Recently, food grade nanofiber-based materials have received growing attentions in food packaging. In this work, novel active and intelligent packaging nanofibers based on gelatin/ chitosan with curcumin (GA/CS/CUR) were developed via electrospinning technique. Effects of the incorporation of CUR content (0.1 %－0.3 %, m/m) on the microstructure and functional properties of the electrospun nanofibers were investigated. Morphological studies using scanning electron microscopy indicated that loading CUR can affect the average diameter of nanofiber mats, which remained around 160180 nm. The addition of an appropriate level CUR (0.2 %, m/m) led to a stronger intermolecular interaction, and thus enhanced the thermal stability and tensile strength of the obtained nanofibers. Meanwhile, the incorporation of CUR significantly improved antioxidant activity and the antimicrobial activity of GA/CS/CUR nanofibers. Moreover, the sensitivity of nanofibers to ammonia results indicated that GA/CS nanofibers containing 0.2 % CUR (GA/CS/CUR II) presented high sensitivity of colorimetric behavior to ammonia (within 3 min). These results suggest GA/CS/CUR II nanofibers has great potential as a multifunctional packaging to protect and monitor the freshness of protein-rich animal foods, such as meat and seafood.
Efficient and robust photocatalysts for environmental pollutants removal with outstanding stability have great significance. Herein, we report a kind of three dimensional (3D) photocatalyst presented as Z-scheme heterojunction, which combining TiO2 and ZnxCd1-xS with graphene aerogel to contrast TiO2-ZnxCd1-xS graphene aerogel (TSGA, x=0.5) through a moderate hydrothermal process. The as-prepared Z-scheme TSGA was used to remove aqueous Cr(VI) via a synergistic effect of adsorption and visible light photocatalysis. The adsorption equilibrium can be reached about 40 min, then after about 30 min irradiation under visible light (wavelength (λ) > 420 nm) the removal rate of Cr(VI) almost reached 100%, which is much better than the performance of pristine TiO2 and Zn0.5Cd0.5S, as well as TiO2 graphene aerogel (TGA) and Zn0.5Cd0.5S graphene aerogel (SGA). The virulent Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) with hypotoxicity after photocatalysis on TSGA, meanwhile the as-synthesized TSGA presented a good stability and reusability. The reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets between TiO2 and Zn0.5Cd0.5S played a role as charge transfer mediator, promoting the photoinduced electrons transfer and photocatalysis ability of TSGA was enhanced significantly. Hence, such photocatalyst exhibits a potential application on removing heavy metals with high efficiency and stability from polluted aqueous environment.
Background The interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs) were originally identified as transcription factors playing critical roles in the regulation of IFN-related genes in the signal pathway. In mammals, IRF4 plays a vital role in both the innate and adaptive immune system. This study aims to reveal the molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis, expression profiles and the regulatory role in the IFN and NF-κB signalling pathways of IRF4 in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio . L) (abbreviation, ccIRF4). Results Here, ccIRF4 was identified and characterized, it contained a DNA binding domain (DBD) which possess five tryptophans and an IRF-associated domain (IAD). The predicted protein sequence of the ccIRF4 showed higher identities with grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella ) and zebrafish ( Danio rerio ). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that ccIRF4 has the closest relationship with zebrafish IRF4. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that ccIRF4 was constitutively expressed in all investigated tissues with the highest expression level in the gonad. Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) stimulation up-regulated the ccIRF4 expressions in the liver, spleen, head kidney, skin, foregut and hindgut. Upon Aeromonas hydrophila injection, the expression level of ccIRF4 was up-regulated in all tissues with the exception of spleen. In addition, ccIRF4 was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and Flagellin in head kidney leukocytes (HKLs). Overexpression of the ccIRF4 gene in epithelioma papulosum cyprini cells (EPC) down regulated the expressions of IFN-related genes and proinflammatory factors. Dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that ccIRF4 decreased the activation of NF-κB through MyD88. Conclusions These results indicate that ccIRF4 participates in both antiviral and antibacterial immune response and negatively regulates the IFN and NF-κB response. Overall, our study on ccIRF4 provides more new insights into the innate immune system of common carp as well as a theoretical basis for investigating the pathogenesis and prevention of fish disease.
The adulteration of tuna is found as attenuation of morphological characteristics during processing due to the exhaustion of tuna resource. The authenticity of tuna is now concentrated in the seafood supply chain. Protein, as the most important component of tuna muscle, plays a very important role in tuna. In this study, the protein relative quantitation of 3 commercial tuna species (skipjack tuna, bigeye tuna and yellowfin tuna) were revealed through the developed sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion mass spectra (SWATH-MS)-based proteomic analysis with 81 proteins being reliably quantified. Further protein biomarkers discovery was carried out by chemometrics, leading to 14 proteins screened as potential biomarkers. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that the screened protein biomarkers have the ability to distinguish the 3 tuna species. Gene ontology (GO) annotation of the screened protein biomarkers most of them were relevant to molecular functions.
TiO2-based nanostructure has been reported as one of the most developable anode materials for sodium-ion batteries, but its low capacity and poor rate capability bring an unavoidable challenge and impede the practical application. In this study, surface phosphorylated TiO2 nanofibers with anatase/bronze binary-phase are fabricated using ion exchange-annealing treatment and subsequent phosphorylation. The resulting nanofibers can serve as an efficient electrode material for sodium storage, affording a reversible capacity of 224.7 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1 and a superior high-rate cycling capability of 108.9 mAh g-1 at 2000 mA g−1 after 1000 cycles. XPS and HRTEM reveal that the synthesized SP-TiO2-A/B nanofibers present heterojunction-boundary between anatase/bronze binary-phase and well-crystallized internal-structure with disordered/amorphous surface, and a high ratio of active surface was motivated through phosphorylation and Na+ ion storage behavior was efficiently modulated. The surface phosphorylation engineering provides a promising strategy to develop Na-storage electrodes with superior electrochemical performance.
Desert ecosystems are one of the most fragile ecosystems on Earth. The study of the effects of paleoclimatic and geological changes on genetic diversity, genetic structure, and species differentiation of desert plants is not only helpful in understanding the strategies of adaptation of plants to arid habitats, but can also provide reference for the protection and restoration of vegetation in desert ecosystem. Northwest China is an important part of arid regions in the northern hemisphere. Convolvulus tragacanthoides and Convolvulus gortschakovii are closely related and have similar morphology. Through our field investigation, we found that the annual precipitation of the two species distribution areas is significantly different. Thus, C. tragacanthoides and C. gortschakovii provide an ideal comparative template to investigate the evolutionary processes of closely related species, which have adapted to different niches in response to changes in paleogeography and paleoclimate in northwest China. In this study, we employed phylogeographical approaches (two cpDNA spacers: rpl14–rpl36 and trnT–trnY) and species distribution models to trace the demographic history of C. tragacanthoides and C. gortschakovii, two common subshrubs and small shrubs in northwest China. The results showed the following: (1) Populations of C. tragacanthoides in northwest China were divided into three groups: Tianshan Mountains—Ili Valley, west Yin Mountains—Helan Mountains‐Qinglian Mountains, and Qinling Mountains—east Yin Mountains. There was a strong correlation between the distribution of haplotypes and the floristic subkingdom. The three groups corresponded to the Eurasian forest subkingdom, Asian desert flora subkingdom, and Sino‐Japanese floristic regions, respectively. Thus, environmental differences among different flora may lead to the genetic differentiation of C. tragacanthoides in China. (2) The west Yin Mountains—Helan Mountains‐Qinglian Mountains, and Qinling Mountains—east Yin Mountains were thought to form the ancestral distribution range of C. tragacanthoides. (3) C. tragacanthoides and C. gortschakovii adopted different strategies to cope with the Pleistocene glacial cycle. Convolvulus tragacanthoides contracted to the south during the glacial period and expanded to the north during the interglacial period; and there was no obvious north–south expansion or contraction of C. gortschakovii during the glacial cycle. (4) The interspecific variation of C. tragacanthoides and C. gortschakovii was related to the orogeny in northwest China caused by the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau during Miocene. (5) The 200 mm precipitation line formed the dividing line between the niches occupied by C. tragacanthoides and C. gortschakovii, respectively. In this study, from the perspective of precipitation, the impact of the formation of the summer monsoon limit line on species divergence and speciation is reported, which provides a new perspective for studying the response mechanism of species to the formation of the summer monsoon line, and also provides a clue for predicting how desert plants respond to future environmental changes. In this study, we employed phylogeographical approaches and species distribution models (SDMs) to trace the demographic history of Convolvulus tragacanthoides and Convolvulus gortschakovii, two subshrubs adapted to arid and semi‐arid climate, respectively. Our results show that the long‐term climatic differences between the arid and semi‐arid areas might increase species divergence and local adaptation.
In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Heniochus acuminatus was first sequenced and annotated. The entire mitogenome is 16,584 bp in length, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a non-coding control region. The phylogenetic analysis by maximum-likelihood (ML) method revealed that H. acuminatus belongs to the Chaetodontidae family and is closely related to other Heniochus fish. The complete mitochondrial genome of H. acuminatus is helpful in population genetics and molecular systematics.
Free, conjugated, and bound phenolic fractions of peel and pulp in four wampee varieties from South China were analyzed for their contents, composition, antioxidant capacities, and inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase. We found that there were significant differences in phenolic/flavonoid contents among diverse varieties and different parts (peel and pulp), and the contents were highest in the peel’s bound form. The results of UHPL-Q-Exactive HF-X and HPLC showed that chlorogenic acid, gentisic acid, and rutin were abundantly distributed over the three phenolic fractions in peel and pulp of all wampee samples, while isoquercitrin was the most abundant in the conjugated form of peel/pulp and myricetin had the richest content in the free form of peel/pulp. Wampee peel had stronger antioxidant capacities of ABTS+, DPPH, ·OH, and FRAP than the pulp, and the bound phenolic fraction of the peel/pulp had much higher antioxidant activities than FP and CP fractions. It is interesting that the same phenolic fraction of the wampee peel displayed roughly close IC50 values of α-glucosidase inhibition to those from the pulp samples. The relationship between individual phenolic and TPC/TFC/the bio-activities and the similarity among the free, conjugated, and bound phenolic fractions in peel and pulp samples were explored by using Pearson correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and hierarchical cluster analysis. This work provides a systematic and comprehensive comparison of the three phenolic fractions of diverse wampee varieties and different parts, and a rationale for applying phenolics from wampee fruits.
Biogeochemistry of chemical elements plays a critical role in the evolution of coral reefs with significant impacts on the relationship between corals and symbiotic algae, new vs recycled productions, and the biodiversity of coral ecosystem. In this chapter, we review the major driving forces and pathways of chemical elements in coral reefs and assess the effects of biogeochemical cycles on the autotrophic and heterotrophic processes as well as the calcification of corals in the Western Pacific Ocean. Using a modeling approach, we estimate the influence of hydrographic properties and nutrients on the dynamic nature (e.g., production, respiration, and calcification) of coral systems. This study is essentially based on the research results from the Western Pacific Region, but the experiences and lessons learned can be beneficial to the other areas of the world.KeywordsCoral reefsBiogeochemical cyclingNutrients and trace elementsModeling approach
Free floating Test Masses (TM) of inertial reference instruments accumulate charge mainly through the triboelectric effect during separation from their housings and, if in the space environment, from cosmic radiation. These charges will degrade the accuracy of high sensitivity accelerometers and drag-free sensors. We demonstrate in ground testing two passive bipolar charge management systems using photoelectrons emitted from gold coated surfaces under illumination by Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes (UV LEDs) with 255 nm, 275 nm, and 295 nm central wavelengths. The first method uses fast photoelectrons, generated by two 255 nm UV-LEDs with adjustable-intensity (through fine-tuning of their excitation currents) and illuminating the TM and its housing respectively. A second technique uses slow photoelectrons generated by one UV LED, of either 275 nm or 295 nm, directed at the TM. Fast and slow electrons are defined as having kinetic energies after photoemission above and below 〖eV〗_TM^max, where V_TM^max is the maximum allowable potential required for normal operation of the TM. In its optimized configurations and following an exposure of < 30 sec to UV, the fast-photoelectron control system converges to zero TM potential from 1 V with a drift of 1.5 mV/day. The slow-photoelectron system requires about 5 minutes to converge to zero TM potential from 100 mV, with a similar drift of 2.0 mV/day. For reference, V_TM^max≅80mV for the LISA and LISA pathfinder sensors. While the two-source UV fast photoelectron method is a modification of the LISA Pathfinder approach, the slow photoelectron method is a new passive charge management technique. These two passive techniques were developed for instruments without sensing and activation systems. For instruments with electric fields surrounding the TM and more complex geometries additional adaptations are required.
The objective of this study was to investigate the advantages of liquid nitrogen freezing (LNF) over normal contact freezing (NCF) and individual quickly freezing (IQF). The quality attributes of LNF on crayfish (Procambarus clarkia) were characterized by biochemical and structural properties. Compared with NCF and IQF, LNF presented lower total viable counts (TVC) value of 5.83 log(CFU/g), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of 0.74 mg/kg, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N) content of 23.43 mg/100g and α‐glucosidase and β‐acetyl glucosaminidase enzyme activities. SDS‐PAGE patterns confirmed less protein denaturation in LNF. Meanwhile, texture parameters analysis indicated LNF held texture quality better, while scanning electron microscope patterns revealed that muscle fibers in LNF were more uniform. The mathematical models exhibited the significant correlation among biochemical and structural properties. Therefore, LNF was a promising freezing process for crayfish preservation, due to the formation of small intracellular ice crystals and maintenance of cell integrity.
Distant hybridization is a traditional and effective technology in fish genetic breeding. In this study, we reported a new type of golden pompano (Named as Chenhai No.1) produced by the distant hybridization of (Trachinotus ovatus ♀ × T. blochii ♂) ♀ × T. ovatus ♂. The results regarding DNA content, chromosomal number, and morphological traits showed that “Chenhai No.1” was a diploid hybrid with 48 chromosomes, and presented a hybrid appearance compared with those in its parents. Meanwhile, all detected “Chenhai No.1” including males and females showed the normal gonadal structure and could produce offspring by self-crossing at 3 years old. In addition, the growth rate of “Chenhai No.1” was 35.52% faster than T. ovatus. In conclusion, the fertile “Chenhai No.1” with faster growth rate provided a superior germplasm resource, which will further promote the industrial development of golden pompano.
This study investigates the crustal structure and Cenozoic magmatism in the northwestern South China Sea (SCS), based on two long-cable multi-channel seismic reflection profiles, together with gravity and magnetic data, and adjacent wide-angle refraction profiles. Basins/sags are bounded by large listric-normal faults (fault throws ≥ 0.5 km) and massifs are cut off by normal faults with small offsets (fault throws < 0.5 km) in the northwestern SCS. These structures are penetrated by magmatic edifices showing positive gravity and magnetic anomalies. Syn-rift magmatic intrusions/extrusions were intense in the basins/sags and continent-ocean transition zone while post-rift magmatism was widespread from basins/sags to massifs with the most intense stage occurring from 5.5 to 2.6 Ma. Based on previous geophysical and geochemical results, we suggest that syn-rift mantle upwelling from partial melting initiated seafloor spreading magmatic activities, whereas plume-related mantle upwelling contributed to the magmatism during and after seafloor spreading in the northwestern SCS. Stretching factors show that the upper and lower crusts have experienced differential extension from basins/sags to massifs. The non-uniform crustal extension resulted from upper crustal faulting and lower crustal flow. Particularly, the lower crustal flow was probably linked with the combined action of magmatic heating, mantle flow shearing stresses, and sediment loading, resulting in crustal boudinage and reestablishment of an equilibrium state over long distances.
With the increase in environmental protection requirements, the oil in the wastewater from offshore oil wells or industries has to be removed with high-precision before discharge. However, the oil-in-water emulsion with high stability is intractable, which makes the oil removal a great challenge. Herein, we designed a novel approach to fabricate carbon fiber cloth with cutting effect that can separate oil-in-water emulsion efficiently. Carbon fibers were firstly modified by ZIF-8 nanoparticles through a hydrothermal method, which induced an ultrafast growth of vertical zinc blades during subsequent electrodeposition (100 s). The blade-like Zn nanosheets on carbon fiber cloth (B-Zn/CFs) were assembled into a superhydrophilic/underwater superoleophobic hierarchical structure, which have the capability of rupturing oil-in-water emulsion via unique cutting effect of the zinc blades. High separation efficiency of 99.72% with exceptional emulsion flux of 962.95 L m⁻² h⁻¹ bar⁻¹, and remaining above 98.53% after 10 cycles were achieved over the composite materials. In addition, the underwater superoleophobic property of B-Zn/CFs persisted even after ultrasonic treatment and salt solution immersion. It is demonstrated that the composite materials show excellent recyclability, mechanical stability and environmental stability during oil/water separation. This work provides a new pathway to design functional materials for high-precision oil removal from wastewater. Graphical abstract
In order to enhance the research of art design in colleges and universities, based on the theory of augmented reality, 5G communication technology is used to conduct targeted analysis of art design and creation in colleges and universities. Through the research of feature parameter extraction, parameter consistency test, and optimization algorithm analysis on the relevant data of the art design in colleges and universities, the deficiencies of art design and creation in colleges and universities are pointed out, and relevant solutions are adopted. The results show that with the increase of distribution distance, the curve of the z value shows a linear change trend. The curve corresponding to a value has an obvious polynomial change rule. Through the analysis, it can be seen that the influence of two parameters on augmented reality needs to be considered comprehensively. As the number of iterative steps increases, the consistency curve of augmented reality shows an obvious linear downward trend. However, the increase of parameter m can improve the data changes of augmented reality consistency, and the research shows that parameter m can further promote the consistency changes of augmented reality. The gradual increase of index Pn leads to a gradual decline in data Pc, while the parameter Px has an opposite effect on data Pc. Therefore, in order to obtain targeted data and results of 5G communication technology, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the influence of the two factors. Finally, the optimization model based on augmented reality and 5G communication technology is used to analyze and predict the relevant characteristic data of university art design, so as to verify the accuracy of the model. The research results can provide support for the application of augmented reality and 5G communication technology in other art fields.
Due to the limitation of actual teaching conditions, limited resources, and unsatisfactory teaching effect, a hybrid teaching system of college English news listening course based on improved SPOC is proposed. The hardware environment is made up of 5 servers and 3 switches, and the hardware service resource is optimized by SPOC cloud deployment. The cough relieving mechanism based on evaluation level is built inside the system. The objective of this study designs and implements a research on the application of the improved SPOC hybrid teaching system in college English listening teaching. The test results show that the design system can effectively improve students’ learning performance and enthusiasm and initiative and, to some extent, improve students’ listening learning habits.
Coral reefs are one of the most diverse, productive ecosystems in the world, and light plays crucial role in its survival. Notably, the effects of light conditions on soft coral and its adaptive mechanism were unclear . Thus, the present study aimed to investigate and evaluate the effects of different light intensities (30, 80 and 130μmol m ⁻² s ⁻¹ ) and photoperiods (18D:6L, 12D:12L and 6D:18L) on cultivation of soft coral Sarcophyton trocheliophorum . During two 50-day of the experiments, we monitored the zooxanthellae density, Chl a content, enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and GST) and microbial diversity of S . trocheliophorum . Our study's outcomes found that, at the end of the experiment, the 80μmol m ⁻² s ⁻¹ light intensity group and 12D:12L photoperiod group both possessed the highest zooxanthellae density (2.54×10 ⁸ ± 0.14×10 ⁸ cells g ⁻¹ DW and 2.40×10 ⁸ ± 0.07×10 ⁸ cells g ⁻¹ DW, respectively), Chl a content (295.01 ± 14.13µg g ⁻¹ DW and 287.78 ± 16.13µg g ⁻¹ DW, respectively) and microbial diversity and relatively stable enzyme activities level. Besides, we speculated that the reason for the decline of zooxanthellae density Chl a content and microbial diversity under other light conditions might be that it induced light stress and caused oxidative damage. The main bacterial composition of S . trocheliophorum in different light conditions was similar at the phylum level, showing the stability of microbial community structure. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were dominant under all light conditions, so we hypothesized that these bacteria phylum play a crucial role in coral growth and survival. In conclusion, compared with the other treatments, 80μmol m ⁻² s ⁻¹ light intensity and 12D:12L photoperiod were more beneficial to the growth performance of S . trocheliophorum and could be recommended for its cultivation condition. Our study could provide helpful information for sustainable management plans for the cultivation and conservation of soft corals, which was especially important to the protection and restoration of degraded coral reefs.
The enhancement behaviors of polyvinyl alcohol/hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose/roselle anthocyanin (PHR) film on sensory and physico-chemical properties of Penaeus vannamei were investigated. The shrimp packaged by PHR film displayed better sensory profiles with higher sensory scores and lower rejection degree (62.67 ± 2.31%). Compared with control group, the color parameters were improved by PHR film, such as higher lightness (36.30 ± 1.23), lower redness (6.67 ± 1.15), and yellowness (6.67 ± 0.51) as well as less browning effects. Microstructure observation revealed that the PHR film could keep more compact and uniform muscle tissue with less cracks and small fragments. In addition, PHR film was effective in increasing of water holding capacities (80.23 ± 1.70%) and maintenance of flavor characteristics. Meanwhile, the PHR films had abilities to delay protein structure alterations, manifesting as higher total protein contents (23.36 ± 2.58 mg/mL) and less generation of carbonyl groups (5.12 ± 0.16 nmol/mg) and disulfide bonds (3.11 ± 0.07 mol/105 g). Moreover, statistical analysis results demonstrated the close relationship between sensory and physico-chemical properties. Then, the possible enhancement mechanism was proposed that the functional properties of PHR film were responsible for the protein stabilization, leading to less quality deterioration and higher sensory profiles. Thus, the PHR film was a promising food packaging for sensory attribute enhancement and shelf life extension of Penaeus vannamei.
Due to advantages such as the high efficiency of light utilization, small volume, and vibration resistance, digital micro-mirror device (DMD)-based spectrometers are widely used in ocean investigations, mountain surveys, and other field science research. In order to eliminate the stray light caused by DMDs, the stray light in DMD-based spectrometers was first measured and analyzed. Then, the stray light was classified into wavelength-related components and wavelength-unrelated components. Moreover, the noise caused by the stray light was analyzed from the perspective of encoding equation, and the de-noising decoding equation was deduced. The results showed that the accuracy range of absorbance was enhanced from [0, 1.9] to [0, 3.1] in single-stripe mode and the accuracy range of absorbance was enhanced from [0, 3.8] to [0, 6.3] in Hadamard transform (HT) multiple-stripe mode. A conclusion can be drawn that the de-noising strategy is feasible and effective for enhancing the SNR in DMD-based spectrometers.
The Growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) axis plays a central role as the endocrine regulator of physiological functions in teleost fish and other vertebrates. The basic mechanism of the GH-IGF system is well-known to be useful in a different manner, but it seems to operate differently between species. We have pointed out different aspects related to IGF family genes and their GH dependence that seems to vary according to species. We discussed the effects of nutritional status, and physiological functions of IGFs in teleost gonads to facilitate somatic growth as well as embryonic development and oocyte maturation regulation. We found that nutrients and diet composition are environmental factors that influence somatic growth. The effects of fasting and re-feeding serving as key factors in the expression of IGF genes in different tissues were briefly described, whereby we have found that prolonged fasting causes ceasing of growth but significant elevation of GH concentration. Also, the IGFs have been reported to play significant roles in regulating both male and female gonad development. In addition, IGF3 is constantly expressed throughout all stages of embryogenesis. Therefore, improving our knowledge and understanding of these interactions will impact the design of better feeding intake and reproduction approaches to maximize growth performance, fish well-being, and maximum production of teleosts. This study is intended as a summary to provide the reader with a modern, and unique perspective on the past, present, and future of IGF research in teleosts. Therefore, we expect that gaps of knowledge will be exposed and stimulate future research areas related to IGFs in teleost fish with respect to growth and reproduction as well as other physiological functions.
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