Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology

• Hisar, Haryana, India
Recent publications
The rhizosphere is the region of continuous interactions between soil microbes and roots. Plant communities’ exudates through roots fascinate rhizosphere microbes to colonize the plant roots and tissues. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria or PGPR facilitate the growth and developmental changes directly by assisting resources acquisition in modulating the level of plant hormones or indirectly affect pathogenic populations in the form of different biocontrol agents. The beneficial plant growth favoring microbes may reduce the worldwide reliability of the hazardous chemicals, which hinders microbial association in agro-ecosystems. PGPR can modulate root formation and its growth by alleviating the production of growth-promoting agents (metabolites, growth hormones, and enzymes). The present chapter updates the influence of PGPR on adventitious root formation and highlights outlooks on the various strategies promoting overall structural changes during adventitious roots growth and maturation. The chapter will help in directing the future direction of plant researchers toward the interaction between PGPR and root system functioning. Furthermore, the identification of PGPR and their determinant molecules are helpful to understand the functional aspect of root traits regulating genes that might open up updated avenues in PGPR research.
Background Cyclodextrins offer a range of biomedical applications in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are oligosaccharides composed of glucose as repeating units (6–9 repeating units given terms α, β, γ and δ, respectively). Its inner core size varies with the type of CD, and this variation finds its fitness with small- to larger-sized organic drug molecules to resolve its delivery problems. Employment of CDs in drug delivery was conceptualized since its initial development (Year 1891). However, the very first pharmaceutical product was in the market in 1976. CDs not only act as carrier or as self-assembly hydrogel or hybrid gels for delivery of hydrophobic drugs but also reported as a modifier of the gelling temperature of agarose and make it suitable for drug delivery. Main body This review represents the trend of research on CDs with reference to drug delivery. Phase I (1975–1980) CD research trend shows inclination towards β-CD molecules for inclusion complex with a wide range of drugs. Decade of phase II (1981–1990) worked majorly on other natural CDs with a glimpse of its derivative for drug delivery system. Critical literature surveys from the years 1991–2000 (phase III) provide research visualization of CD derivatives supported with animal studies. Phase IV (2001–2010) can be attributed as the golden period of CDs with its extreme exploitation in many novel drug delivery systems (aerosols, microemulsion, polymeric nanoparticles, osmotic pumps, and sustain release), while in most last decade CDs were observed in association with nanoscale systems. Conclusions In the view of its incessant utilization in wider applications including drug carrier, gel, gel modifier and nano-composite modifier properties, its chronicle update in the drug delivery knowledge database would inspire the researchers for multidisciplinary research. To sum up, almost every emerging novel drug delivery system in the near future will make the earnest effort to take advantage of the properties of CDs for their better efficacy, stability, prevention of toxicity and patient acceptability.
Glassy system of composition xLi2O.3P2O5.21Na2O.26CaO.(50-x)B2O3 (x = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mol%) was prepared by melt quench technique. X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy and Field emission scanning electron microscope with Energy dispersive spectroscopy were conducted to identify crystalline phase formation in glass powder and to study morphologies. The deconvoluted IR absorption spectra of synthesized samples, were analyzed to examine the structural rearrangements in the glass matrix before and after immersing in the phosphate solution. Optical band gap, Urbach energy and refractive index of the synthesized compositions were also obtained from the analysis of optical absorption spectra to examine the semiconducting behavior. The effects of the treatment in phosphate buffer solution for 12 days on crystallization & structural properties of these glasses were systematically investigated. The dependence of physical parameters on the glass composition suggested a variation in the number of non-bridging oxygen with Li2O content. Morphological and structural study alongside a possibility of hydroxyapatite formation suggests the biomedical applications of these materials.
The electrochemical characteristics of N-based single and double transition metal V2N/CrVN monolayers were examined using density functional theory (DFT) approach. The ab-initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations have demonstrated that both V2N and CrVN monolayers are thermally stable at 300 & 500 K. The multilayer adsorption of Li-ion on both lower and upper surfaces of V2N/CrVN leads to the specific capacity of 1040/1440 mAh g⁻¹. Moreover, the energy diffusion barrier is found to be 0.034 and 0.030 eV for V2N and CrVN MXenes, respectively. This observation authenticates that the replacement of V-layer by Cr-atomic layer considerably reduces the energy barrier and boosts the cycling rate of the batteries. Also, the calculated average working voltage of V2N/CrVN monolayers comes out in the range of 0.20–0.54 V which implies their application as anode material in Li-ion batteries. Thus with the enhanced electrochemical properties, both monolayers offer alternative candidatures for anodes in futuristic Li-ion batteries.
A numerical study is performed to explore the effects on heat convection and entropy gthe eneration due to porous stratum and heated block in an enclosure saturated with micropolar hybrid nanofluid. Constant heat flux through half of the length of the square enclosure is centrally placed at the bottom wall and the top wall is isothermally cooled while vertical walls are insulated. The Cu‐Al2O3/water hybrid nanofluid is considered a micropolar fluid (MF) with constant physical properties. The Boussinesq approximation is implemented on the density variation and convection within the porous layer is regulated with the Darcy–Brinkman model. The governing nondimensional equations are solved with the finite difference method (FDM). Effects of various key parameters on isotherms, streamlines, local Nusselt number, and average Nusselt number are discussed numerically and analyzed through graphs. The entropy generation analysis (EGA) has been done with local and average Bejan numbers, local entropy generation, and entropy generation numbers. The heat convection from the heat flux enhances with the increase in the volume fraction of the hybrid nanoparticles (ϕ hnf ${\phi }_{\mathrm{hnf}}$), Rayleigh number (Ra), and Darcy's number (Da) while attenuating by increasing the vortex viscosity K0. The domination of the heat transfer irreversibility over the frictional irreversibility upraises with K0 and ϕ hnf ${\phi }_{{\rm{hnf}}}$. With an increase in the porous stratum's thickness, the average value of the Bejan's number enhances, and a decline in the entropy generation number Ns.
A new Schiff base chemosensor 2-Ethoxy-3-(((2‑hydroxy-4-nitrophenyl)imino)methyl)-2H-chromen-4-ol (CANP) was synthesized and characterized by 1HNMR , FT-IR, HRMS, FE-SEM spectral techniques for the detection of cupric ions through colorimetric and fluorimetric response in THF. Colorimetric change from yellow to orange and fluorescence turn-off behavior was observed for chemosensor in presence of cupric ions over the rest of metal ions. This turn-off behavior was observed due to the paramagnetic nature of cupric ions. Job's plot indicated that complex formed in 2:1 (CANP:Cu²⁺) ratio and binding stoichiometry was confirmed by HRMS spectral technique. The binding constant was obtained as 2.84 × 10⁴ M ⁻ ¹ and 1.71 × 10⁴ M ⁻ ¹ via absorbance and fluorimetric titrations respectively. The LOD values were obtained as 4.93 × 10⁻⁶ M and 2.06 × 10⁻⁶ M via absorbance and fluorimetric titrations respectively. Selectivity of chemosensor towards cupric ions was observed in pH range 6–11. The reversibility effect was observed on the addition of sodium salt of EDTA. No interference from other competitive metal ions confirmed the selectivity of chemosensor for cupric ions. The probe and its cupric ion complex was found to be stable over a span time period. Theoretical calculations based on DFT were performed for a better understanding of the optical character of CANP and the effect of cupric ions titration; moreover, these results validated the experimental data. Time decay data illustrated that complex of chemosensor formed with cupric ions was stable. FESEM analysis of chemosensor CANP and its complex confirmed the formation of complex as morphology changed after complex formation. Additionally, this chemosensor was successfully used for the detection of cupric ions in environmental water samples. Also, it was applied to recognize cupric ions in human blood serum with micromolar detection limits.
• Yogesh Chander
• Ram Kumar
• Assim Verma
• [...]
• Naveen Kumar
Host-dependency factors have increasingly been targeted to minimize antiviral drug resistance. In this study, we have demonstrated that inhibition of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK, a cellular protein) suppresses buffalopox virus (BPXV) protein synthesis by targeting p38-MNK1-eIF4E signaling pathway. In order to provide insights into the evolution of drug resistance, we selected resistant mutants by long-term sequential passages (P; n = 60) in the presence of p38 inhibitor (SB239063). The P60-SB239063 virus exhibited significant resistance to SB239063 as compared to the P60-Control virus. To provide mechanistic insights on the acquisition of resistance by BPXV-P60-SB239063, we generated p38-α and p38-ϒ (isoforms of p38) knockout Vero cells by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. It was demonstrated that unlike the WT virus which is dependent on p38-α isoform, the resistant virus (BPXV-P60-SB239063) switches over to use p38-ϒ so as to efficiently replicate in the target cells. This is a rare evidence wherein a virus was shown to bypass the dependency on a critical cellular factor under selective pressure of a drug.
Nineteen heterocyclic chalcones were synthesized from 4‐acetyl‐5‐methylquinolylpyrazole and heteroaryl (imidazole, pyrazole, thiophene, indole and triazole) aldehydes and screened in vitro using four tumor cell lines for their anticancer capability and for antimicrobial activity. The chalcone 5b exhibited the highest activity with IC 50 values 2.14 μM against colon (HCT‐116) and 5.0 μM, against prostate (PC‐3) cancer cell lines and also displayed good activity against fungal strain ( A. Niger) with MIC value 9.1 μM . The chalcones 5q and 5p displayed good activity against Gram‐positive bacterial strains ( S. aureus ) with MIC value 2.6 µM and fungal strain ( C. Albicans ) with MIC value 5.4 µM, respectively. Molecular docking studies revealed that the synthesized heterocyclic chalcones exhibited hydrogen bond, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with their respective biochemical targets
Sol-gel ultrasonication process was used to synthesize doped TiO 2 nanoparticles. Nd-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles sample structures were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), FTIR, Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The photo-catalytic efficiency of the prepared sample was confirmed by the degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution under ultraviolet (λ > 365) irradiation and solar light. According to XRD findings, virgin samples include anatase and rutile TiO 2 (16.97 nm), while Nd-doped TiO 2 (6.41 nm) samples contain anatase TiO 2 solely. Doping of Nd on titanium dioxide resulted in a drop in the energy band gap from 3.23 eV to 3.16 eV. After modification, this transformation has resulted in a noticeable increase in photocatalyst activity. The photo-degradation efficiency of Nd-doped TiO 2 was found 99.11% under ultraviolet radiation in 60 min and 96.42% under solar light in 180 min, due to its smaller size, which provided a high surface area for the photocatalytic activity and enhanced the degradation efficiency of the photocatalyst.
This study synthesizes the artificial intelligence literature into a Meta‐analytic framework based on the theory of reasoned action and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2, and examines concrete relationships between the constructs of this framework. This meta‐review also performed a moderation analysis to investigate the possible reasons for inconsistent findings across studies. The findings suggest that three methodological moderators (sample type, gender dominance, and publication type), and one contextual moderator (level of country's technology advancement) lead to inconsistencies in the relationships between study constructs. Academically, this review synthesizes the artificial intelligence literature and resolves inconsistencies in the literature and also adds constructs to both theory of reasoned action and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2. Practically, this meta‐analysis offers multiple implications for businesses interested in enhancing customer adoption of artificial intelligence. Especially, companies can increase customers' adoption of artificial intelligence by making it more user‐friendly, and advantageous and by adding pleasing features to it.
Cobalt nanoferrites are one of the most commonly used ferrites and have a wide range of applications. The present study involves several synthesis and characterization methods along with applications of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. The selection of routes to prepare these nanoferrites was found to be dependent on the required properties of materials to be synthesized. All the available methods to synthesize the nanomaterials have their advantages and limitations that are discussed in detail. Numerous tools have been employed to analyze the properties of these nanomaterials. Among all these tools, XRD (X-ray diffraction) method and FT-IR spectroscopy are noticed as the most popular for precise structural analysis. The morphology has been determined using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) in almost all studies. Owing to its exceptional characteristics, the cobalt nanoferrites have been found to be immensely utilized in multiple areas of applications such as microwave devices, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and hyperthermia.
This is a topic that receives a lot of interest since many applications of computer vision focus on the detection of objects in visually appealing environments. Information about an object’s appearance and information regarding the object’s motion are both used as crucial signals in the process of identifying and recognising any given item. This information is used to characterise and recognise the item. The identification of objects based solely on their outward appearance has been the subject of a substantial amount of research. However, motion information in the recognition task has received only a marginal amount of attention, despite the fact that motion plays an essential role in the process of recognition. In order to analyze a moving picture in a way that is both fast and accurate, it is required to make use of motion information in conjunction with surface appearance in a strategy that has been designed. Dynamic texture is a kind of visual phenomenon that may be characterised as a type of visual phenomenon that shows spatially repeated features as well as some stationary properties during the course of time by using methodologies that are associated with machine learning. The design of modern VLSI systems takes into consideration a larger chip density, which results in a processor architecture with several cores that are capable of performing a wide range of functions (multicore processor architecture). It is becoming more challenging to run such complicated systems without the use of electric power. In order to increase the effectiveness of power optimization strategies while maintaining system performance for text data extraction, it has been developed and put into practice power optimization strategies that are based on scheduling algorithms. Over the last twenty years, texture analysis has been an increasingly busy and profitable field of study. Today, texture interpretation plays a vital role in various activities ranging from remote sensing to medical picture analysis. The absence of tools to newline analyze the many properties of texture pictures was the primary challenge faced by the texture analysis approach. Texture analysis may be roughly categorised as texture classification, texture segmentation, texture synthesis, and texture synthesis. Texture categorization is useful in numerous applications, such as the retrieval of picture databases, industrial agriculture applications, and biomedical applications. Texture categorization relies on three distinct methods, namely, statistical, spectral, and structural methods. Statistical methods are based on the statistical characteristics of the image’s grey level. Features are collected using second order statistical order, autocorrelation function, and grey level co-occurrence matrix function.
A series of 1,8b-dihydroindeno[1,2-c]pyrazol-4(3aH)-ones has been efficiently synthesized on reaction of 2-(3-substitutedbenzoyl)-(1H)-indene-1,3(2H)-diones 1 and 2-hydrazinylbenzo[d]thiazole/2-hydrazinyl-6-substitutedbenzo[d]thiazoles 2 in presence of dry ethanol under reflux conditions in good yields. The structures of all the synthesized derivatives were elucidated by using different physical and spectral techniques (FTIR, ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, 2D NMR and HRMS). The synthesized hydroxypyrazolones were assayed for their anticancer activity against two human cancer cell lines (i) lung carcinoma (A549) and (ii) breast carcinoma (MCF7) using MTT assay. Among all the tested compounds, 3d and 3k with IC50 values in the range of 30.68 ± 0.57 µM to 34.87 ± 0.76 µM exhibited moderate inhibitory ability against both the tested cancer cell lines in comparison to the standard drug Doxorubicin (0.95 ± 0.10 µM for A549 and 1.09 ± 0.11 µM for MCF7). The moderately active compounds of the series i.e. 3d and 3k were further tested against normal human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK 293T) to examine their toxicity against normal cell lines. Selectivity Index (S.I.) of the most active compounds 3d and 3k was calculated for both the cancer cell lines which revealed that these derivatives i.e. 3d (S.I = 2.82 for A549 and 2.90 for MCF7) and 3k (S.I = 2.78 for A549 and 2.95 for MCF7) are safer anticancer agents.
Studies were carried out to investigate the drying kinetics of Moringa oleifera leaves with or without pretreatments in a lyophilizer (freeze dryer) using established drying mathematical models. Nine thin layer drying kinetic models were fitted to experimental data. The performance of the models was evaluated by comparing coefficient of determination (R 2) and reduced chi-square (χ 2) values between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The statistical software tool was used to perform regression analysis in order to evaluate the model constants. The constants of the models were evaluated using a nonlinear regression analysis with help of statistical software. In non-linear regression, the R 2 and the reduced χ 2 were employed to assess the goodness of fit of the mathematical models to the experimental data. The best fit to drying curves was judged to be the model having the highest R 2 and the lowest reduced χ 2 values. For explaining the drying kinetics of drumstick leaves, the Midilli-Kucuk model performed best, followed by the logarithmic model. The R 2 , reduced χ 2 , and root mean square error (RMSE) values of lyophilized Moringa leaves varied from 0.996 to 0.999, 0.0001 to 0.003, and 0.008 to 0.053, respectively. Fick's diffusion model was applied to characterize moisture transfer from drumstick leaves, and effective moisture diffusivity was worked out. The values of D eff varied from 1.05*10 −9-7.36*10 −10 m 2 s −1 and 1.29 × 10 −9-9.82 × 10 −10 m 2 s −1 for pretreated and unblanched leaves, respectively, throughout the drying process. Activation energy for pretreated and unblanched lyophilized drumstick leaves ranged from 12.952 to 13.006 kJ/mol, respectively.
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the linkage between strategic HRM (SHRM) and firm performance through knowledge management capability and innovation performance. Primary data were gathered from 624 employees working in 252 Indian firms. Using Model 6 of PROCESS macro, a serial mediation model was estimated to analyse the proposed relationships between SHRM, knowledge management capability, innovation performance and firm performance. The study has revealed that the use of SHRM practices which include selection, training, appraisal, rewards and empowerment results in enhanced knowledge management capability, improved innovation performance and heightened firm performance. Further, the results establish that knowledge management capability and innovation performance act as sequential mediators in linking SHRM to firm performance.
Benzo[5,6][1,4]thiazino[3,4-a]isoindol-11-ones 5a–t and benzo[b]indeno[1,2-e][1,4]thiazin-11(10aH)-ones 6a–e were synthesized conveniently via cyclocondensation of 2-bromo-2-(2/3-substitutedphenyl)-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-diones and 2-aminobenzenethiols in freshly dried ethanol with 70–85% yields. The synthesized derivatives were well characterized by employing different spectral techniques (FTIR, ¹H & ¹³C NMR and HRMS) and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Further, all the reported compounds were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities using Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole as standard drugs, respectively. The results of antimicrobial evaluation revealed that compounds 5o and 5t displayed remarkable inhibitory activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and A. niger with MIC values in the range of 0.0141–0.0283 µmol/mL, whereas 5j was found active against E. coli and C. albicans with MIC values of 0.0286 µmol/mL and 0.0143 µmol/mL, respectively. Additionally, among all the benzo[b]indeno[1,2-e][1,4]thiazin-11(10aH)-ones, 6c exhibited excellent inhibition against all the tested bacterial and fungal strains with MIC values ranging from 0.0143 to 0.1145 µmol/mL. Structure activity relationships were also established for all the tested benzo[5,6][1,4]thiazino[3,4-a]isoindol-11-ones 5a–t. Graphical Abstract
This experimental study investigates the capability of a concatenated stepped solar still system (CS4) for RO-waste-water purification by assessing its thermo-enviro-economic aspects. In order to confirm the supremacy of CS4, a simple stepped solar still system (S5) of equivalent basin area (0.75 m²) is fabricated and tested. The experiments are conducted on CS4 and S5 simultaneously at different flow rates for comparison. The productivity of CS4 is observed to be 24.7 % higher than that of S5; thus, its pollutant removal efficiency is better. As compared to S5, CS4 is found to be more sustainable, economical, and better in terms of distillate production and thermal and exergy efficiencies which are optimum at 50 ml/min. The distillate production, thermal efficiency, and exergy efficiency of CS4 at 50 ml/min flow of RO-waste-water are 2.8 kg/day, 33.80%, and 1.93%, respectively. The second and third units in CS4 work in active mode that increases the solar energy utilization by 34.19% at optimal flow rate. The CO2 mitigation capability of CS4 is 8.89 tons and its distillate production cost is \$0.021. At optimum flow rate, its energy and economic payback periods are evaluated as 199 and 483 days, respectively.
The transition metal complexes of Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II) and Zn (II) with bidentate Schiff base ligands (HL1‐5) were obtained from condensation of 1, 2, 3, 4‐tetrahydro‐naphthalen‐1‐ylamine with methanolic solution of 3‐hydroxy‐salicylaldehyde, 4‐hydroxy‐salicylaldehyde, 5‐bromo‐salicylaldehyde, 3,5‐dibromo‐salicylaldehyde and 2‐hydroxy‐1‐napthaldehyde. The synthesized compounds were structurally elucidated by spectral and physical methods. The spectral characterization emphasized bidentate nature (NO) of Schiff base ligands which gets chelated with metal via nitrogen atom of imine group and deprotonated oxygen of salicylaldehyde/2‐hydroxy‐1‐napthaldehyde group to form octahedral geometry around metal atom. Thermal results supported that the complexes are stable upto 200°C leaving metal oxide as an end products. The reported compounds (1‐25) in this series were screened against the bacterial strains i.e. two Gram positive: B. subtilis, S. aureus, two Gram negative: P. aeruginosa, E. coli and two fungal strains: C. albicans, A. niger and their results indicated moderate to good activity with compounds 20, 21 having good antimicrobial activity (MIC value 0.0269‐0.0067 μmol/mL) as compared to control drugs ciprofloxacine and fluconazole. Furthermore, cytotoxic studies of synthesized compounds were carried out against three human cancer cell lines: HCT‐116 (colon), A549 (alveolar) and MCF‐7 (breast) using standard drug paclitaxel. The results demonstrated that compounds 1 (IC50 values = 12.93, 15.13, 17.24), 3 (11.9, 9.29, 12.64), 9 (17.06, 20.06, 22.87), 14 (16.21, 18.47, 20.00), 25 (17.54, 17.21, 20.23) for three cancer cell lines were found to be most potent candidates among the synthesized compounds.
Here, we report a new series of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) metal complexes (1–20) derived from hydrazone ligands [Nʹ-((E)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)allylidene)benzohydrazide] HL¹, [Nʹ-((E)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)allylidene)nicotinohydrazide] HL², [Nʹ-((E)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)allylidene)isonicotinohydrazide] HL³, [4-methyl-Nʹ-((E)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)allylidene)benzohydrazide] HL⁴ which were obtained from condensation reaction of 4-nitrocinnemaldehyde with benzo/ nicotinic/ iso-nicotinic/ p-toluic hydrazide. The structure elucidation was deduced from spectral and physicochemical techniques like ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, FT-IR, UV–Vis, ESR, SEM, TGA/DTG, XRD, HRMS, molar conductance measurements and elemental analysis. Also, DFT (B3LYP/LanL2DZ) computations have been conducted for ligand and its metal complexes to study the structural and energetics behaviour. The spectral and physicochemical techniques suggested octahedral geometry of all the afforded metal complexes with hydrazone ligands in (1 M: 2L) molar ratio having molecular formula of the type [M(L¹⁻⁴)2(H2O)2]. Thermal analysis suggested that the complexes were stable up to 190 °C and that water molecules are coordinated to metal ions in complexes. XRD data revealed crystalline nature of compounds and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that metal complexes have different surface morphology as compared to hydrazone ligands. In vitro antioxidant potential of synthesized compounds was assessed and investigation revealed that metal complexes have more efficiency of decolourizing the DPPH solution as compared to ligands. To ascertain the therapeutic aspects of synthesized compounds, in vitro antimicrobial assessment was performed on four bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) and two fungal strains (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger) taking ciprofloxacin and fluconazole as reference drugs, respectively. Compounds 11, 12, 15, 16, 19 and 20 were found to be potent antimicrobial agent among the tested series. Thus, this investigation gave a vision into the structural-based modification of hydrazones and their complexation with metals could enhance biological activities.4 Graphical abstract
The microbial diversity in the Indian caves is inadequately characterized. This study reports on the culturable microbial communities in caves from the Indian sub-continent. This study aims to expand the current understanding of bacterial diversity in the speleothems and wall deposits from Krem Soitan, Krem Lawbah, Krem Mawpun in Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, India. A culture-dependent approach was employed for elucidating the community structure in the caves using MALDI-TOF spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A high bacterial diversity and a greater bacterial taxonomic diversity is reported using MALDI-TOF spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. High microbial enumerations were observed on dilute nutrient agar (5.3 × 10 ³ to 8.8 × 10 ⁵ ) followed by M9 minimal medium (4 × 10 ⁴ to 1.7 × 10 ⁵ ) and R2A medium (1.0 × 10 ⁴ to 5.7 × 10 ⁵ ). A total of 826 bacterial isolates were selected and preserved for the study. 295 bacterial isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF spectrometry and the isolates which showed no reliable peaks were further identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total 91% of the bacterial diversity was dominated by Proteobacteria (61%) and Actinobacteria (30%). In addition, bacterial phyla include Firmicutes (7.45%), Deinococcus-Thermus (0.33%) and Bacteroidetes (0.67%) were found in the samples. At the genus level, Pseudomonas (55%) and Arthrobacter (23%) were ubiquitous followed by Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Deinococcus, Flavobacterium, Paenibacillus, Pseudarthrobacter . Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the bacterial genera formed separate clusters depending on the geochemical constituents in the spring waters suitable for their growth and metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous geomicrobiological investigations in these caves and this study is a pioneering culture dependent study of the microbial community with many cultured isolates.
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