# Hashemite University

• Zarqa, Jordan
Recent publications
A review of relevant academic studies has yielded a range of environmental accounting disclosure determinants. This review aims to provide a comprehensive view of the determinants of environmental accounting disclosure. This paper reviews published environmental accounting disclosure studies to explore the effect of various factors on environmental disclosure. The findings show that the company’s environmental performance, size, and profitability play a critical role in the environmental disclosure process. This paper notes that the determinants of environmental disclosure are varied, changeable, and limitless. It is desired that this structured examination of the factors influencing the current and future status of environmental accounting disclosure will provide a sufficient overview of the critical issues and concerns that must be addressed in order to comprehend and advance the critical application of environmental accounting disclosure in social, economic, and environmental development. This article is expected to have an impact on future policies, which will help to improve the disclosure process. This paper contributes to the ongoing debate about the environmental disclosure mechanisms that lead to more disclosure of the determinants of environmental accounting disclosure and highlights the need for a new approach on these issues.
This article aims to become aware of the effect of various intellectual capital dimensions on the operational and financial performance of Jordanian banks. This study model contains the primary intellectual capital dimensions (human capital, structural capital, and Relational capital) as independent variables, while the banks’ operational and financial performance as dependent variables. Data received from 136 bank employees through formerly examined and validated questionnaires are used to examine the variables’ relationships. The records had been analyzed the usage of partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis. The outcomes display no effects on financial performance from human capital, positive effects on financial performance from relational capital, and structural capital, while operational performance is positively affected by all intellectual capital dimensions. This study expects that intellectual capital contributes significantly to the banks’ performance. Finally, this paper provides implications for decision-makers on intellectual capital importance.
Consider the case of a mechanical structure being impacted at an arbitrary location by an unknown loading profile (i.e., force–time curve). Then, estimating the unknown impact loading profile (ILP) based on response vibrations is a challenging problem. If the impact location is also unknown, traditional inverse problem approaches (i.e., deconvolution) cannot reconstruct the ILP. This problem is particularly complex when inferring someone’s footstep loading profile by monitoring floor vibrations. Therefore, this preliminary study attempts to overcome the missing input location issue by producing a blind estimate (without knowledge of excitation location point) of the unknown ILP. Producing a blind ILP estimate is appealing since there is no need to know the location of the input force. Additionally, knowledge of the ILP can potentially uncover important information about the excitation source, such as, for example, identifying individuals from their footfall-induced floor vibration. The blind input reconstruction is done using log-spectrum averaging of the structural response at several locations. Our approach investigation is done via a MATLAB simulation, utilizing a Timoshenko finite element (FE) beam model as the virtual mechanical structure. Simulation results encourage further refinement of the approach.
Petrochemicals released from industry, accidental spills, and leaks are the main reasons for soil contamination. These petrochemical pollutants, mainly hydrocarbons, are serious hazards to humans and the environment. Therefore, there is a persistent need to develop degradation methods for petrochemicals to protect ecosystems and human health. Current conventional remediation methods, such as adsorption, chemical oxidation, extraction, etc., though efficient, are costly and have secondary environmental effects. Hence, the need for a cost-efficient green degradation approach has emerged. Specifically, the use of microorganisms to biodegrade hydrocarbons as a green removal approach, known as bioremediation, has witnessed immense attention in the research community. This chapter, first, identifies the characteristic properties and toxicity of petroleum pollutants that impose risks on the environment. Second, conventional removal methods of hydrocarbons from soils are discussed. Then, the chapter highlights the recent progress in bioremediation technologies of petrochemicals from soils, focusing on biostimulation (addition of nutrients to stimulate microbial communities growth), bioaugmentation (addition of microorganisms that enhances the degradation process), and integrated methods. Finally, the limitations of bioremediation technologies are identified for further development.
Clean water is a key factor to sustain life on earth. Nevertheless, it is challenging to provide clean water at a sufficient rate that will fulfill the growing demand. This is due to the continued increase of the world population and scarcity of clean water sources. However, for every problem, there is a solution; therefore, clean water can be regenerated from wastewater through different treatment mechanisms. Those mechanisms can be classified as either physical, chemical, or biological. Wastewater treatment plants consist of different stages starting from the preliminary stage to the secondary stage. The physical and chemical treatments precede the secondary treatment. The focus of this chapter will be on the secondary stage of wastewater treatment, whereby different microorganisms are used in wastewater treatment. This falls under the biological treatment category. Microorganisms clean wastewater by breaking down various pollutants, more specifically, organic matter. Microbes are used to facilitate the degradation of the organic content including, but not limited to, fungi, protozoa, algae, and bacteria, which can function under aerobic and/or anaerobic conditions. Moreover, wastewater treatment using the microbial community can take various forms such as using microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) or microbial fuel cell (MFC). The efficiency of the treatment process is affected by various factors such as temperature, pH, and types of microbes.
The constant need for sacrificial electrodes is one of the limitations of applying the EC in wastewater treatment. Accordingly, this study proposes a sustainable alternative in reusing scrap metallic wastes as electrode materials. Four different types of metallic wastes (beverage cans, used aluminum (Al) foil, scrap iron, and scrap mild steel) are proposed as sacrificial electrodes for grey water (GW) treatment using the EC technique. At electrical current densities (CD) ranging between 5 and 20 mA/cm², the treatment performance was evaluated for a reaction time of 10 min in terms of the removal efficiency of some key parameters such as color, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and electrical conductivity, energy and material consumption, and metal contamination of GW from electrodes. The results demonstrated that using metallic wastes as sacrificial electrodes can achieve a considerable reduction in color, turbidity, COD, and electric conductivity of about 97.2%, 99%, 88%, and 89%, respectively. However, their reuse as electrodes revealed some important concerns. Al foil undergoes quick and substantial perforation and loss of surface area during electrolysis. The scrap iron and scrap mild steel were found to cause metal contamination by increasing Fe ions in the treated GW. Generally, metal scrap wastes can serve effectively as alternative sustainable electrodes. However, further research is recommended regarding the operating costs, which are considered crucial aspects of the EC process in terms of energy consumption and the most efficient method of fabricating the metallic wastes into a form suitable for reuse in the EC technique.
This paper investigates the notion of the financial Kuznets curve in an emerging country—Jordan. Both variants of the financial Kuznets curve (growth financial Kuznets curve and inequality financial Kuznets curve) have been examined using different time series methodologies applying to a sample period from 1993 to 2017. The unobserved components model results provide evidence for both variants of the financial Kuznets curve when using private credit to GDP as a proxy for financial-sector development. Moreover, non-nested model tests suggest that financial intermediaries are relatively more important than stock markets for income inequality. Overall, this paper provides evidence for the financial Kuznets curve in emerging countries. Moreover, it provides new insights for policymakers in Jordan in their challenge to boost economic growth and decelerate income inequality, by reversing the trend towards the concentration of power in the financial sector and creating public-financial institutions that provide affordable credit to small businesses and households.
This research presents a compensated fuzzy logic system that integrates an interval type-2 fuzzy logic system (IT2FLS) with the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model the turning process. First, an IT2FLS is elicited to model the turning process by mapping its input variables to the cutting force and the surface quality. Second, the GMM is incorporated in the IT2FLS structure to compensate for the error residuals. The idea of such an incorporation stems from the fact that the majority of the models are constructed based on the normality assumption of the error. The GMM is developed in a way that refines the extracted rules and considers stochastic unmodelled behaviours. Validated on real experiments, it has been demonstrated that the compensated fuzzy logic system has the ability to accurately predict the cutting force and the surface quality; deal with uncertainties; and provide users with comprehensive understanding of the turning process.
The hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) market has grown tremendously in the past few years which, as a result, has led to an exponential growth in the spare parts (SPs) market. Therefore, there is a strong need, nowadays, to predict the demand as well as the price of these SPs. However, ascertaining such an aim is not as easy as it may seem, this being due to the facts that (i) the demand is highly uncertain as it depends on many uncertain variables, and (ii) the price does not follow the normal value chain methods. In this research work, the artificial neural network (ANN) is utilized to develop models that can map 15 vehicles and SPs-related variables to the demand and the price of the HEV SPs. It has been demonstrated that the ANN models have the ability to predict both the demand and the price of the HEV SPs. In addition, the developed ANN models outperform the linear regression models by minimizing the root mean square error values by approximately 4 and 5 times for the demand and the price, respectively. Neural network-based models have been employed to accurately predict the demand as well as the price of the HEV SPs by mapping them to 15 vehicles and SPs-related variables.
This paper investigates theoretically and experimentally the influence of using basalt fiber (BF) on bond strength of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) concrete. The natural aggregate (NA) was replaced by RCA with 20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 %, and 100 %. BF was added with three different percentages. Ninety concrete cubes were tested under pull-out loading to failure using steel bar diameters 12, 14, and 18 mm. The behavior of specimens was analyzed by recording ultimate tensile loads and crack patterns. The experimental bond strengths were correlated with the theoretical strengths calculated using equations of different international codes in addition to existing models by previous researchers. The experimental results revealed that the bond strength improved when the RCA levels and BF contents increased. The 80 % RCA and 1.5 % BF showed the highest increase. Also the bond strength decreased as the bar diameter increased. The mode of failure for all specimens in this study was splitting failure and BF caused ductile failure. The experimental bond strengths were higher than the calculated theoretical strengths. Thus, theoretical equations can be used for determining bond strength of RCA.
The proliferation of cloud services and the massive volume of traffic provided by content delivery networks are driving the present rapid growth of Internet traffic. This obviously exacerbates the congestion concerns in communication networks, with a focus on the core and backbone components in particular. In this paper, a multipath routing traffic grooming and adaptive modulation are combined to establish an integer linear programming model with the optimization objective of minimizing the spectrum resource occupation, and a novel algorithm is proposed to solve the problem of bandwidth allocation and holding-time-aware routing in software-defined networks (SDN) integrated with elastic optical networks. A single path single service allocation approach is utilized to establish the service connection for both instant reservation allocation and advance reservation allocation. If the single path single service allocation technique fails, the single path multi sub service allocation method is applied. If it fails, the multipath multi sub service allocation method is attempted. When establishing a service connection, the allocation method with the least spectrum resource is recommended in order to reduce spectrum resource occupancy and release spectrum resource as soon as feasible. When there are no differences in spectrum resources, the allocation technique with the fewest total occupied time slots is selected. The results of simulations suggest that this approach may minimize blocking rates while also increasing spectrum usage.
Numerical modeling of electronic assemblies under impact loading is a major interesting problem. Due to the complexity of the analysis, simulation time is usually expensive. Therefore, the current paper aims to present a methodology that uses static analysis to effectively simulate the impact-stimulated mechanical response of electronic packages using finite element analysis (FEA). First, the mathematical basis of the equivalent static loading to replace shock loading are thoroughly discussed. The findings of this analytically derived solution are accordingly validated with the results of experimentally measured data and with dynamic FEA simulations. Additionally, a computational efficiency study was conducted to prove the effectiveness of the equivalent static methodology. Finally, the study results showed high accuracy of this proposed equivalent static approach with 85 % reduction in analysis time and 70 % in computer resources usage. Therefore, the present paper highly recommends the equivalent static analysis methodology as it allows for computationally effective and very accurate numerical simulations.
This study endeavors to investigate the role of female teachers of childhood education in directing children towards the effective use of smart devices in developing their learning experiences. The sample of the study consisted of 83 female teachers in the northern region of Jordan, who were selected using the available sampling method. To achieve the aim of the study, a semi-structured interview was prepared and its validity and consistency were verified. The results shown that childhood education female teachers achieved advanced roles in directing children towards the effective use of smart devices, where effective direction towards the use of smart devices was represented in: directing children to self-organize their learning during using smart devices, directing children to acquire digital social interaction skills and directing them to learn innovation during using smart devices, with the importance of directing them to avoid the harms of using smart devices through preventive guidance. Moreover, the findings of the study revealed the importance of directing children to participate in various digital activities, as well as directing them to learn through digital applications that are purposeful and suitable to their mental capabilities. Based on the research findings, the study presented a number of relevant recommendations.
Background and aim: Although nursing students are professionally and ethically trained and educated to respect patients with a variety of medical and mental problems, they continue to exhibit negative attitudes and behaviors toward mental disease and patients with mental illness. The accumulated evidence indicates that contact-based intervention (CBI) is helpful in enhancing nursing students' attitudes and behaviors toward patients with mental illness. Although evidence found to support the CBI, culture and settings might play a significant role to decide its effectiveness. This would call for testing further the effectiveness of CBI across cultures and healthcare settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a CBI on the attitudes and intended behaviors of nursing students in Jordan toward people with mental illness. Methods: A quasi-experimental, pre-post, design was used. Data were collected from 81 nursing students from two nursing schools implementing the CBI using self-reported questionnaires to measure students' attitudes and intended behaviors toward people with mental illness. Data were collected during the first semester of the academic year 2019/2020. The paired-samples and independent-samples t tests were used to test the study's hypotheses. Results: At baseline, the results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups in terms of their attitudes and intended behaviors toward people with mental illness. At posttest, statistically significant improvements in the attitudes and intended behaviors of nursing students found in the experimental group and between control and experimental groups toward people with mental illness compared with baseline pretest measures (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The CBI did improve the attitudes and intended behaviors of Jordanian nursing students toward people with mental illness. Significant implications for nurses were discussed.
Background Sonographic visualization of intrauterine pregnancy after multiple embryo transfers does not preclude the coexistence of an ectopic pregnancy, which should be excluded routinely. Heterotopic pregnancy carries high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it needs high index of suspicion to diagnose and manage accordingly. Case Presentation Our case reports a 39-year-old woman who presented with heterotopic triplet pregnancy at 5 weeks and 5 days of gestation. It resulted in a successful delivery of intrauterine monozygotic twins at 37 weeks. This pregnancy is an outcome of ICSI treatment due to low ovarian reserve. Only two embryos were obtained through the protocol and double frozen embryo transfer was done afterwards. Tubal pregnancy was successfully managed expectantly. Conclusion Our case highlights the importance of early surveillance and close monitoring of patients undergoing multiple embryo transfers. Thus, keeping the possibility of heterotopic pregnancy in mind after ART cannot be over-emphasized.
The binding energy and structures of the Be cations with H 2 molecules are studied theoretically at the level of the MP2 method. In this study, the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set is used to describe the electronic configuration of these atoms in these complexes. The structures of these complexes are determined for the $${Be}^{+}\bullet {\left({H}_{2}\right)}_{1-3}$$ complexes. A tee and a vee shaped structure are obtained for mono- and di-ligated complexes, respectively. The tri- ligated complex is found to have trigonal prism geometry. The sequential bond energies of the $${Be}^{+}\bullet {\left({H}_{2}\right)}_{1-3}$$ complexes are also examined. Differences in the electrostatic interaction energies and repulsive forces among H 2 ligands in these complexes could be the cause of the variety in the observed trend in sequential bond dissociation energy values.
This study aims to identify the mediating role of the management accounting information system (MAIS) in the relationship between innovation strategy and the financial performance of industrial companies in Jordan. To achieve the objectives of the study, the prepared a questionnaire, where the number of questionnaires was distributed (374) randomly. Where (358) questionnaires were retrieved by (95.7%) of the total questionnaires sent electronically, and they were distributed to (the general manager, financial manager, chief accountant, internal auditors, and accountants. The study reached several results, most notably: There is no significant mediating role of MAIS on the relationship between management’s value orientation towards innovation and financial performance in Jordanian industrial companies. Moreover, there is a significant mediating role of MAIS in the relationship between riskiness and financial performance in Jordanian industrial companies. In view of these results, the study recommends to the Jordanian industrial companies’ management the importance of applying the modern MAIS because it has become a critical component, and it is difficult to achieve a competitive advantage and stay in the market without relying on systems.
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2,204 members
• Department of Computer Science and Applications (CSA)
• Department of Finance and Banking
• Department of Biology and Biotechnology
• Department of Land Management and Environment
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