiopia and suggest evidence based recommendations for future clinical practice. Methods This systematic review and meta-analysis was followed the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, SCOPUS and EMBASE databases were searched to identify relevant articles that assessed alcohol consumption among pregnant women in Ethiopia. The Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software version 3.0 was used to conduct a meta-analysis using the random-effect model. Cochran’s Q- and I²-tests were used to assess the heterogeneity of the included studies. Results A total of 6361 pregnant women from fifteen primary studies were included in the final analysis. The pooled prevalence estimate of alcohol consumption among pregnant women in Ethiopia was found to be 14.1%. The pooled prevalence of alcohol consumption among pregnant women in Ethiopia was reported to be lower in the studies that used the standardized alcohol consumption assessment tools (9.4%) when compared to the studies that did not use standardized tools (17%). The pooled prevalence of alcohol consumption among pregnant women ranged between 12.8% and 15.5% in leave-one-out sensitivity analysis. Conclusion A considerable number of women in Ethiopia consume alcohol during pregnancy. Therefore, early identification and intervention strategies are highly recommended.
Field experiments were conducted at Adami Tulu, Ethiopia, for two successive dry seasons to investigate how nitrogen levels and deficit irrigation affect the yield and its related components, and the protein content of snap beans. The treatments were deficit irrigation with three levels (50, 75, and 100% ETc) and application of nitrogen with four levels (0, 46, 92, and 138 kg·N·ha−1), which were set up as split-plot arrangement, with irrigation being as the main plot and nitrogen levels as subplot, replicated thrice. Results showed that the pod yield had a substantial impact ( p < 0.01 ) on the interaction between the two factors; i.e., interaction of 100% ETc and 92 kg nitrogen levels per hectare recorded the highest pod yield (22.69 t·ha−1), but treatment combinations of 50% ETc and no nitrogen application produced the lowest amount of overall pod yield (6.922 tons per hectare). However, the results showed that the application of 75% ETc in combination with 92 kg nitrogen per hectare recorded the highest protein concentration (17.718%) but statistically equivalent to 138 kg nitrogen per hectare combined with the same deficit irrigation level, while the lowest protein concentration (12.24%) was recorded at 50 ETc combined with no fertilizer. Hence, the use of 75% ETc along with 92 kg nitrogen levels per hectare could be optimal in balancing quality and pod output of green beans at Adami Tulu and surrounding areas.
Although Ethiopia is a center of barley domestication and diversity, and barley has an important place in African dry land agriculture due to its resilience to wide-ranging stresses; the average yield continues to be low, mainly due to low soil fertility. Site-specific fertilizer recommendation for barley in Wolaita, Ethiopia, has a pivotal role not only in optimizing barley productivity but also in maintaining ecological balance. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the relationship between grain yield and site-specific nutrient requirements for a target yield using a Quantitative Evaluation of the Fertility of Tropical Soil (QUEFTS) model. The data input was derived from field experiments predominantly in the major barley production areas of Wolaita, Ethiopia. Calibration of the QUEFTS model was estimated by describing the two boundary lines of the maximum accumulation and dilution of N, P, and K contents targeting the barley grain yield. The study revealed that balanced nutrient requirements estimated by the QUEFTS model had a good correlation between the simulated and observed grain yields (r2 = 0.82 ∗ , 0.88 ∗ , and 0.83 ∗ ) for different sites, namely, Doga Mashido, Kokate, and Gurimo Koyisha, respectively, while evaluation of the QUEFTS model by U-Theil values showed a good agreement between the simulated and observed yields. Therefore, the study concluded that the QUEFTS model can be used for determining nutrient requirements of crops, thereby contributing to the development of site-specific fertilizer recommendations.
Indigenous Biosystematics of Enset (Ensete ventricosum [Welw.] Cheesman) in its Center of Origin and Diversity, Southwest Ethiopia: Folk Nomenclature, Classifcation, and Descriptors. Enset (Ensete ventricosum [Welw.] Cheesman) is an important cultivated food security crop of Ethiopian origin. Southwest Ethiopia, particularly in the Sheka Zone where domesticated enset coexists with its wild relatives, provides an excellent setting to study indigenous biosystematics of enset. Thus, an ethnobotanical study was carried out to document Shekicho folk classifcation system of enset and analyze the indigenous system of naming, identifcation, and classifcation of enset used by farmers. Data were collected using participatory research appraisal tools from 240 enset growing households in the Sheka Zone within Southwest Ethiopia. Folk taxonomy of enset in Sheka is hierarchical and can present up to six ethnobiological taxonomic categories. Ensets (k’aasso) placed at the level of life form consisted of three folk generic taxa: k’aayo’ (cultivated enset), eec’o (wild enset), and k’aasi–aafo (semi–wild enset). Folk specifc taxa (cultivated groups: atina’a–k’aayo’ and maacha–k’aayo’), varietal taxa, and sub–varieties are within the generic taxon of k’aayo’. Besides, farmers have categorization based on utility or practical values. As a result, the identifed system of folk taxonomy in Sheka can be viewed as both universal and utilitarian. Farmers manage sizeable repertoires of morphological, physiological, and use-related descriptors for varieties identifcation and classifcation. A total of 28 characters with 71 character states were identifed. Of these, 50% of the characters are based on direct observation of plant morphology. About 123 enset landraces were identifed, of which 91 are still grown and maintained by farmers in Sheka, whereas the rest were reported verbally. The vast majority (94%) of identifed names of enset varieties and sub–varieties had specifc known meanings directly referencing the plant characteristics, cultural/social group name, and supposed origin, or an indirect (metaphorical) meaning. Shekicho people’s nomenclature system involves both unitary and binomial structures; the binomial names normally make the hierarchical relationship between taxa at a high level and its subordinate taxa. Furthermore, this study aspires to contribute elements of ongoing processes of domestication in clonal crops that could provide important examples of how processes could have happened in the past. In conclusion, the present information on indigenous biosystematics of enset and its subsystems of folk taxonomy, folk descriptors, and nomenclature epitomizes the rich diversity of knowledge systems in Sheka and provided context-specifc and active indigenous knowledge that is highly relevant for conservation, use, and management actions. Moreover, the study has the potential for furthering our understanding of the early domestication of enset and can help to illuminate behavioral patterns driving the evolution of clonal crops like enset.
Gas carburizing is an effective surface treatment process for improving the hardness and wear resistance of different class of steels. The study reports an application of grey-incidence based Taguchi (GIBT) method in gas carburizing of case-hardening steels like AISI 4140, EN36, and 16MnCr5 which are widely employed in precision levers, transmission shafts, and pinions. Carburizing trials are performed using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array by varying the design parameters like carburizing temperature, soaking time, and tempering temperature. Surface hardness (SH), diffusion depth (DD), and wear loss (WL) are studied as process responses at the completion of various carburizing trials with replications. Optimal design variables are identified using grey incidence grade as a performance index in the GIBT method. The contribution of individual parameters is also studied using the analysis of variance (ANOVA). Microscopic examination and SEM images of the treated surface are also studied after validating the method of GIBT.
The potential to obtain defective or damaged items with non-defective commodities is common to experience at the production unit or when shipping products from one layer to another. This research focuses on the faulty things that retailers receive from suppliers. The retailer has set a restriction on the percentage of defective things, and the retailer receives a discount on the cost of purchasing defective items. The proposed inventory system handles the uncertainty in inventory costs and also considers the demand and deterioration of items with prioritized maximum product life. This work minimizes total inventory cost when demand rate as a function of reliability and power pattern of time under a crisp and triangular neutrosophic environment. The inventory system for degrading items considers the predictability and power pattern of time with a reasonable payment delay. The interest charges are applied only after a specific permissible time limit in the proposed inventory system. The neutrosophic number that defines three different kinds of membership functions representing the truth, hesitation, and falseness is applied in the inventory model in handling the uncertainty of the cost pattern. The proposed inventory model is investigated using a particle swarm optimization algorithm, and the results are validated using a numerical example and a sensitivity analysis for various parameters.
Presently, technological advancements in the healthcare sector pose a challenging problem relevant to the security and privacy of health-related applications. Medical images can be considered significant and sensitive data in the medical informatics system. In order to transmit medical images in an open medium, the design of secure encryption algorithms becomes essential. Encryption can be considered one of the effective solutions for accomplishing security. Although numerous models have existed in the literature, they could not adaptable to the rising number of medicinal images in the health sector. At the same time, the optimal key generation process acts as a vital part in defining the performance of the encryption techniques. Therefore, this article presents a Pigeon Inspired Optimization with Encryption-based Secure Medical Image Management (PIOE-SMIM) technique. The proposed PIOE-SMIM approach majorly concentrates on the development of secret share creation (SSC) and the encryption process. At the initial stage, the medical images are converted into a collection of 12 shares using the SSC approach. In addition, an elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) scheme is employed for the encryption process. In order to optimum key creation procedure in the ECC model, the PIO technique is exploited with the aim of maximizing PSNR. Finally, on the receiver side, the decryption and share reconstruction processes are performed to construct the original images. The PIOE-SMIM model displayed an enhanced PSNR of 59.37 dB in image 1. Improved PSNR of 59.53 dB is given for image 5 using the PIOE-SMIM model. For demonstrating an enhanced performance of the PIOE-SMIM method, a widespread experimental study is made and the results highlighted the supremacy of the PIOE-SMIM model over other techniques.
In this paper, the impacts of large-scale OWPPs penetration on the Turkish power system is addressed. The grid compliance analyses for the large-scale OWPP integration are carried out by using the grid connection criteria defined in the Turkish grid code. PV and QV curves are obtained to assess the effect of OWPP on the static voltage stability limit. Eight scenarios are conducted to analyze the effect of the OWPP on the static and dynamic characteristics of the power grid. To observe the large-scale OWPP impact on the voltage and frequency stability, transient events such as the outage of conventional power plants and three-phase to ground faults are applied. The results of the voltage and frequency stability analysis reveal that the Turkish grid remains stable after the integration of an 1800 MW OWPP. Furthermore, the Turkish system remains stable even in the event of the outage of the international transmission lines to Bulgaria and Greece.
Understanding photovoltaic modules' failures and degradation modes is an essential task for improving their useful lifetime and manufacturing materials. This paper focuses on the assessment and analysis of the different PV module defects that occurred in a solar pumping system after a long period of exposure (since 2008) to a harsh (hot and dry) climate. Additional issues that have been observed in these systems are highlighted to enhance their operation and maintenance. A detailed visual inspection of 21 mono-crystalline silicon PV modules revealed that EVA discoloration and metallization (bus bar, finger) corrosion are the most prevalent defects, accounting for 100% of the total, followed by front side delamination and bubbles at 80%, and cracking in solar cells at 11.77%. Nomenclature Tamb Ambient Temperature (°C) RH Relative Humidity (%) STC Standard test conditions PV Photovoltaic UV Ultraviolet ηPV PV module efficiency, % ηinv Inverter efficiency, % ηsys System efficiency, % EVA Ethylene-vinyl acetate TPT Tedlar Polyester Tedlar IEC International Electrotechnical Commission IV Current-Voltage M Module EL Electroluminescence IR Infrared imaging MPP Maximum power point
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