Background and Objectives: Saturation diving is a technique used in commercial diving. Decompression sickness (DCS) was the main concern of saturation safety, but procedures have evolved over the last 50 years and DCS has become a rare event. New needs have evolved to evaluate the diving and decompression stress to improve the flexibility of the operations (minimum interval between dives, optimal oxygen levels, etc.). We monitored this stress in saturation divers during actual operations. Materials and Methods: The monitoring included the detection of vascular gas emboli (VGE) and the changes in the vascular function measured by flow mediated dilatation (FMD) after final decompression to surface. Monitoring was performed onboard a diving support vessel operating in the North Sea at typical storage depths of 120 and 136 msw. A total of 49 divers signed an informed consent form and participated to the study. Data were collected on divers at surface, before the saturation and during the 9 h following the end of the final decompression. Results: VGE were detected in three divers at very low levels (insignificant), confirming the improvements achieved on saturation decompression procedures. As expected, the FMD showed an impairment of vascular function immediately at the end of the saturation in all divers but the divers fully recovered from these vascular changes in the next 9 following hours, regardless of the initial decompression starting depth. Conclusion: These changes suggest an oxidative/inflammatory dimension to the diving/decompression stress during saturation that will require further monitoring investigations even if the vascular impairement is found to recover fast.
Objective Ever since the first research on barriers to physical activity (PA) highlighting fear of hypoglycemia as a major barrier, many studies have attempted to understand their demographic and behavioral determinants. However, no research has been conducted on whether these perceived barriers towards PA are based on real life-experienced adverse glycemic effects of exercise. Research design and methods Sixty-two adults, and 53 children/adolescents living with type 1 diabetes along with their parents, completed the BAPAD-1 questionnaire on barriers to PA. Continuous glucose monitoring data were collected during one week of everyday life for 26 adults and 33 children/adolescents. Multiple linear regressions were used to explore links between BAPAD-1 scores and glycemic excursions experienced during and after everyday life self-reported PA sessions, controlling for behavioral (accelerometry) and demographic confounders. Results In children/adolescents, the more time spent in hypoglycemia on nights following PA sessions, the more they reported hypoglycemic risk as a barrier (ß = +0.365, P = 0.034). Conversely, in adults, the higher the proportion of PA sessions accompanied by a drop in blood glucose, the less hypoglycemia was a barrier (ß = –0.046, P = 0.004). In parents, BAPAD-1 scores were unrelated to children/adolescents’ everyday life exercise-induced hypo/hyperglycemia. Conclusions In children/adolescents, fear of hypoglycemia was predominant in those exposed to nocturnal hypoglycemia associated with PA sessions. In adults, fewer barriers may mean they accept a bigger drop in their glycemia during PA. This shows the importance of finding and promoting age specific solutions to prevent exercise-induced hypoglycemia.
Excessive fluid loss triggered by hyperbaric pressure, water immersion and hot water suits causes saturation divers to be at risk of dehydration. Dehydration is associated with reductions in mental and physical performance, resulting in less effective work and an increased risk of work-related accidents. In this study we examined the hydration status of 11 male divers over 19 days of a commercial saturation diving campaign to a working depth of 74 m, using two non-invasive methods: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and urine specific gravity (USG). Measurements were made daily before and after bell runs, and the BIA data was used to calculated total body water (TBW). We found that BIA and USG were weakly negatively correlated, probably reflecting differences in what they measure. TBW was significantly increased after bell runs for all divers, but more so for bellmen than for in-water divers. There were no progressing changes in TBW over the 19-day study period, indicating that the divers' routines were sufficient for maintaining their hydration levels on short and long term.
Oxygen is a powerful trigger for cellular reactions, but there are few comparative investigations assessing the effects over a large range of partial pressures. We investigated a metabolic response to single exposures to either normobaric (10%, 15%, 30%, 100%) or hyperbaric (1.4 ATA, 2.5 ATA) oxygen. Forty-eight healthy subjects (32 males/16 females; age: 43.7 ± 13.4 years, height: 172.7 ± 10.07 cm; weight 68.4 ± 15.7 kg) were randomly assigned, and blood samples were taken before and 2 h after each exposure. Microparticles (MPs) expressing proteins specific to different cells were analyzed, including platelets (CD41), neutrophils (CD66b), endothelial cells (CD146), and microglia (TMEM). Phalloidin binding and thrombospondin-1 (TSP), which are related to neutrophil and platelet activation, respectively, were also analyzed. The responses were found to be different and sometimes opposite. Significant elevations were identified for MPs expressing CD41, CD66b, TMEM, and phalloidin binding in all conditions but for 1.4 ATA, which elicited significant decreases. Few changes were found for CD146 and TSP. Regarding OPB, further investigation is needed to fully understand the future applications of such findings.
With several databases available, including two sets of in situ measurements of the ambient gamma dose rate and an airborne survey of K, Th, U in soil, Belgium is a favourable case for exploring the mapping methodology for terrestrial radiation. The first step is the harmonization of the different data sets, taking in situ measurements with an ion chamber as the reference. Corrections are necessary, based on the data themselves (a) to the measurements of permanent monitoring stations, (b) to the data calculated from airborne measurements of the soil activity, due in particular to the attenuation by the forest cover, and (c) to the other data calculated from the soil activity, due to the lower activity of the upper layer. After subtracting the cosmic contribution, a harmonized database of the terrestrial gamma dose rate (TGDR) based on 379 in situ measurements was built, together with a harmonized data set of 30134 TGDR values calculated from the concentrations of K, Th, U in soil deduced from the airborne survey. The two data sets are in good agreement with each other for all statistical characteristics that were examined like basic statistics, qq-plots, analysis of variance (ANOVA) or variograms, which validates the airborne-based data set by the link with in situ ion chamber measurements. ANOVA reveals the strong relation between TGDR and the soil class, which justifies the use of a soil map as the framework for developing the TGDR map. The variograms show the absence of residual spatial correlations within soil classes. The two harmonized TGDR data sets were mapped at the nodes of a kilometric grid by the moving average method within soil groups. There is a rather good agreement between the maps, confirming the equivalence between the two data sets and the validation of the airborne based one, which can obviously give more detail. After reducing the maps to a 10 km × 10 km grid, the two data sets were used to check the accuracy of the Belgian part of the European TGDR contained in the European Atlas of Natural Radiation.
During a training session for the university diploma of Mountain medicine delivered by University Sorbonne Paris Nord for medical doctors, one of the participants developed signs of maladaptation to high altitude at 3600 m, the severity of which was incorrectly interpreted. Information was sparingly given by the patient (an anesthetist) to several of his colleagues and no one was in charge to collect clinical data, take a history, and provide appropriate treatment. The combination of the absence of designation of a supervising doctor and the difficulty of communicating with the patient led to a lack of coordinated management and to an evolution of the symptoms towards severe acute mountain sickness. Fortunately, the very rapid management of the patient and a rapid helicopter evacuation, as soon as the symptoms worsened towards the onset of a suspected high altitude cerebral and/or pulmonary edema, allowed rapid resolution without sequelae. Environmental, medical, psychological, and managerial factors led to this Expert Group Syndrome.
Objective We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an online High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) program on clinical psychological symptoms in higher education students in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown.Materials and Methods During the lockdown, 30 students aged 18–25 years, who had been screened previously with a cut-off score ≥5 in the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) questionnaire, were randomly assigned to either the 4-week HIIT program with three sessions per week conducted through online videos, or a no-intervention control group. The primary outcome was the feasibility assessment. The secondary outcome was a psychological self-report with the 21-items Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Assessment and intervention were performed in compliance with social distancing rules.ResultsTwo participants in the HIIT were lost to follow-up, leaving 13 participants vs. 15 in the control group. We observed high adherence (87%) and complete safety for mental and physical status with the HIIT intervention delivered by online videos. The Mann-Whitney test demonstrated a significant (group × time, P-Value = 0.046) reduction of clinical stress symptoms and a trend (group × time, P-Value = 0.08) toward reduction of clinical depression symptoms, both favoring the HIIT group. No significant (group × time, P-Value = 0.118) interaction was found for anxiety symptoms.Conclusion The online HIIT program was found to be feasible and safe in a clinical sample of young adults, who were experiencing social and physical restrictions due to COVID-19. HIIT reduced stress and depressive symptoms and thus these preliminary results show promise for broader application among higher education students during the present lockdown necessitated by the global COVID-19 health crisis.
Background: Despite evolution in decompression algorithms, decompression illness is still an issue nowadays. Reducing vascular gas emboli (VGE) production or preserving endothelial function by other means such as diving preconditioning is of great interest. Several methods have been tried, either mechanical, cardiovascular, desaturation aimed or biochemical, with encouraging results. In this study, we tested mini trampoline (MT) as a preconditioning strategy. Methods: In total, eight (five females, three males; mean age 36 ± 16 years; body mass index 27.5 ± 7.1 kg/m2) healthy, non-smoking, divers participated. Each diver performed two standardized air dives 1 week apart with and without preconditioning, which consisted of ±2 min of MT jumping. All dives were carried out in a pool (NEMO 33, Brussels, Belgium) at a depth of 25 m for 25 min. VGE counting 30 and 60 min post-dive was recorded by echocardiography together with an assessment of endothelial function by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Results: VGE were significantly reduced after MT (control: 3.1 ± 4.9 VGE per heartbeat vs. MT: 0.6 ± 1.1 VGE per heartbeat, p = 0.031). Post-dive FMD exhibited a significant decrease in the absence of preconditioning (92.9% ± 7.4 of pre-dive values, p = 0.03), as already described. MT preconditioning prevented this FMD decrease (103.3% ± 7.1 of pre-dive values, p = 0.30). FMD difference is significant (p = 0.03). Conclusions: In our experience, MT seems to be a very good preconditioning method to reduce VGE and endothelial changes. It may become the easiest, cheapest and more efficient preconditioning for SCUBA diving.
Background: This study aimed to observe the effects of a fast acute ascent to simulated high altitudes on cardiovascular function both in the main arteries and in peripheral circulation. Methods: We examined 17 healthy volunteers, between 18 and 50 years old, at sea level, at 3842 m of hypobaric hypoxia and after return to sea level. Cardiac output (CO) was measured with Doppler transthoracic echocardiography. Oxygen delivery was estimated as the product of CO and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2). The brachial artery’s flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured with the ultrasound method. Post-occlusion reactive hyperemia (PORH) was assessed by digital plethysmography. Results: During altitude stay, peripheral oxygen saturation decreased (84.9 ± 4.2% of pre-ascent values; p < 0.001). None of the volunteers presented any hypoxia-related symptoms. Nevertheless, an increase in cardiac output (143.2 ± 36.2% of pre-ascent values, p < 0.001) and oxygen delivery index (120.6 ± 28.4% of pre-ascent values; p > 0.05) was observed. FMD decreased (97.3 ± 4.5% of pre-ascent values; p < 0.05) and PORH did not change throughout the whole experiment. Τhe observed changes disappeared after return to sea level, and normoxia re-ensued. Conclusions: Acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia resulted in decreased oxygen saturation and increased compensatory heart rate, cardiac output and oxygen delivery. Pre-occlusion vascular diameters increase probably due to the reduction in systemic vascular resistance preventing flow-mediated dilation from increasing. Mean Arterial Pressure possibly decrease for the same reason without altering post-occlusive reactive hyperemia throughout the whole experiment, which shows that compensation mechanisms that increase oxygen delivery are effective.
The present data article provides a dataset of psychological scores, additional description of used measures, and descriptive data of participants related to the research article entitled “Impact of physical exercise on depression and anxiety in adolescent inpatients: a randomized controlled trial” . This randomized controlled trial aimed at assessing the effect of add-on treatment with structured physical exercise compared to social relaxation activities in a clinical population of adolescents hospitalized for depression and anxiety in a psychiatric hospital. A group of 40 adolescents was randomly assigned to either a physical exercise or a control program three to four times per week over six weeks. The primary outcome was the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) for evaluation of depression and anxiety symptoms. Secondary outcomes were psychological self-assessments (The Zung Self-Assessment Depression Scale (SDS), Beck's abbreviated Depression Inventory (BDI-13), The Child Depression Inventory (CDI), The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)), diagnostic interview (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), and physical examinations (an adapted version of the Astrand-Rhyming Sub-Maximal Effort Test and BMI measures). These questionnaires and tests were filled at baseline and after intervention.
Background and Objective: Several cases of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) in divers have been reported in our medical retina center over the past few years. This study was designed to evaluate possible changes induced by SCUBA diving in ophthalmic parameters and especially subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), since the choroid seems to play a crucial role in physiopathology of CSC. Materials and Methods: Intraocular pressure (IOP), SFCT, pachymetry, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), blood pressure, and heart rate were measured in 15 healthy volunteer divers before diving, 30 and 60 min after a standard deep dive of 25 m depth for 25 min in a dedicated diving pool (NEMO 33). Results: SFCT reduces significantly to 96.63 ± 13.89% of pre-dive values (p = 0.016) 30 min after diving. It recovers after 60 min reaching control values. IOP decreases to 88.05 ± 10.04% of pre-dive value at 30 min, then increases to 91.42 ± 10.35% of its pre-dive value (both p < 0.0001). Pachymetry shows a slight variation, but is significantly increased to 101.63 ± 1.01% (p = 0.0159) of the pre-dive value, and returns to control level after 60 min. FMD pre-dive was 107 ± 6.7% (p < 0.0001), but post-dive showed a diminished increase to 103 ± 6.5% (p = 0.0132). The pre-post difference was significant (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Endothelial dysfunction leading to arterial stiffness after diving may explain the reduced SFCT observed, but SCUBA diving seems to have miscellaneous consequences on eye parameters. Despite this clear influence on SFCT, no clear relationship between CSC and SCUBA diving can be drawn.
Riassunto La pratica del linfodrenaggio manuale (LDM), metodo Leduc, consiste in manipolazioni classificate secondo due modalità principali. Una comprende le manovre di richiamo che mantengono l’attività contrattile dei vasi collettori, mentre l’altra è rappresentata dalle manovre di riassorbimento che facilitano i meccanismi di riassorbimento degli elementi costitutivi dell’edema. Il LDM di mantenimento e il LDM terapeutico sono descritti per le diverse parti del corpo. Il trattamento con LDM riguarda sia gli edemi primari che quelli secondari. Sono riassunte le indicazioni e le controindicazioni del LDM.
PurposeData regarding decompression stress after deep closed-circuit rebreather (CCR) dives are scarce. This study aimed to monitor technical divers during a wreck diving expedition and provide an insight in venous gas emboli (VGE) dynamics.Methods Diving practices of ten technical divers were observed. They performed a series of three consecutive daily dives around 100 m. VGE counts were measured 30 and 60 min after surfacing by both cardiac echography and subclavian Doppler graded according to categorical scores (Eftedal–Brubakk and Spencer scale, respectively) that were converted to simplified bubble grading system (BGS) for the purpose of analysis. Total body weight and fluids shift using bioimpedancemetry were also collected pre- and post-dive.ResultsDepth-time profiles of the 30 recorded man-dives were 97.3 ± 26.4 msw [range: 54–136] with a runtime of 160 ± 65 min [range: 59–270]. No clinical decompression sickness (DCS) was detected. The echographic frame-based bubble count par cardiac cycle was 14 ± 13 at 30 min and 13 ± 13 at 60 min. There is no statistical difference neither between dives, nor between time of measurements (P = 0.07). However, regardless of the level of conservatism used, a high incidence of high-grade VGE was detected. Doppler recordings with the O’dive were highly correlated with echographic recordings (Spearman r of 0.81, P = 0.008).Conclusion Although preliminary, the present observation related to real CCR deep dives questions the precedence of decompression algorithm over individual risk factors and pleads for an individual approach of decompression.
Resumen La práctica del drenaje linfático manual (DLM), «método Leduc», consiste en manipulaciones que se clasifican en dos modalidades principales. Una incluye las maniobras de llamada, que mantienen la actividad contráctil de los vasos colectores, mientras que la otra está constituida por las maniobras de reabsorción, que facilitan los mecanismos de reabsorción de los elementos que constituyen el edema. El DLM de mantenimiento y el DLM terapéutico se describen para las diferentes partes del cuerpo. El tratamiento con DLM concierne tanto a los edemas primarios como a los secundarios. Se resumen las indicaciones y contraindicaciones del DLM.
Impaired flow mediated dilation (FMD), an index of vascular stress, is known after SCUBA diving. This is related to a dysfunction of nitric oxide (NO) availability and a disturbance of the redox status, possibly induced by hyperoxic/hyperbaric gas breathing. SCUBA diving is usually performed with a mask only covering “half face” (HF) and therefore forcing oral breathing. Nasal NO production is involved in vascular homeostasis and, as consequence, can significantly reduce NO possibly promoting vascular dysfunction. More recently, the utilization of “full-face” (FF) mask, allowing nasal breathing, became more frequent, but no reports are available describing their effects on vascular functions in comparison with HF masks. In this study we assessed and compared the effects of a standard shallow dive (20 min at 10 m) wearing either FF or a HF mask on different markers of vascular function (FMD), oxidative stress (ROS, 8-iso-PGF2α) and NO availability and metabolism (NO2, NOx and 3-NT and iNOS expression). Data from a dive breathing a hypoxic (16% O2 at depth) gas mixture with HF mask are shown allowing hyperoxic/hypoxic exposure. Our data suggest that nasal breathing might significantly reduce the occurrence of vascular dysfunction possibly due to better maintenance of NO production and bioavailability, resulting in a better ability to counter reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Besides the obvious outcomes in terms of SCUBA diving safety, our data permit a better understanding of the effects of oxygen concentrations, either in normal conditions or as a strategy to induce selected responses in health and disease.
Background Physical exercise therapy is of proven efficacy in the treatment of adults with depression, but corresponding evidence is lacking in depressed adolescent inpatients. The aim of this study was to document the effect of add-on treatment with structured physical exercise in a clinical population of adolescents hospitalized for depression and anxiety in a psychiatric hospital. Methods A group of 52 adolescent inpatients was randomly assigned to a physical exercise or control program three to four times per week over a six-week period (20 hours in total). The primary outcome was the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) for evaluation of depression and anxiety symptoms. Secondary outcomes were psychological self-assessments, diagnostic interviews, and physical examinations. Results Six participants were lost in each group, leaving 20 inpatients each in the intervention and control groups. A linear mixed model with F-test revealed a significant interaction in favor of physical exercise in reducing the mean depression score (HADS-D) by 3.8 points [95% (CI), range 1.8 to 5.7], compared to a mean reduction score of 0.7 [95% (CI), range -0,7 to 2.0] in the control group. No significant interaction was found for anxiety symptoms (HADS-A). Limitations The investigation was limited to the six-week hospital window and the small sample size prevented exploring differences in social characteristics. Conclusion Structured physical exercise add-on therapy integrated into the psychiatric hospitalization of adolescents has led to a reduction in their depressive symptoms, demonstrating its effectiveness in the care of adolescent inpatients with depression.
PurposeDeep diving using mixed gas with closed-circuit rebreathers (CCRs) is increasingly common. However, data regarding the effects of these dives are still scarce. This preliminary field study aimed at evaluating the acute effects of deep (90–120 msw) mixed-gas CCR bounce dives on lung function in relation with other physiological parameters.Methods Seven divers performed a total of sixteen open-sea CCR dives breathing gas mixture of helium, nitrogen and oxygen (trimix) within four days at 2 depths (90 and 120 msw). Spirometric parameters, SpO2, body mass, hematocrit, short term heart rate variability (HRV) and critical flicker fusion frequency (CFFF) were measured at rest 60 min before the dive and 120 min after surfacing.ResultsThe median [1st–3rd quartile] of the forced vital capacity was lower (84% [76–93] vs 91% [74–107] of predicted values; p = 0.029), whereas FEV1/FVC was higher (98% [95–99] vs 95% [89–99]; p = 0.019) after than before the dives. The other spirometry values and SpO2 were unchanged. Body mass decreased from 73.5 kg (72.0–89.6) before the dives to 70.0 kg (69.2–85.8) after surfacing (p = 0.001), with no change of hematocrit or CFFT. HRV was increased as indicated by the higher SDNN, RMSSD and pNN50 after than before dives.Conclusion The present observation represents the first original data regarding the effects of deep repeated CCR dives. The body mass loss and decrease of FVC after bounce dives at depth of about 100 msw may possibly impose an important physiological stress for the divers.
Depending on the oxygen partial pressure in a tissue, the therapeutic effect of oxygenation can vary from simple substance substitution up to hyperbaric oxygenation when breathing hyperbaric oxygen at 2.5–3.0 ATA. Surprisingly, new data showed that it is not only the oxygen supply that matters as even a minimal increase in the partial pressure of oxygen is efficient in triggering cellular reactions by eliciting the production of hypoxia-inducible factors and heat-shock proteins. Moreover, it was shown that extreme environments could also interact with the genome; in fact, epigenetics appears to play a major role in extreme environments and exercise, especially when changes in oxygen partial pressure are involved. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is, essentially, “intermittent oxygen” exposure. We must investigate hyperbaric oxygen with a new paradigm of treating oxygen as a potent stimulus of the molecular network of reactions.
Introduction: Divers with a patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) have an increased risk for decompression sickness (DCS) when diving with compressed breathing gas. The relative risk increase, however, is difficult to establish as the PFO status of divers is usually only determined after a DCS occurrence. Methods: This prospective, single-blinded, observational study was designed to collect DCS data from volunteer divers after screening for right-to-left shunt (RLS) using a Carotid Doppler test. Divers were blinded to the result of the test, but all received a standardized briefing on current scientific knowledge of diving physiology and “low-bubble” diving techniques; they were then allowed to dive without restrictions. After a mean interval of 8 years, a questionnaire was sent collecting data on their dives and cases of DCS (if any occurred). Results: Data was collected on 148 divers totaling 66,859 dives. There was no significant difference in diving data between divers with or without RLS. Divers with RLS had a 3.02 times higher incidence of (confirmed) DCS than divers without RLS ( p = 0.04). When all cases of (confirmed or possible DCS) were considered, the Relative Risk was 1.42 ( p = 0.46). DCS occurred mainly in divers who did not dive according to “low-bubble” diving techniques, in both groups. Conclusion: This prospective study confirms that DCS is more frequent in divers with RLS (such as a PFO), with a Relative Risk of 1.42 (all DCS) to 3.02 (confirmed DCS). It appears this risk is linked to diving behavior, more specifically diving to the limits of the adopted decompression procedures.
Exercise generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), creating a redox imbalance towards oxidation when inadequately intense. Normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) breathed while not exercising induces antioxidant enzymes expression, but literature is still poor. Twenty-two athletes were assigned to five groups: controls; 30%, or 50% O2; 100% O2 (HBO) at 1.5 or 2.5 atmosphere absolute (ATA). Twenty treatments were administered on non-training days. Biological samples were collected at T0 (baseline), T1 (end of treatments), and T2 (1 month after) to assess ROS, antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid peroxidation, redox (amino-thiols) and inflammatory (IL-6, 10, TNF-α) status, renal function (i.e., neopterin), miRNA, and hemoglobin. At T1, O2 mixtures and HBO induced an increase of ROS, lipid peroxidation and decreased TAC, counterbalanced at T2. Furthermore, 50% O2 and HBO treatments determined a reduced state in T2. Neopterin concentration increased at T1 breathing 50% O2 and HBO at 2.5 ATA. The results suggest that 50% O2 treatment determined a reduced state in T2; HBO at 1.5 and 2.5 ATA similarly induced protective mechanisms against ROS, despite the latter could expose the body to higher ROS levels and neopterin concentrations. HBO resulted in increased Hb levels and contributed to immunomodulation by regulating interleukin and miRNA expression.
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