Haute École Pédagogique BEJUNE
  • Porrentruy, Switzerland
Recent publications
L’école publique souhaite mettre dans les mains des élèves des ordinateurs, tablettes ou convertibles pour envisager l’éducation numérique. Les compétences d’usages numériques — au sens de maîtrise de l’utilisation — deviennent alors centrales pour permettre à toutes et tous d’apprendre. Mais comment se développent-elles ? Sont-elles transférables d’un outil/environnement à l’autre ? À l’aide d’une revue systématique de la littérature, la transférabilité des compétences d’usages numériques est discutée. Il a été identifié un manque criant de savoirs scientifiques systématiques et fondés sur des résultats empiriques documentant si oui ou non, les compétences d’usages numériques sont transférables et avec quelles médiations. Il semble aujourd’hui impossible de dire avec certitude ce qu’exige le passage d’un outil numérique à l’autre sur le plan des compétences. En l’état, il est difficile d’envisager sereinement les équipements informatiques scolaires.
The current context, with the many changes occurring in both local and distant environments, raises ethical questions that challenge our emotions, our relationships, and our vision of the world and our place in it. These changes require us to be capable of apprehending a complex set of problems so as to understand and analyse them, grasp the individual and societal challenges they present, and, with full awareness of the issues, decide how to behave. This aim of enabling every citizen to be capable of making informed choices and acting responsibly is found in the curricula of many countries, including Switzerland. Education about changes, for systemic and forward-looking vision and for action is rooted in particular in the Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) approach. Our study aims to better define what is conducive in compulsory schooling to the development of cross-cutting competences and their assessment.
Parmi les nombreuses ressources à la disposition des enseignant∙e∙s de langue, le CECR et le Plan d’études romand (PER) offrent des lignes directrices quant à l’implémentation d’une approche actionnelle en classe. Ainsi, les activités visent à donner aux apprenant·e·s les outils linguistiques, sociolinguistiques et pragmatiques leur permettant de communiquer dans la langue cible et d’accomplir différentes tâches dans des contextes culturels variés. On parle alors de compétence interculturelle (CI). Dans cet article, nous proposons une discussion théorique de la notion, puis nous décrivons comment huit enseignant·e·s ont réalisé des séquences interculturelles en cours d’allemand ou anglais. Les résultats ont permis d’identifier six étapes essentielles pour le développement de la CI.
In this paper, we discuss the role that teachers play in preventing the expression of blatant and subtle prejudice among students. Using a self-reported survey conducted in the south of France, we investigated the attitudes of 1,858 middle and high school students. Multivariate analyses show that when students see their teachers addressing issues about racism, discrimination and cultural diversity in the classroom, their attitudes of intolerance decrease. Nevertheless, mediation and moderation models highlight the existence of external factors, such as the parents’ educational attainment, that affect the students’ capacity to internalise their teachers’ discourse. Contrary to our expectations, the students’ level of trust in the education system has no significant influence on their perception of the effectiveness of teacher interventions.
Introduction Our team of researchers proposed volunteer teachers to experiment with reference situations (RS) in middle-distance running, within the framework of a didactic engineering. During the conception stage, these RS were designed to serve as a starting point and an assessment tool of a teaching sequence. During the experimentation stage, teachers were expected to provide students with additional learning tasks and experiences that targeted the learning issues resulting from a priori analysis of the RS by the research team. Purpose In line with previous research in mathematics and PE showing that the transmission of the products of didactic engineering was not self-evident, we focused on the ways teachers had reappropriated the RS and had dealt with their associated learning issues with the support of researchers. We illustrated how mixed methods have been heuristic for this purpose. Methods and results We used a mixed-methods design merging observational and interview data. Eight primary school teachers participated in this study, the first layer of which focusing on the ways they addressed learning issues related to the RS. For each teacher, one researcher recorded four lessons and collected written documents. Then, through a priori analysis of the tasks whose purpose was learning and analysis of teacher and students’ joint action, the researcher recorded in a synopsis if the learning issues were (a) missing, (b) potential or (c) taught. These analyses showed that learning issues were taught little, if at all, by teachers. We restricted to the case of one PE teacher (George) the illustration of the second layer of our mixed-methods design, focusing on how teachers’ practical epistemology impacted the ways RS and learning issues conceived by the research team were transformed or adapted in the class. Observational data were articulated with the teacher’s reflexive verbalisations generated within one self-confrontation interview after two lessons and one semi-structured interview at the end of the experimentation. The results obtained in the case of George helped to understand how and why he had reappropriated the RS in a way that was unexpected to the research team. For example, his experience made him consider that teaching middle-distance running meant above all acting on students’ mental attributes. This experiential dimension of George’s practical epistemology was in line with his progressive way of confronting students with the RS. Moreover, the researcher succeeded in acting on George’s practical epistemology regarding the interest and the possibility of teaching running techniques. Discussion and conclusion Our mixed-methods design proved to be suitable for studying and improving the adaptability of the products of didactic engineering to ordinary teaching in PE in a more dialectical way. Our results challenge the relatively large number of learning issues to be taught, the complexity to teach them and their compatibility with teachers’ practical epistemology, which has nevertheless been shown to be evolving. These findings are crucial in the perspective of a wide dissemination of curricular resources aiming at renewing the teaching of PE in line with the current competency-based approach.
Cet article décrit une recherche-action menée pour dépasser la crise structurelle touchant une formation à l’enseignement secondaire suisse au milieu des années 2010. La démarche a permis de dégager trois conditions, transférables à d’autres contextes, ayant permis de rendre l’alternance plus intégrative et de renforcer le caractère professionnalisant de la formation : 1) la collaboration des acteurs dans une structure clairement explicitée; 2) le renforcement d’une contextualisation et d’une intégration des savoirs dans tous les espaces-temps de la formation; 3) une politique de recrutement et de développement professionnel du personnel académique prenant en compte les deux espaces de l’alternance.
Nous présentons les résultats d’une recherche réalisée auprès de futurs enseignants de Zurich (Suisse) et basée sur une approche longitudinale comptant trois sessions de collecte de données. Pour ce faire, 153 étudiants d’une seule cohorte ont répondu à un questionnaire à trois moments de leur formation : en première, deuxième et troisième année. L’outil EABest-K (Keller-Schneider, 2014) comporte 29 questions couvrant sept domaines d’exigences professionnelles évaluées chacune sous trois angles par les étudiants : le degré de sollicitation d’une exigence, le sentiment de compétence vis-à-vis de cette exigence et la perception de sa pertinence. Nous concluons avec des pistes pour une recherche consécutive canado-suisse. We present the results of a research conducted among future Swiss teachers from Zurich (Switzerland). Based on a longitudinal approach involving three sessions of data collection, 153 students from a single cohort completed a questionnaire at three points during their teacher training: in the first, second and third year. The EABest-K tool (Keller-Schneider, 2014) consists of 29 questions covering seven areas of professional requirements, each evaluated from three angles by the students: the degree to which a requirement is considered as a challenge, the experience of competence with regard to this requirement and the perception of its relevance. We conclude with avenues for a consecutive Canadian-Swiss research project.
In this paper, we intend to consider different understandings of inclusive education that frame current public and professional debates as well as policies and practices. We analyze two – somewhat opposing – discourses regarding inclusive education, namely, the “inclusion for some” – which represents the idea that children with special needs have a right to the highest quality education which can be delivered by specially trained staff, and the “inclusion for all” – which represents the idea that all children regarding their diverse needs should have the opportunity to learn together. To put the two discourses in a dialogical relation, we have reconstructed the inferential configurations of the arguments of each narrative to identify how the two definitions contribute to position children with and without special needs and their teachers. The results show the possibilities to bridge the two narratives, with respect to the voices they promote or silence, the power relations they constitute, and the values and practices they enact or prevent.
The current state of the planet poses challenging ethical questions that shake up our emotions and values, thus making our choices and decisions more difficult. In order to grasp the many complex issues with which we are each confronted on a daily basis, education in sustainable development (ESD) advances competencies (Unesco, 2017) that are rooted in both cognitive and socio-emotional processes. Although ESD is included in most school curricula, it is worth exploring what teachers perceive to be the real needs for these thinking tools, as well as how they value the development of these competencies in school.This research, which was carried out with pre-service and in-service teachers, answers these two questions. These initial results bring to light the interdisciplinary nature of the competencies considered necessary by the teaching profession, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the current school system with regard to their development. This interdisciplinary approach leads us to a definition of what a competence is with regard to the specificity of the school context, and finally, to propose a typology.We have used this typology to compare the visions of the teaching staff with the competency frameworks proposed by the international bodies with the most influence in the Swiss school system, namely the World Economic Forum, the OECD, and UNESCO. Comparisons between these different elements open up perspectives on what tools could be proposed for assessing these competencies in schools in the long term.
In educational research, audio-video recordings allow observing a lesson repeatedly. The collected data needs to be transcribed for analysis. Although methodologies for transcribing video-recorded lessons are established, there is lack of transcription methodologies for certain types of lessons, such as in arts education or the teaching to create new products. In our research project, we examine the teaching-learning of songs in class. Because of the absence of suitable transcription methodologies, we developed a new systematic approach. This paper presents the Lesson Activities Map (LAMap), which consists of symbols and icons representing graphically the constitutive elements of a domain-specific lesson. As a result, the LAMap provides a visualisation of the lesson content-in this context the song-and of how a teacher works on parts and the whole. The graphic representation supports the lesson analysis from different perspectives. The LAMap methodology and applications are valuable for transcribing other subject-specific lessons.
Epistemology is often considered a speculative philosophical activity, and Piaget a historical figure of Psychology whose theory is about the development of the child. In this Coffee Brake discussion, I try to show that Piaget’s contribution in choosing a sound position in epistemology through empirical research is most important. I argue that the position chosen by Piaget as a “dialectical” or “relational” epistemology could be associated with the position Bruner (1990) calls perspectivism (after a term attributed to Nietzsche). By relating a passage of Piaget in his synthesis of the Logic of scientific knowledge with the research he conducted with his team on the coordination of point of view, I tend to stress an open field for discussion and further work in genetic epistemology.
Este estudio se propone investigar los tipos de respuestas de los niños de edades comprendidas entre 3 y 7 años en discusiones argumentativas relacionadas con las reglas y normas de los padres. El corpus de datos se compone de 132 discusiones argumentativas seleccionadas de 30 comidas grabadas en video de 10 familias suizas y italianas. Los datos se presentan mediante extractos discursivos de discusiones argumentativas y se analizan mediante el modelo ideal pragma-dialéctico de discusión crítica. Los hallazgos muestran que cuando los padres usan argumentos contextuales como los argumentos de calidad de comida, los niños reflejan los mismos tipos de argumentos. Por otro lado, cuando los padres utilizan argumentos más complejos, elaborados y sin contexto, los niños generalmente no usan ningún argumento, pero su respuesta es una expresión de dudas o una mera oposición sin proporcionar ningún argumento. En general, los resultados de este estudio indican que los tipos de respuestas de los niños están estrictamente conectadas con el tipo de argumento previamente utilizado por sus padres. Este aspecto es particularmente relevante en términos de las capacidades de los niños para participar en intercambios argumentativos y reaccionar de manera racional durante el enfrentamiento con los padres. Se necesita una investigación adicional en esta dirección para comprender mejor las potencialidades específicas del lenguaje en el proceso cotidiano de socialización dentro del contexto familiar.
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Porrentruy, Switzerland