In millimeter wave(mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with hybrid precoding structure, the channel estimation is a huge challenge. The paper proposes an effective channel estimation algorithm based on l1/2-SVD idea. The first step is to establish an objective function composed of the weighted sum of l1/2-regular term and error constraint term. Then the singular value decomposition (SVD) pretreatment is used to decrease the selection of the initial value of the angle parameter in the iterative weighting process. Next, the estimated value of the angle parameter is obtained by the gradient descent method. Simulation results exhibit that the proposed scheme has better accuracy than traditional channel estimation algorithms.
Oncorhynchus mykiss is delicious and contains abundant flavor substances. However, few studies focused on umami peptides of O. mykiss. In the current work, umami peptides derived from O. mykiss were identified using virtual screening, molecular docking, and electronic tongue analysis. First, the O. mykiss protein was hydrolyzed using the PeptideCutter online enzymolysis program. Subsequently, water-soluble and toxicity screening were performed by Innovagen and ToxinPred software, respectively. The potential peptides were docked with umami receptor T1R1/T1R3. Furthermore, taste properties of potential peptides were validated by electronic tongue. Docking results suggested that the three tetrapeptide EANK, EEAK, and EMQK could enter the binding pocket in the T1R1 cavity, wherein Arg151, Asp147, Gln52, and Arg277 may play key roles in the production of umami taste. Electronic tongue results showed that the umami value of EANK, EEAK, and EMQK were stronger than monosodium glutamate. This work provides a new insight for the screening of umami peptides in O. mykiss.
The tumor microenvironment (TME) profoundly influences tumor progression and affects immunotherapy responses and resistance. Understanding its heterogeneity is the key for developing immunotherapy. However, the available methods can only partially portray the TME heterogeneity with a small number of cell types. Here, we developed a deep learning-based frame with a design visible, DCNet, that embeds the relationships between cells and their marker genes in the neural network, and can infer the cell landscape with more than 400 cell types based on bulk RNA-seq data. DCNet accurately recapitulated the cell landscape of multiple single cell RNA-seq datasets, which showed better robustness and stability. Based on the cell landscape of TCGA patients, which was built with DCNet, the patients were divided into two groups with significant differences in survival time and distinct cell-type populations. DCNet provides a foundation for decoding TME heterogeneity. The source code of DCNet can be found on GitHub: https://github.com/xindd/DCNet.
Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS) typically assigns sensing tasks in the same target area to many participants considering data quality and the diversity of sensing devices. However, participant selection is based on the individual in many research. The efficiency of individual recruitment is low. Individuals need higher transportation costs to go to the task location alone, and the data quality perceived by individuals is difficult to guarantee. This paper proposes a team-based multitask data acquisition scheme under time constraints to address these challenges. The scheme optimised the number of participants, traffic cost, and data quality and designed four team-based multitask allocation algorithms under time constraints in the MCS: T-RandomTeam, T-MostTeam, T-RandomMITeam, and T-MostMITeam. The team size is associated with the number of participants required for the first task or the vehicle capacity to perform the task. We conducted extensive experiments based on a real large-scale dataset to evaluate the four algorithms’ performances compared to two baseline algorithms (T-Random and T-most). The efficiency of the four algorithms has been significantly improved by team recruitment. The transportation cost can be multiplicatively reduced by carpooling. Data quality can be improved by at least 2% through reputation screening and team members’ communication.
Background As the relay centre for processing sensory information, the thalamus may involve in the abnormal sensory procedure caused by cortical spreading depression (CSD). However, few studies have focused on the transient response of thalamus during CSD. Our study aimed to investigate the neuronal activity of mouse thalamus ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) during CSD by in vivo micro-endoscopic fluorescence imaging of the genetic calcium probe GCaMP6s expressed in excitatory glutamatergic neurons. Methods Thirty-four transgenic VGluT2-GCaMP6s mice were used in the experiments. An endoscope was inserted into the VPM for image acquisition. CSD was induced by KCl topically applied unilaterally on the cranial dura. Data were acquired in awake (ipsilateral or contralateral VPM, saline instead of KCl, MK-801 treatment) and anaesthetized (isoflurane, pentobarbital) states. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) by SPSS. Results We found that after CSD induced in ipsilateral motor cortex, the neuronal activity increased and propagated from the posterior-lateral to the anterior-medial part of the VPM with an average speed of 3.47 mm/min. When CSD was induced in visual cortex, the response propagated in opposite direction, from the anterior-medial to the posterior-lateral part of the VPM. Aanaesthetics resulted in the suppression of VPM activation induced by CSD. No significant VPM activation was detected when CSD was induced in contralateral cortex or KCl was replaced by saline. When 5 mM MK-801 was applied to the dura, the electrode failed to record the DC shift of CSD, and there was no significant VPM activation after KCl application. Conclusion CSD induced propagating activation of the ipsilateral VPM in awake mice. The response might correlate to the cortical location where CSD was induced and might be affected by anaesthetics. No significant VPM activation was detected in saline and mk801 experiment results indicated that this VPM activation is due to CSD rather than mouse motion or direct effect of the KCl applying to the intact dura. This finding suggests the potential involvement of thalamus in the migraine auras.
Chilling stress is the major abiotic stress that severely limited the seedling establishment of direct-seeded rice in temperate and sub-tropical rice production regions. While seed priming is an efficient pre-sowing seed treatment in enhancing crop establishment under abiotic stress. Our previous research has identified two seed priming treatments, selenium priming (Se) and salicylic priming (SA) that effectively improved the seed germination and seedling growth of rice under chilling stress. To further explore how seed priming enhance the starch degradation of rice seeds under chilling stress, the present study evaluated the effects of Se and SA priming on germination and seedling growth, α-amylase activity, total soluble sugar content, hormone content and associated gene relative expression under chilling stress. The results showed that both Se and SA priming significantly increased the seed germination and seedling growth attributes, and enhanced the starch degradation ability by increasing α-amylase activity and total soluble sugar content under chilling stress. Meanwhile, seed priming increased the transcription level of OsRamy1A , OsRamy3B that regulated by GA, and increased the transcription level of OsRamy3E that regulated by sugar signals. Furthermore, seed priming significantly improved the GA 3 contents in rice seeds by up-regulating the expression of OsGA3ox1 and OsGA20ox1 , and decreased the ABA content and the expression of OsNCED1, indicating that the improved starch degradation ability in primed rice seeds under chilling stress might be attributed to the increased GA 3 and decreased ABA levels in primed rice seeds, which induced the expression of GA-mediated α-amylase. However, studies to explore how seed priming mediate hormonal metabolism and the expression of OsRamy3E are desperately needed.
Transient-receptor potential (TRP) channels comprise a diverse family of ion channels, which play important roles in regulation of intracellular calcium. Emerging evidence has revealed the critical roles of TRP channels in tumor development and progression. However, we still lack knowledge about the genetic and pharmacogenomics landscape of TRP genes across cancer types. Here, we comprehensively characterized the genetic and transcriptome alterations of TRP genes across >10,000 patients of 33 cancer types. We revealed prevalent somatic mutations and copy number variation in TRP genes. In particular, mutations located in transmembrane regions of TRP genes were likely to be deleterious mutations ( p -values < 0.001). Genetic alterations were correlated with transcriptome dysregulation of TRP genes, and we found that TRPM2, TRPM8, and TPRA1 showed extent dysregulation in cancer. Patients with TRP gene alterations were with significantly higher hypoxia scores, tumor mutation burdens, tumor stages and grades, and poor survival. The alterations of TRP genes were significantly associated with the activity of cancer-related pathways. Moreover, we found that the expression of TRP genes were potentially useful for development of targeted therapies. Our study provided the landscape of genomic and transcriptomic alterations of TPRs across 33 cancer types, which is a comprehensive resource for guiding both mechanistic and therapeutic analyses of the roles of TRP genes in cancer. Identifying the TRP genes with extensive genetic alterations will directly contribute to cancer therapy in the context of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine.
Adaptive optics (AO) is a powerful tool for optical microscopy to counteract the effects of optical aberrations and improve the imaging performance in biological tissues. The diversity of sample characteristics entails the use of different AO schemes to measure the underlying aberrations. Here, we present an indirect wavefront sensing method leveraging a virtual imaging scheme and a structural-similarity-based shift measurement algorithm to enable aberration measurement using intrinsic structures even with temporally varying signals. We achieved high-resolution two-photon imaging in a variety of biological samples, including fixed biological tissues and living animals, after aberration correction. We present AO-incorporated subtractive imaging to show that our method can be readily integrated with resolution enhancement techniques to obtain higher resolution in biological tissues. The robustness of our method to signal variation is demonstrated by both simulations and aberration measurement on neurons exhibiting spontaneous activity in a living larval zebrafish.
Background Whether human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) can affect mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) remains controversial. The present meta-analysis was aimed to evaluate whether HHV-6B is significantly associated with MTLE. Methods Six studies were included in this meta-analysis, comprising 183 MTLE patients and 75 controls. In these studies, HHV-6B infection in astrocytes and brain samples of MTLE patients and controls was investigated by polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence. Results The frequency of HHV-6B infection detection is significantly higher in the MTLE group than in the control group (OR = 9.42, 95%CI: 3.66–24.25), P < 0.00001). Although febrile convulsion is strongly associated with MTLE, the formation of febrile convulsion leading to MTLE is not associated with HHV-6B infection (OR = 2.68, 95%CI: 0.93–7.73), P = 0.07). Moreover, the HHV-6B-specific antigen is co-localized to cells positive for GFAP that morphologically resemble astrocytes. HHV-6B mainly infects astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia, and could damage the vascular endothelial cells of the central nervous system. Conclusions There is an association between HHV-6B infection and MTLE. Future large-scale, multi-center, controlled, prospective studies are required to confirm these findings. In addition, the exact mechanism underlying the effects of HHV-6B infection on MTLE needs to be further investigated.
The reversible acetylation of histones is effective for controlling chromatin dynamics and plays crucial roles in eukaryotes. In the present study, we identified and characterized a histone deacetylase HOS2 ortholog, designated CgHOS2, in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides . Knocking out CgHOS2 resulted in decreased vegetative growth, impaired conidiation, and reduced stress tolerance. Moreover, the Δ CgHOS2 mutant failed to form appressoria and lost pathogenicity on intact plant leaves. Western blot analysis revealed that CgHOS2 is responsible for the deacetylation of histone H3. Via transcriptomic analysis, a series of candidate genes controlled by CgHOS2 were predicted. Of these candidate genes, the expression of melanin biosynthesis-related enzymes was significantly reduced in vegetative hyphae and especially in appressoria, which led to a decrease in melanin content and failure of appressorium formation. Taken together, these results highlight the role of CgHOS2 in pathogenicity via regulation of melanin biosynthesis in C. gloeosporioides .
Although group-level service failures usually cause more adverse consequences than individual-level ones, existing literature on group service failures is scarce. Besides, almost all service failure and recovery studies suggest that customers hold consistent emotional reactions during a group service failure, which causes a lack of exploring inconsistent emotional responses. This research focuses on this under-explored area and investigates how and why perceived inappropriateness of collective emotion (PICE) influences customer participation in service recovery. The present work proposed a moderated mediation model and conducted three scenario-based experiments to validate the influence of PICE on customer participation in service recovery and the mediating path of cognitive reappraisal. The present research also unveils the moderating effects of protective face orientation and relationship norms on the relationship between PICE and cognitive reappraisal. These findings enriched theories on group service failure and recovery and offered tourism companies suggestions on utilizing PICE to facilitate favorable recovery outcomes.
The synthesis of anisotropic gold nanostructures has developed drastically in the last decade. Under the background of carbon neutrality, the search for highly efficient, stable, and non-polluting catalysts has become a tireless pursuit of scholars. Gold is a plasmon metal with tunable electronic and optical properties, so gold-based nanostructures have received significant research attention for clean solar energy applications. In this review, we presented the stability, optical, magnetic, and electrical properties of gold and further introduced the excitation and subsequent relaxation process of surface plasmon resonance, giving the status of its hot carriers on a time scale. Secondly, we systematically summed up the properties and recent progress of anisotropic gold nanostructures by morphology into one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional, analyzing how anisotropic gold nanostructures could achieve maximum efficiency of solar light utilization. Finally, we presented the existing deficiencies and future perspectives in this field to provide more possibilities for solar energy conversion.
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