Natural fibers derived from plants were gaining favor as a viable alternative to synthetic materials. However, searching for sustainable raw materials with superior qualities is cumbersome because most natural fibers are limited to specific geographical areas. Himalayacalamus falconeri (HF) is a fast-growing plant that is abundant in the hills of Uttarakhand, India. This study is aimed at extracting fibers from the stem of Himalayacalamus falconeri (HF) culms, and investigate their properties by XRD analysis, TGA analysis, AFM analysis, and single-fiber tensile test. The extracted HF fiber was alkali-treated to enhance its mechanical properties. It was observed that the alkali treatment on HF fibers increased the cellulose content by 6%, and density by 4% compared with untreated fiber. Furthermore, the removal of amorphous components from the fiber surface resulted in a decrease in diameter from 103.95 to 94.4 μm. In addition, the alkali treatment on HF fiber enhanced the material’s crystallinity index (from 58.92 to 67.79%), tensile strength (from 132 to 196.5 MPa), thermal stability (from 250 to 258 °C), and surface roughness (from 23.478 to 37 nm). The experimental findings confirmed that HF fiber is a suitable replacement material for synthetic reinforcement materials in lightweight polymer composites.
Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a green, simple, cost-effective, time-efficient, and single-step method. This study mainly focused on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using essential oil of Laggera tomentosa (LTEO) and investigates their potential applications. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) result showed the characteristic Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) peak of LTEO-AgNPs at 420 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicated the functional groups present in LTEO and LTEO-AgNPs. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image depicted the synthesized AgNPs mainly has spherical shapes with average nanoparticles size 89.59 ± 5.14 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) peak at 3.0 keV showed the presence of Ag element in LTEO-AgNPs. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks at 38°, 44° and 67° are assigned to (111), (200), and (220), respectively which displays the crystal nature of LTEO-AgNPs. The average particle size and zeta potential of LTEO-AgNPs were determined as 94.98 nm and −49.6 mV, respectively. LTEO-AgNPs were stable for six months against aggregation at room temperature. LTEO-AgNPs solutions exhibited potential activities for the treatment of some pathogenic bacteria species, agricultural productivity growth, determination of metallic ions, and catalytic reduction. This study is the first work to report nanoparticles synthesis using L. tomentosa extracts and evaluate their potential applications.
Plant diseases are a severe cause of crop losses in the agriculture globally. Detection of diseases in plants is difficult and challenging due to the lack of expert knowledge. Deep learning-based models provide promising ways to identify plant diseases using leaf images. However, need of larger training sets, computational complexity, and overfitting, etc. are the major issues with these techniques that still need to be addressed. In this work, a convolutional neural network (CNN) is developed that consists of smaller number of layers leading to lower computational burden. Some augmentation techniques such as shift, shear, scaling, zoom, and flipping are applied to generate additional samples increasing the training set without actually capturing more images. The CNN model is trained for apple crop using a publicly available dataset PlantVillage to identify Scab, Black rot, and Cedar rust diseases in apple leaves. The rigorous experimental results revealed that the proposed model is well fit to identify apple leaf diseases and achieves 98% classification accuracy. It is also evident from the results that it needs lesser amount of storage and takes smaller execution time than several existing deep CNN models. Altough, there exist several CNN models for crop disease detection with comarable accuracy, but the proposed model needs lower storage and computational resources. Therefore, it is highly suitable for deploying in handheld devices.
In recent decades, the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics on the surface of the planet have caused several long-term climatic and health risks. Plastic materials, specifically microplastics (MPs; sizes < 5 mm), have gained significant interest in the global scientific fraternity due to their bioaccumulation, non-biodegradability, and ecotoxicological effects on living organisms. This study explains how microplastics are generated, transported, and disposed of in the environment based on their sources and physicochemical properties. Additionally, the study also examines the impact of COVID-19 on global plastic waste production. The physical and chemical techniques such as SEM-EDX, PLM, FTIR, Raman, TG-DSC, and GC-MS that are employed for the quantification and identification of MPs are discussed. This paper provides insight into conventional and advanced methods applied for microplastic removal from aquatic systems. The finding of this review helps to gain a deeper understanding of research on the toxicity of microplastics on humans, aquatic organisms, and soil ecosystems. Further, the efforts and measures that have been enforced globally to combat MP waste have been highlighted and need to be explored to reduce its potential risk in the future.
Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women, and vast research is being conducted throughout the world for the treatment of this malignancy by natural products using various computational approaches. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid, is known for its anticancer activity; however, the mechanism behind its action is still in the preliminary stage. Methods: The current study aimed to analyze the efficacy of xanthohumol compared to the currently available anticancer drugs targeting phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), serine/threonine kinase (AKT) receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) for breast cancer treatment through in silico analysis. Results: The result revealed that the target compound showed significant binding affinity to targets within the PI3K, AKT, and HER2 signaling pathways with a binding energy of −7.5, −7.9, and −7.9 kcal/mol, respectively. Further prediction studies were then made concerning this compound’s absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) as well as drug-likeness properties, resulting in its oral bioavailability with only a single violation of Lipinski’s rule of five. Conclusions: The finding revealed the ability of xanthohumol to bind with multiple cancer cell signaling molecules including PI3K, AKT kinase, and HER2. The current novel study opened the door to advancing research into the management and treatment of breast cancer.
This study aims to explore the optoelectronic properties of a pyrene derivative 1,3-dinitropyrene using density functional theory to determine molecular electrostatic potential and Van der Waals surface, frontier molecular orbitals, and molecular orbital surfaces. The Mulliken charges, molecular electrostatic potential, and Van der Waals surface are accounted to show the availability of the electron donor-acceptor moieties, resulting in the charge transfer within the molecule. Theoretical electronic spectra are computed using Time-dependent density functional theory that shows the charge transfer process between nitro groups and C–H bonds of benzene rings. Vibrational features and chemical shifts are evaluated using Raman spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance shifts. The computed first-order hyperpolarizability of 1,3-dinitropyrene is 26 times higher than that of Urea showing its immensely high non-linear optically active responses. The smaller reorganization energy for hole transportation of the 1,3-dinitropyrene validates its application as a hole transport layer in organic light-emitting diodes.
IBC (Isogeny-based cryptography) is the important part of post-quantum cryptography (PQC). Because of compatibility and smaller key sizes, it is extremely used. Isogeny computations and point operations serve as the primary building blocks in the implementation of the IBC. Since the cryptosystem advances along the isogeny graph, it is impossible to optimize the isogeny formula for a particular elliptic curve coefficient. As a result of the effective point operation on any elliptic curve, Montgomery curves are utilised in the literature. Present work proposes the schemes for computing two, three and four-isogenies on Huff curve, by using the transformation from affine plane to projective plane. The proposed schemes found efficient when compared their computational cost with Edwards and Montgomery curves.
Electrocatalysts: From Fundamentals to Recent Advances. In the quest for sustainable hydrogen production, the challenge remains to identify new electrocatalysts for water electrolysis. While noble metals are the most effective catalysts for water splitting- A promising pathway to sustainable hydrogen production-they are expensive and scarce. Hence, there is a need to find environmentally friendly, earth abundant, highly stable, and economically viable alternatives. This book provides current state-of-the-art knowledge of a wide range of noble metal-free electrocatalysts for energy applications. Volume 2 reviews noble metal-free electrocatalysts for energy applications: Thin films, metal-organic frameworks, metal hydroxides, and transition metal-doped nanocarbon-based electrocatalysts. Some emerging materials, such as perovskites and covalent organic framework-based electrocatalysts, are covered in detail, along with phosphide-based electrocatalysts and advances in electrocatalysts for flexible devices.
The abundant biomass growth of aquatic macrophytes in wetlands is one of the major concerns affecting their residing biota. Moreover, the biomass degenerates within the wetlands, thereby causing a remixing of nutrients and emission of greenhouse gases. Therefore, it is crucial to find sustainable methods to utilize the biomass of aquatic macrophytes devoid of environmental concerns. The present study investigates the utilization of the biomass of three aquatic macrophytes, including the lake sedge (CL: Carex lacustris Willd.), water hyacinth (EC: Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms), and sacred lotus (NL: Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) to produce oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida) mushrooms. For this purpose, different combinations of wheat straw (WS: as control) and macrophyte’s biomass (WH) such as control (100% WH), CL50 (50% WH + 50% CL), CL100 (100% CL), EC50 (50% WH + 50% EC), EC100 (100% EC), NL50 (50% WH + 50% NL), and NL100 (100% NL) were used for P. florida cultivation under controlled laboratory conditions. The results showed that all selected combinations of wheat straw and macrophyte biomass supported the spawning and growth of P. florida. In particular, the maximum significant (p < 0.05) growth, yield, bioefficiency, proximate, and biochemical parameters were reported using the WH substrate followed by CL, NL, and EC biomass, which corresponds to the reduction efficiency of the substrate parameters. Therefore, the findings of this study reveal that the biomass of selected aquatic macrophytes can be effectively utilized for sustainable mushroom cultivation while minimizing the risk associated with their self-degeneration.
This current review discusses the eco-toxicological effect of metronidazole (MNZ) in the environment, characterization of MNZ adsorbents, mechanism of adsorption of MNZ from water and wastewater, adsorbents types (carbon-based compounds, MOFs, nanoscale semiconductor photocatalysts, zero-valent iron nanoparticles, magnesium oxide nanoparticles, nanocomposites, chitin, and chitosan-based adsorbents), their adsorption abilities, experimental findings on the isotherm, kinetic models and thermodynamic studies of MNZ. Additionally, the molecular modelling and simulation of MNZ removal from water environments. The study showed that activated carbon and metal-organic frameworks are the best adsorbents for the removal of MNZ that MTD@MOF5 nanocomposite adsorbents have more qmax equal 539.33 mg/g. The Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetics model reported to best describe the isotherm and kinetic model respectively. Solute concentration is the most important physiochemical parameter in the adsorption process and continuous column MNZ is easy to operate, the adsorption is fast and the experiment can easily be scaled for large-scale implementation. Future studies should include competitors for more realistic adsorption studies, and to demonstrate the affinity of the adsorbent for MNZ.
In this paper, a hybrid time and wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (TWDM‐PON) and wavelength division multiplexing optical code division multiple access (WDM‐OCDMA) with free space optics (FSO) for bidirectional 160/40 Gbps transmission has been proposed. Also, to offer the information to 64 users over 60 km fiber and 600 m FSO channels under diverse climate conditions have been presented. Also, to resist the fiber impairments, interference, noise and losses under the effect of unfavorable climate conditions in hybrid fiber‐FSO link, a modified new zero‐cross correlation (NZCC) code is effectively used in the system to enhance the system ability to access shared bandwidth with users' security. The performance of the designed PON system has been analysed and investigated for diverse FSO (10–600 m) and fiber distance (0–60 km) under distinct climate conditions. Based on mathematical and simulation analysis, the designed system using modified NZCC code is shown to provide better performance than other OCDMA codes. The designed system with hybrid fiber‐FSO link improves the performance of the system in terms of high received optical power of 3 dBm and support 110 users simultaneously at acceptable BER of 10−9, under fiber impairments, climate conditions and turbulences. Additionally, on comparing the designed system's performance with the prior latest work in literature reveals its superiority than others in codes and system design. A 160/40 Gbps NG‐PON2 hybrid TWDM‐WDM‐OCDMA PON employing integrated FSO‐fiber link to obtain 60 km fiber and 600 m FSO link range using NZCC code under the impact of fiber nonlinearities, interference, noise, dispersion and adverse FSO link atmospheric conditions is proposed and analysed successfully for future access networks.
In this study, essential oil of the aerial part of Pluchea ovalis (POEO) was isolated and employed for the synthesis of AgNPs (POEO-AgNPs). Then, larvicidal activities of POEO and PEO-AgNPs were evaluated against the larvae of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiderda (J. E. Smith); (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The potential medicinal values of P. ovalis and the lack of scientific reports on the applications of essential oils and nanoparticles of the plant species from the ecology of Ethiopia motivated the authors to carry out this research activity. The hydrodistillation technique was used for the isolation of POEO. Characterization of samples was done using gas chroma-tography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and zeta nanoanalyzer instruments. GC/MS analysis showed that sesquiterpenes (91.27%) are the dominant chemical constituents of POEO. The characteristic UV-Vis spectra absorption of POEO-AgNPs is observed at 428 nm. SEM imaging reveals that POEO-AgNPs have a dominantly spherical shape. A strong peak of EDX at 3.0 keV shows the existence of Ag element in POEO-AgNPs. XRD analysis determines the diffraction peaks of POEO-AgNPs at 2θ of 38.2°, 44.1°, 64.6°, and 77.8° which are indexed to (111), (200), (220), and (311), respectively. The average particle size and surface potential of POEO-AgNPs are 132 nm and −64.7 mV, respectively. POEO-AgNPs were stored at room temperature and 4 °C and showed good stability for about 6 months without aggregation or dissolution. The larvicidal activity was tested at 500, 250, and 125 µg/mL of POEO solution and 100% (full strength = 0.083 g/mL), 50%, and 25% POEO-AgNPs solution against 2 nd instar larvae of S. frugiderda for 3 consecutive days. LC50 and LC90 are determined as 154.88 and 11,749.00 µg/mL for POEO and 69.18 and 1318.26% for POEO-AgNPs solutions, respectively. This finding will benefit the applications of POEO and POEO-AgNPs for a sustainable eco-friendly crop pest management method. Citation: Gonfa, Y.H.; Tessema, F.B.; Bachheti, A.; Tadesse, M.G.; Eid, E.M.; Abou Fayssal, S.; Adelodun, B.; Choi, K.S.; Širić, I.; Kumar, P.; et al. Essential Oil Composition of
This article demonstrates the design and development of WR-15 transition using an antipodal microstrip dipole antenna at a frequency of 60 GHz for space applications. An inline microstrip line to rectangular waveguide (MS-to-RWG) transition is proposed for the V-band (50–75 GHz) functioning. The RF energy is coupled and launched through an antipodal dipole microstrip antenna. Impedance matching and mode matching between the MS line and dipole are achieved by a quarter wave impedance transformer. This results in the better performance of transitions in terms of insertion loss (IL > −0.50 dB) and return loss (RL < −10 dB) for a 40.76% relative bandwidth from 55.57 GHz to 65.76 GHz. The lowest values of IL and RL at 60 GHz are −0.09 dB and −32.05 dB, respectively. A 50 μm thick double-sided etched InP substrate material is used for microstrip antipodal dipole antenna design. A back-to-back designed transition has IL > −0.70 dB and RL < −10 dB from 54.29 GHz to 64.07 GHz. The inline transition design is simple in structure, easy to fabricate, robust, compact, and economic; occupies less space because the transition size is exactly equal to the WR-15 length; and is prepared using an InP substrate with high permittivity of 12.4 and thickness of 50 μm. Thus, the devices have the lowest insertion loss value and lowest return loss (RL) value, of
The quality of groundwater in the Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh is poorly studied despite the fact that it is the only supply of water for both drinking and irrigation and people use it without any pre-treatment. The evaluation of groundwater quality and suitability for drinking and irrigation is presented in this study. Groundwater samples were collected and analysed by standard neutralisation and atomic emission spectrophotometry for major anions (HCO3⁻, SO4²⁻, Cl⁻, F⁻, NO3⁻), cations (Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, Na⁺, K⁺), and heavy metals (Cd, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Pb). The geographic information system (GIS) and statistical inferences were utilised for the spatial mapping of the groundwater’s parameters. The potential water abstraction (i.e. taking water from sources such as rivers, streams, canals, and underground) for irrigation was assessed using the sodium absorption ratio (SAR), permeability index (PI), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), and Na percentage. According to the findings, the majority of the samples had higher EC, TDS, and TH levels, indicating that they should be avoided for drinking and irrigation. The positive correlation coefficient between chemical variability shows that the water chemistry of the studied region is influenced by geochemical and biological causes. According to the USSL (United States Salinity Laboratory) diagram, most of the samples fall under the C2-S1 and C3-S1 moderate to high salt categories. Some groundwater samples were classified as C4-S3 class which is unfit for irrigation and drinking. This study suggests that the groundwater in the study area is unfit for drinking without treatment. However, the majority of the samples were suitable for irrigation.
Protein kinase G (PknG), a eukaryotic-like serine-threonine protein kinase produced by pathogenic mycobacteria to prevent mycobacteria from degradation by lysosomes, is a critical virulence factor for intracellular survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The practice of daily Hawan (Yajña) has been found to alter the microbiome by eradicating harmful microorganisms. Hawan is an aroma therapy of Āyurveda that evolve a large number of bioactive components having various pharmacological potentials. We have docked ten principal components of oblation materials (Hawan Sāmagri) Guggulsterone (Guggul), Magniferin (Mango leaves), α-santalol (Sandal wood), Patchoulol (Jatāmāsi), 2-propyl-4-methylthaizole (Sesame seeds), Eugenol (Clove), Myristicin (Nutmeg), Sesquiterpenes (Nāgkesar), Valerenic (Tagar) and Crocetin (Saffron) with protein structure PknG of M. tuberculosis by CB dock blind tool. This present investigation demonstrates the inhibitor binding positions and affinity utilizing glide-score. All the components tend to cure and inhibit the function of M. tuberculosis decreasing the risk of resistance. Out of nine components, Guggulsterone showed the best binding potential.
Solid waste dumping sites (SWDS) are locations utilized for disposing of both biodegradable and nonbiodegradable waste; however, these sites either directly or indirectly impact the water quality through leaching. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of solid waste disposal on the groundwater of quaternary shallow water aquifers in the Ganga Basin in Haridwar, India. 32 water samples were collected from 16 sites by using the grab sampling method in the vicinity of the four mentioned municipal solid waste disposal sites during the pre and post-monsoon seasons. For a better interpretation of the results, statistical tools such as mean, standard deviation, variance coefficient (VC), and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied while the groundwater quality index (GWQI) and potential health risk assessment (PHRA) were calculated for quality assurance in the study area. Additionally, the saturation index, Durov plot, and piper trilinear diagram analysis were used for identifying the hydrogeochemical mechanism. The GWQI revealed that 75% of samples had good quality while the rest (25%) were found of poor quality confirming that the groundwater of the adjacent area of these disposal sites was mainly affected due to the leaching effect. Besides this, PHRA showed that most of the groundwater samples were significantly affected by the parameters in the order such as NO3⁻ > Fe > F⁻ > Zn > Ni. PHRA results revealed that infants are shown to have no to low health risk from consumption of these minerals, while children and adults are prone to have low risk to moderate risk. It has been determined that among 17 selected parameters, five parameters, i.e., the five types of pollutants, NO3⁻, Fe, F⁻, Zn, and Ni, are the most prevalent. These pollutants may have been introduced by landfill sites and human activity, i.e., agricultural activities and sewage treatment plants in the adjacent area of SWDS. Necessary mitigation measures were taken to prevent the degradation of groundwater quality in the nearby area of SWDS.
In the present study, the excellent photocatalytic activity of n-ZnO/n-SnO2 heterojunction integrated with reduced graphene oxide nanosheets was explored towards the elimination of different organic pollutants viz. p-bromophenol, bisphenol A, and ofloxacin from water. n-ZnO/n-SnO2 heterojunction was decorated with a different weight percentage of reduced graphene oxide via a facile refluxing method. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the as-prepared n-ZnO/n-SnO2 heterojunction-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites were investigated systematically. XRD, Raman and FT-IR confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite and tetragonal rutile structures of ZnO and SnO2 crystals in different nanocomposites. Cube and spherical-shaped surface structures were demonstrated by TEM and FE-SEM analysis for ZnO and SnO2, respectively. The maximum photocatalytic productivity of nanocomposite with 5wt% reduced graphene oxide was observed at about 98.64 % and 98.50 % towards the elimination of p-bromophenol and bisphenol A, respectively after 180 min exposure of UV light. Similarly, this productivity was also observed at about 99.13 % towards the elimination of ofloxacin after 120 min irradiation of UV light. The outstanding photocatalytic activity of nanocomposite with 5wt % reduced graphene oxide has been proven by the presence of homotypic n-ZnO/n-SnO2 and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets owing to the synergistic effect amongst them resulting in remarkable separation of charge carriers, which is responsible for the larger rate of reactive oxygen species generation and enhanced photodegradation of p-bromophenol, bisphenol A and ofloxacin. In this study, the results illustrated that the photocatalytic degradation of p-bromophenol, bisphenol A and ofloxacin using n-ZnO/n-SnO2 heterojunction-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites is predominantly based on the hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radical anion as main reactive oxygen species as compared to 1O2. A reasonable photodegradation mechanism using prepared nanocomposites under investigation has also been proposed.
In the investigation, the allyl methacrylate-based copolymer emulsion was synthesized via semi-continuous seeded emulsion polymerization utilizing Aloe-Vera and allyl methacrylate/butyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate and acrylic acid as monomers. Various characterization techniques such as SEM, FTIR, XRD, TGA, DTA, DSC, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy were used for the determination of surface morphological and characteristic properties of the prepared nanoemulsion. Some properties of prepared nanoemulsion such as solid content, tensile strength, % elongation, water resistance, freezing–thawing stability, alkali resistance and electrolytic stability were determined comprehensively. The obtained results showed tremendous improvement in the physical properties of nanoemulsion with a 70:30 ratio of the organic phase and water phase as well as showed the outstanding antimicrobial performance against two (G +) bacteria: MTCC442 & MTCC1144 and one (G–) bacteria: MTCC2474.
Here we examine the effects of different carrier based bioinoculants on the growth, yield and nutritional value of chickpea and on associated soil nutrients. A consortium of two taxonomi-cally distinct endophytic bacteria-Ensifer adhaerens MSN12 and Bacillus cereus MEN8-have promising plant growth promoting (PGP) attributes. We demonstrate their delivery from the laboratory to the field via the formulation of an effective bioinoculant with economic and accessible carriers. Sugarcane straw ash (SCSA) was found to be an efficient carrier and bioformulation for enhancing viability and shelf-life of strains up to 12 months. A bioformulation containing an SCSA-based consortium (MSN12 + MEN8) increased seed germination by 7%, plant weight by 29%, length by 17%, seed-yield by 12%, harvesting index by 14% and proximate nutritional constituents by 20% over consortium treatment without SCSA. In addition, the bioformulation of post-harvest treated soil improved the physico-chemical properties of the soil in comparison to a pre-sowing SCSA-based bioformulation treated crop, being fortified in different proximate nutritional constituents including dry matter (30%), crude protein (45%), crude fiber (35%), and ether extract (40%) in comparison to the control. Principal component analysis and scattered matrix plots showed a positive correlation among the treatments, which also validates improvement in the soil nutrient components and prox-imate constituents by T6 treatment (MSN12 + MEN8 + SCSA). The above results suggest efficiency of SCSA not only as a carrier material but also to support microbial growth for adequate delivery of lab strains as a substitute for chemi-fertilizers.
Heavy metal pollution from industrial wastewaters has become an issue of global concern. These wastewaters are frequently used for inland irrigation which possess a serious risk of heavy metal contamination of both soil and cultivated crops. The problem is more common in developing countries like India where industrial wastewaters are often discharged without appropriate treatments. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the impact of paper mill effluent for irrigation on the growth, productivity, and heavy metal accumulation potential of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties (PB-1121 and PR-121). Water, soil, and rice crop samples were obtained from the vicinity of Saharanpur city, Uttar Pradesh, India, and subsequently analyzed for selected physicochemical and heavy metal parameters. Results showed that paper mill effluent and nearby Kali River water had significant (p < 0.05) loads of pollutants that impacted the soil properties. Moreover, the maximum plant height (123.48 ± 4.86 and 98.83 ± 2.02 cm); total chlorophyll (6.70 ± 0.25 and 6.64 ± 0.17 mg/g); leaf carotenoids (0.67 ± 0.08 and 0.63 ± 0.05 mg/g); starch content (71.08 ± 2.05 and 72.60 ± 1.63%); amylose content (25.10 ± 1.32 and 20.28 ± 1.24%); crop yield (4270.20 ± 75.12 and 5830.58 ± 63.10 kg/ha); and straw yield (5472.05 ± 93.90 and 6683.76 ± 61.26 kg/ha) of PB-1121 and PR-121, respectively, were observed using Kali River water irrigation source as compared to paper mill effluent and borewell water. The order of heavy metal accumulation in rice straw and grain followed: Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Cd. Similarly, the bioaccumulation factors for heavy metals in rice straw and grain were observed as >1 and 1). As a result, the findings of this study provide useful information about the current state of heavy metal pollution and the health risks associated with rice crops irrigated with contaminated water sources.
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