Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) is a signaling molecule with a well-established role for lung branching morphogenesis. Rare heterozygous, deleterious variants in the FGF10 gene are known causes of the lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital (LADD) syndrome as well as aplasia of lacrimal and salivary glands (ALSG). Previous studies indicate that pathogenic variants in FGF10 can cause lethal human developmental disorders of the lung, but reports on diffuse lung disease caused by pathogenic variants in the FGF10 gene are lacking. We describe four children with postnatal onset of severe diffuse lung disease and heterozygous variants in FGF10, each detected by whole exome or whole genome sequencing. All children presented with postnatal respiratory failure. Two children died within the first 2 days of life, one patient died at age of 12 years and one patient is alive at age of six years, but still symptomatic. One patient presented signs of severe dental caries suggestive for ALSG or LADD-syndrome. Histopathological analysis of lung biopies from the two children with early postpartum demise revealed diffuse developmental disorder representing acinar dysplasia. Sequential biopsies of the child with survival until the age of 12 years revealed alveolar simplification and progressive interstitial fibrosis. Our report extends the phenotype of FGF10 -related disorders to diffuse developmental disorders of the lung and early onset lung fibrosis. Therefore, FGF10- related disorder should be considered even without previously described syndromic stigmata in children with postnatal respiratory distress, not only when leading to death in the neonatal period but also in case of persistent respiratory complaints.
Identification of protein interactors is ideally suited for the functional characterization of small molecules. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (3',5'-cAMP) is an evolutionary ancient signaling metabolite largely uncharacterized in plants. To tap into the physiological roles of 3',5'-cAMP, we used a novel chemo-proteomics approach, thermal proteome profiling (TPP), for the unbiased identification of 3',5'-cAMP protein targets. TPP measures shifts in the protein thermal stability upon ligand binding. Comprehensive proteomics analysis yielded a list of 51 proteins significantly altered in their thermal stability upon incubation with 3',5'-cAMP. The list contained metabolic enzymes, ribosomal subunits, translation initiation factors, and proteins associated with the regulation of plant growth such as CELL DIVISION CYCLE 48. To functionally validate obtained results, we focused on the role of 3',5'-cAMP in regulating the actin cytoskeleton suggested by the presence of actin among the 51 identified proteins. 3',5'-cAMP supplementation affected actin organization by inducing actin-bundling. Consistent with these results, the increase in 3',5'-cAMP levels, obtained either by feeding or by chemical modulation of 3',5'-cAMP metabolism was sufficient to partially rescue the short hypocotyl phenotype of the actin2 actin7 mutant, severely compromised in actin level. The observed rescue was specific to 3',5'-cAMP, as demonstrated using a positional isomer 2',3'-cAMP, and true for the nanomolar 3',5'-cAMP concentrations reported for plant cells. In vitro characterization of the 3',5'-cAMP - actin pairing argues against a direct interaction between actin and 3',5'-cAMP. Alternative mechanisms by which 3',5'-cAMP would affect actin dynamics, such as by interfering with calcium signaling, are discussed. In summary, our work provides a novel resource, 3',5'-cAMP interactome, and a new functional insight into the 3',5'-cAMP-mediated regulation in plants.
Introduction: Hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau cause the development of tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We recently uncovered a causal link between constitutive serotonin receptor 7 (5-HT7R) activity and pathological tau aggregation. Here, we evaluated 5-HT7R inverse agonists as novel drugs in the treatment of tauopathies. Methods: Based on structural homology, we screened multiple approved drugs for their inverse agonism toward 5-HT7R. Therapeutic potential was validated using biochemical, pharmacological, microscopic, and behavioral approaches in different cellular models including tau aggregation cell line HEK293 tau bimolecular fluorescence complementation, primary mouse neurons, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons carrying an FTD-associated tau mutation as well as in two mouse models of tauopathy. Results: Antipsychotic drug amisulpride is a potent 5-HT7R inverse agonist. Amisulpride ameliorated tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation in vitro. It further reduced tau pathology and abrogated memory impairment in mice. Discussion: Amisulpride may be a disease-modifying drug for tauopathies.
Introduction Endometriosis significantly reduces patientsʼ quality of life and is additionally a burden on healthcare and social security systems. There are currently no quality indicators for the treatment of endometriosis. The care of patients with endometriosis must be considered inadequate. QS ENDO aims to record the quality of care available in the DACH region and to introduce quality indicators for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis as part of providing quality assurance in endometriosis care. The first phase, QS ENDO Real, recorded the reality of current care using a questionnaire. The second phase, QS ENDO Pilot, investigated the treatment of 435 patients who underwent surgical treatment within a defined one month period in certified endometriosis centers. Material and Methods An online tool was used to gather information about 9 points which covered both prior patient history and the process of clinical diagnosis. Surgery reports were reviewed to obtain information about the surgical approach, the investigated sites, findings of any histological examinations, the use of classification systems, and information about resection status. Results 85.3% of patients were asked all 4 questions about their prior medical history. All 5 diagnostic steps were carried out in 34.5% of patients. The 3 areas needed to describe potential sites of disease were recorded in 67.1% of patients. Samples for histological examination were taken in 84.1% of patients. The endometriosis stage was classified in 94.7% of surgeries. A combination of the rASRM and the ENZIAN classifications, which is needed for complex cases, was used in 46.1% of patients. Complete resection was achieved in 81.6% of surgical procedures. Conclusion For the first time, the quality of care in certified endometriosis centers has been recorded using QS ENDO Pilot. Despite the high certification standards, a substantial number of required indicators were omitted.
Robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN) is becoming a standard treatment for localized renal tumors worldwide. Data on the learning curve (LC) of RALPN are still insufficient. In the present study, we have attempted to gain further insight in this area by evaluating the LC using cumulative summation analysis (CUSUM). A series of 127 robotic partial nephrectomies were performed by two surgeons at our center between January 2018 and December 2020. CUSUM analysis was used to evaluate LC for operative time (OT). The different phases of surgical experience were compared in terms of perioperative parameters and pathologic outcomes. In addition, multivariate linear regression analysis was used to confirm the results of the CUSUM analysis by adjusting the phases of surgical experience for the other confounding factors that may affect OT. The median age of patients was 62 years, mean BMI was 28, and mean tumor size was 32 mm. Tumor complexity was classified as low, intermediate, and high risk according to the PADUA score in 44%, 38%, and 18%, respectively. The mean OT was 205 min, and trifecta was achieved in 72.4%. According to the CUSUM diagram, the LC of OT was divided into three phases: initial learning phase (18 cases), plateau phase (20 cases), and mastery phase (subsequent cases). The mean OT was 242, 208, and 190 min in the first, second, and third phases, respectively (P < 0.001). Surgeon experience phases were significantly associated with OT in multivariate analysis considering other preoperative and operative parameters. Surgical outcome was comparable between the three phases in terms of complications and achievement of trifecta; hospital stay was shorter in the mastery phase than in the first 2 phases (4 days vs 5 days, P = 0.02). The LC for RALPN is divided into 3 performance phases with CUSUM. Mastery of surgical technique was achieved after performing 38 cases. The initial learning phase of RALPN has no negative impact on surgical and oncologic outcomes .
Introduction Aside from the neurotransmitters of the sympathetic adrenergic system, vasoconstrictor peptides may also play a role in mediating the constant tone of the erectile tissue during penile flaccidity and in returning the erect penis to the flaccid state. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is present in high concentrations in the male genital tract. The peptide has been shown to induce contraction of isolated human penile tissue (corpus cavernosum, penile arteries) and potentiate its response to noradrenaline. Objective The purpose of our study was to measure in the cavernous and systemic blood of healthy male volunteers the course of NPY through different stages of sexual arousal. Methods Whole blood was drawn from the corpus cavernosum and the cubital vein of 15 healthy male volunteers during penile flaccidity (Fl), tumescence (Tu), rigidity (Ri) and detumescence (Det). Penile tumescence and erection were induced by applying audiovisual and tactile stimulation. Plasma levels of NPY (given in pmol/L) were determined by means of an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA, IBL GmbH, Hamburg, Germany). Results NPY significantly decreased in the cavernous blood with the beginning of sexual arousal, when the flaccid penis became tumescent and finally rigid (Fl: 88.8 ± 35.8, Tu: 62.4 ± 22.7, Ri: 62.3 ± 19.7). In the phase of detumescence, only a slight increase was noted (64.8 ± 23). In the systemic circulation, no pronounced alterations in the concentration of NPY were registered through the different penile stages (Fl: 64.4 ± 27, Tu: 65.8 ± 19, Ri: 59.6-25, Det: 67.6 ± 29.3). Conclusions Our findings are in favor of the hypothesis that NPY could contribute to the maintenance of the resting state of cavernous smooth muscle. It remains to be elucidated whether the peptide may play a role in the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction. Disclosure No
Machine learning-driven clinical decision support systems (ML-CDSSs) seem impressively promising for future routine and emergency care. However, reflection on their clinical implementation reveals a wide array of ethical challenges. The preferences, concerns and expectations of professional stakeholders remain largely unexplored. Empirical research, however, may help to clarify the conceptual debate and its aspects in terms of their relevance for clinical practice. This study explores, from an ethical point of view, future healthcare professionals’ attitudes to potential changes of responsibility and decision-making authority when using ML-CDSS. Twenty-seven semistructured interviews were conducted with German medical students and nursing trainees. The data were analysed based on qualitative content analysis according to Kuckartz. Interviewees’ reflections are presented under three themes the interviewees describe as closely related: (self-)attribution of responsibility, decision-making authority and need of (professional) experience. The results illustrate the conceptual interconnectedness of professional responsibility and its structural and epistemic preconditions to be able to fulfil clinicians’ responsibility in a meaningful manner. The study also sheds light on the four relata of responsibility understood as a relational concept. The article closes with concrete suggestions for the ethically sound clinical implementation of ML-CDSS.
Introduction Several strategies are published for postoperative erectile function rehabilitation after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (nsRP). Expectations of the partners of the patients are rarely subject of most of these rehabilitation studies. Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the expectations of the partners of patients undergoing nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy and penile rehabilitation programs. Methods We performed a questionnaire sent to the partners of all enrolled patients of 3 different penile rehabilitation studies after nsRP with a regular dose of different PDE5-inhibitors (sildenafil/vardenafil/tadalafil). 124 patients (mean age 69 years) had been enrolled in the rehabilitation studies and their partners (mean age 66 years) were included in this study. The survey consists of different questions, e.g. if the partners believe in the rehabilitation concept and what they expect with regards to the outcome. Results 78 partners of the 124 patients (63%) completed and returned the questionnaire. Before rehabilitation treatment 51 partners (65%) believed in the concept of rehabilitation, but only 32 partners (41%) expected partly to fully rehabilitation of erectile function of the partners caused by the initiated penile rehabilitation program. After the end of the study treatment, 2 years after nsRP, 45% of the partners are satisfied by the recovery of erectile function of their partners. Conclusions Only 41% of the partners of patients within penile rehabilitation programs expect partly to fully recovery of erectile function after nsRP. Satisfaction rate with erectile function recovery was reported by 45% of the partners 2 years after nsRP. Disclosure No
Formal proof of efficacy of a drug requires that in a prospective experiment, superiority over placebo, or either superiority or at least non-inferiority to an established standard, is demonstrated. Traditionally one primary endpoint is specified, but various diseases exist where treatment success needs to be based on the assessment of two primary endpoints. With co-primary endpoints, both need to be "significant" as a prerequisite to claim study success. Here, no adjustment of the study-wise type-1-error is needed, but sample size is often increased to maintain the pre-defined power. Studies that use an at-least-one concept have been proposed where study success is claimed if superiority for at least one of the endpoints is demonstrated. This is sometimes also called the dual primary endpoint concept, and an appropriate adjustment of the study-wise type-1-error is required. This concept is not covered in the European Guideline on multiplicity because study success can be claimed if one endpoint shows significant superiority, despite a possible deterioration in the other. In line with Röhmel's strategy, we discuss an alternative approach including non-inferiority hypotheses testing that avoids obvious contradictions to proper decision-making. This approach leads back to the co-primary endpoint assessment, and has the advantage that minimum requirements for endpoints can be modeled flexibly for several practical needs. Our simulations show that, if planning assumptions are correct, the proposed additional requirements improve interpretation with only a limited impact on power, that is, on sample size.
Since 2019, a global increase in patients presenting with functional Tourette-like behaviors (FTB) has been observed. This has been related to the exposure of tic-related content in social media, although other factors seem to further fuel this phenomenon. Recently, we, therefore, proposed the term mass social media-induced illness (MSMI) as, in our opinion, this phenomenon constitutes a new type of mass sociogenic illness (MSI) that is in contrast to all recent outbreaks spread solely via social media. In accordance with this hypothesis, we were able to identify the host of the German YouTube channel "Gewitter im Kopf" (“Thunderstorm in the brain”) as the initial virtual index case. The purpose of this paper is to present clinical characteristics of a sample of 32 patients diagnosed with MSMI-FTB compared to a large sample of patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) and other chronic tic disorders (CTD) (n = 1032) from the same center in Germany indicating clinical factors helpful to distinguish between tics in TS/CTD and MSMI-FTB. Our main findings were: in patients with MSMI-FTB compared to those with TS/CTD we found (i) a significantly higher age at onset, (ii) a significantly higher rate of females, (iii) a significantly higher rate of obscene and socially inappropriate symptoms, (iv) a significantly lower rate of comorbid ADHD, and (v) a significantly lower rate of OCD/OCB. In contrast, rates of comorbid anxiety and depression as well as reported frequencies of premonitory urges/sensations and suppressibility of symptoms did not differ between groups.
Introduction: Analgesia and sedation are essential for the care of children in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU); however, when prolonged, they may be associated with iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome (IWS) and delirium. We sought to evaluate current practices on IWS and delirium assessment and management (including non-pharmacologic strategies as early mobilization), and to investigate associations between presence of an analgosedation protocol and IWS and delirium monitoring, analgosedation weaning, and early mobilization. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional survey-based study collecting data from one experienced physician or nurse per PICU in Europe was conducted from January to April 2021. We then investigated differences among PICUs that did or did not follow an analgosedation protocol. Results: Among 357 PICUs, 215 (60%) responded across 27 countries. IWS was systematically monitored with a validated scale in 62% of PICUs, mostly using the Withdrawal Assessment Tool-1 (53%). Main first-line treatment for IWS was a rescue bolus with interruption of weaning (41%). Delirium was systematically monitored in 58% of PICUs, mostly with the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium scale (48%) and the Sophia Observation Scale for Pediatric Delirium (34%). Main reported first-line treatment for delirium was dexmedetomidine (45%) or antipsychotic drugs (40%). Seventy-one percent of PICUs reported to follow an analgosedation protocol. Multivariate analyses adjusted for PICU characteristics showed that PICUs using a protocol were significantly more likely to systematically monitor IWS (Odds Ratio [OR ]1.92, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.01-3.67) and delirium (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.07-3.72), use a protocol for analgosedation weaning (OR 6.38, 95% CI 3.20-12.71), and promote mobilization (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.63-7.03). Conclusions: Monitoring and management of IWS and delirium are highly variable among European PICUs. The use of an analgosedation protocol was associated with increased likelihood of monitoring IWS and delirium, performing a structured analgosedation weaning, and promoting mobilization. Education on this topic and interprofessional collaborations are highly needed to help reduce the burden of analgosedation-associated adverse outcomes.
Background Targeting the epigenome of cancerous diseases represents an innovative approach, and the DNA methylation inhibitor decitabine is recommended for the treatment of hematological malignancies. Although epigenetic alterations are also common to solid tumors, the therapeutic efficacy of decitabine in colorectal adenocarcinomas (COAD) is unfavorable. Current research focuses on an identification of combination therapies either with chemotherapeutics or checkpoint inhibitors in modulating the tumor microenvironment. Here we report a series of molecular investigations to evaluate potency of decitabine, the histone deacetylase inhibitor PBA and the cytidine deaminase (CDA) inhibitor tetrahydrouridine (THU) in patient derived functional and p53 null colon cancer cell lines (CCCL). We focused on the inhibition of cell proliferation, the recovery of tumor suppressors and programmed cell death, and established clinical relevance by evaluating drug responsive genes among 270 COAD patients. Furthermore, we evaluated treatment responses based on CpG island density. Results Decitabine caused marked repression of the DNMT1 protein. Conversely, PBA treatment of CCCL recovered acetylation of histone 3 lysine residues, and this enabled an open chromatin state. Unlike single decitabine treatment, the combined decitabine/PBA treatment caused > 95% inhibition of cell proliferation, prevented cell cycle progression especially in the S and G2-phase and induced programmed cell death. Decitabine and PBA differed in their ability to facilitate re-expression of genes localized on different chromosomes, and the combined decitabine/PBA treatment was most effective in the re-expression of 40 tumor suppressors and 13 genes typically silenced in cancer-associated genomic regions of COAD patients. Furthermore, this treatment repressed expression of 11 survival (anti-apoptotic) genes and augmented expression of X-chromosome inactivated genes, especially the lncRNA Xist to facilitate p53-mediated apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition of CDA by THU or its gene knockdown prevented decitabine inactivation. Strikingly, PBA treatment recovered the expression of the decitabine drug-uptake transporter SLC15A1, thus enabling high tumor drug-loads. Finally, for 26 drug responsive genes we demonstrated improved survival in COAD patients. Conclusion The combined decitabine/PBA/THU drug treatment improved drug potency considerably, and given their existing regulatory approval, our findings merit prospective clinical trials for the triple combination in COAD patients.
Purpose: The trajectory along which the cochlear implant electrode array is inserted influences the insertion forces and the probability for intracochlear trauma. Controlling the trajectory is especially relevant for reproducible conditions in electrode insertion tests. Using ex vivo cochlear specimens, manual alignment of the invisibly embedded cochlea is imprecise and hardly reproducible. The aim of this study was to develop a method for creating a 3D printable pose setting adapter to align a specimen along a desired trajectory toward an insertion axis. Methods: Planning points of the desired trajectory into the cochlea were set using CBCT images. A new custom-made algorithm processed these points for automated calculation of a pose setting adapter. Its shape ensures coaxial positioning of the planned trajectory to both the force sensor measuring direction and the insertion axis. The performance of the approach was evaluated by dissecting and aligning 15 porcine cochlear specimens of which four were subsequently used for automated electrode insertions. Results: The pose setting adapter could easily be integrated into an insertion force test setup. Its calculation and 3D printing was possible in all 15 cases. Compared to planning data, a mean positioning accuracy of 0.21 ± 0.10 mm at the level of the round window and a mean angular accuracy of 0.43° ± 0.21° were measured. After alignment, four specimens were used for electrode insertions, demonstrating the practical applicability of our method. Conclusion: In this work, we present a new method, which enables automated calculation and creation of a ready-to-print pose setting adapter for alignment of cochlear specimens in insertion test setups. The approach is characterized by a high level of accuracy and reproducibility in controlling the insertion trajectory. Therefore, it enables a higher degree of standardization in force measurement when performing ex vivo insertion tests and thereby improves reliability in electrode testing.
Background Integrase inhibitors have been recently linked to a higher risk for hypertension. In NEAT022 randomized trial, virologically suppressed persons with HIV (PWH) with high cardiovascular risk switched from protease inhibitors to dolutegravir either immediately (DTG-I) or after 48 weeks (DTG-D). Methods Primary endpoint was incident hypertension at 48 weeks. Secondary endpoints were changes in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure; adverse events and discontinuations associated with high blood pressure; and factors associated with incident hypertension. Results At baseline, 191 (46.4%) participants had hypertension and 24 persons without hypertension were receiving antihypertensive medications for other reasons. In the 197 PWH (n=98, DTG-I arm; n=99, DTG-D arm) without hypertension or antihypertensive agents at baseline, incidence rates per 100 person-years were 40.3 and 36.3 (DTG-I) and 34.7 and 52.0 (DTG-D) at 48 (P=0. 5755) and 96 (P=0. 2347) weeks. SBP or DBP changes did not differed between arms. DBP (mean, 95% confidence interval) significantly increased in both DTG-I (+2.78 mmHg (1.07-4.50), P=0.0016] and DTG-D [+2.29 mmHg (0.35-4.23), P=0.0211] arms in the first 48 weeks of exposure to dolutegravir. Four (3 under dolutegravir, 1 under protease inhibitors) participants discontinued study drugs due to adverse events associated with high blood pressure. Classical factors, but not treatment arm, were independently associated with incident hypertension. Conclusions PWH at high risk for cardiovascular disease showed high rates of hypertension at baseline and after 96 weeks. Switching to dolutegravir did not negatively impact on the incidence of hypertension or blood pressure changes relative to continuing protease inhibitors.
Background Following below-knee surgery, the optimal medical mobility device remains controversial as adequate nonweightbearing of the operated extremity is critical to ensure successful healing. The use of forearm crutches (FACs) is well established but requires using both upper extremities. The hands-free single orthosis (HFSO) is an alternative that spares the upper extremities. This pilot study compared functional, spiroergometric, and subjective parameters between HFSO and FAC. Methods Ten healthy (5 females, 5 males) participants were asked to use HFSOs and FACs in a randomized order. Five functional tests were performed: climbing stairs (CS), an L-shaped indoor course (IC), an outdoor course (OC), a 10-meter walk test (10MWT), and a 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Tripping events were counted while performing IC, OC, and 6MWT. Spiroergometric measurements consisted of a 2-step treadmill test with speeds of 1.5 and 2 km/h, each for 3 minutes. Lastly, a VAS questionnaire was completed to collect data regarding comfort, safety, pain, and recommendations. Results Significant differences between both aids were observed in CS and IC (HFSO: 29.3 seconds; FAC: 26.1 seconds, P < .03; and HFSO: 33.2 seconds, FAC: 18 seconds, P < .001, respectively). The other functional tests showed no significant differences. The trip events were not significantly different between the use of the 2 aids. Spiroergometric tests showed significant differences regarding heart rate (HFSO: 131.1 bpm at 1.5 km/h and 131 bpm at 2 km/h; FAC: 148.1 bpm at 1.5 km/h and 161.8 bpm at 2 km/h) and oxygen consumption (HFSO: 15.4 mL/min/kg at 1.5 km/h and 16 mL/min/kg at 2 km/h; FAC: 18.3 mL/min/kg at 1.5 km/h and 21.9 mL/min/kg at 2 km/h) at both speeds (all P < .01). In addition, significantly different ratings regarding the items comfort, pain, and recommendation were recorded. Both aids were equally rated for safety. Conclusion HFSOs may be an alternative to FACs, especially in activities that require physical stamina. Further prospective studies in patients with below-knee surgical intervention concerning everyday clinical use would be interesting. Level of Evidence Level IV pilot-study.
Open in new tabDownload slide Key points in favour or against the addition of acetazolamide to loop diuretics as the first choice in patients with decompensated heart failure. Abbreviations: AHF, acute heart failure; HCTZ, hydrochlorothiazide; HHF, hospitalization for heart failure; SGLT2i, sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor; WRF, worsening renal function.
Chronic liver injury leads to progressive liver fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis, a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, there are currently no effective anti-fibrotic therapies available, especially for late-stage patients, which is partly attributed to the major knowledge gap regarding liver cell heterogeneity and cell-specific responses in different fibrosis stages. To reveal the multicellular networks regulating mammalian liver fibrosis from mild to severe phenotypes, we generated a single-nucleus transcriptomic atlas encompassing 49 919 nuclei corresponding to all main liver cell types at different stages of murine carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4)-induced progressive liver fibrosis. Integrative analysis distinguished the sequential responses to injury of hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells and endothelial cells. Moreover, we reconstructed cell-cell interactions and gene regulatory networks implicated in these processes. These integrative analyses uncovered previously overlooked aspects of hepatocyte proliferation exhaustion and disrupted pericentral metabolic functions, dysfunction for clearance by apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cells, accumulation of pro-fibrotic signals, and the switch from an anti-angiogenic to a pro-angiogenic program during CCl 4-induced progressive liver fibrosis. Our dataset thus constitutes a useful resource for understanding the molecular basis of progressive liver fibrosis using a relevant animal model.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a developmental disorder of infants born prematurely, characterized by disrupted alveolarization and microvascular maturation. However, the sequence of alveolar and vascular alterations is currently not fully understood. Therefore, we used a rabbit model to evaluate alveolar and vascular development under preterm birth and hyperoxia, respectively. Pups were born by cesarean section 3 days before term and exposed for 7 days to hyperoxia (95% O2) or normoxia (21% O2). In addition, term-born rabbits were exposed to normoxia for 4 days. Rabbit lungs were fixed by vascular perfusion and prepared for stereological analysis. Normoxic preterm rabbits had a significantly lower number of alveoli than term rabbits. The number of septal capillaries was lower in preterm rabbits but less pronounced than the alveolar reduction. In hyperoxic preterm rabbits, the number of alveoli was similar to that in normoxic preterm animals; however, hyperoxia had a severe additional negative effect on the capillary number. In conclusion, preterm birth had a strong effect on alveolar development, and hyperoxia had a more pronounced effect on capillary development. The data provide a complex picture of the vascular hypothesis of BPD which rather seems to reflect the ambient oxygen concentration than the effect of premature birth.
Background: Data on calcineurin-inhibitor (CNI) free immunosuppression after lung transplantation (LTx) are limited. Aim of this study was to investigate CNI-free immunosuppression using mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. Methods: This retrospective analysis was performed at a single center. Adult patients after LTx without CNI during the follow-up period were included. Outcome was compared to those LTx patients with malignancy who continued CNI. Results: Among 2,099 patients in follow-up, fifty-one (2.4%) were converted median 6.2 years after LTx to a CNI-free regimen combining mTOR inhibitors with prednisolone and an antimetabolite, two patients were switched to mTOR inhibitors with prednisolone only. In 25 patients, malignancies without curative treatment options were the reason of the conversion, with a 1-year survival of 36%. The remaining patients had a 1-year survival of 100%. Most common non-malignant indication was neurological complications (n = 9). Fifteen patients were re-converted to a CNI-based regimen. The median duration of CNI-free immunosuppression was 338 days. No acute rejections were detected in 7 patients with follow-up biopsies. In multivariate analysis, CNI-free immunosuppression were not associated with improved survival after malignancy. The majority of patients with neurological diseases improved 12 months after conversion. Glomerular filtration rate increased by median 5 (25 and 75% percentiles -6; +18) ml/min/1.73 m2. Conclusions: mTOR inhibitor based CNI-free immunosuppression may be safely performed in selected patients after LTx. This approach was not associated with improved survival in patients with malignancy. Significant functional improvements were observed in patients with neurological diseases.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.
Carl Neuberg Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Niedersachsen, Germany
Head of institution
Prof. Dr. med. Michael Peter Manns