This study focuses on the influence of pretreatment conditions and surface structures of well-tuned Pt nanoparticles on the selective hydrogenation of α-β unsaturated crotonaldehyde. The surface binding site preferences of the reactant during catalytic conversions are strongly influenced by the configuration of the nanoparticles’ surface fraction exposed. Since the orientation of the well-ordered surfaces are significantly affected by the pretreatment conditions, we have attempted to obtain relationships between morphology changes and catalytic activity by controlling the fraction of facets with ordered structures. Pt nanoparticles exhibit different types of exposed surfaces, namely Cubic (Cub) (100) and Cuboctahedra (CubOc) (111) + (100). These different surface structures play a crucial role in the preferential hydrogenation of the model molecule. Additionally, we investigated the impact of the pretreatment condition on the catalytic selectivity of the well-shaped nanoparticles. We employed various techniques such as high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and room temperature carbon monoxide adsorption Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (RT-CO-FTIR) to determine the reconstructions of the particles under different pretreatment conditions. The results indicate that both the well-ordered surface fraction and pretreatment conditions of Pt nanoparticles had a moderate influence on both catalytic activity and selectivity. Overall, this study highlights the importance of analyzing the surface morphology and pretreatment conditions of nanoparticles in order to optimize catalytic activity and selectivity in reactions involving well-tuned surface structures. Graphical Abstract
The study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of workplace violence (WPV) against pediatric emergency healthcare workers and evaluate the relationship between WPV and psychological resilience. This study is cross-sectional and correlational. According to the results, the prevalence of WPV was 69.8%, and its distribution was as follows: verbal abuse (56.9%), bullying/mobbing (37.6%), physical abuse (12.8%), and sexual abuse (2.2%). Being single/separated/divorced/widowed (odds ratio [OR]: 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-3.30), being a physician (OR: 4.74, 95% CI: 1.73-12.96), being a staff member (OR: 2.57, 95% CI: 1.10-5.99), routine direct physical contact with patients/clients (OR: 2.77, 95% CI: 1.40-5.48), and lack of encouragement to report WPV (OR: 3.76, 95% CI: 2.01-7.01) were independent predictors of WPV (P < .05), and WPV was found to be associated with low psychological resilience. Arrangements related to violence prevention, preparation, and intervention should be made and maintained in all pediatric emergency departments.
Background: Vaccine acceptance and trust in vaccines pose a complex process affected by many factors. The present study was conducted to determine coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine acceptance, trust in vaccines, anxiety levels, and related factors in Turkish society. Methods: The data of this cross-sectional and descriptive-correlational study were collected with the snowball method by using an online questionnaire throughout Turkey. The study was conducted between March 15 and April 3, 2021, with 3148 participants from 7 regions and 81 cities in Turkey. Results: It was found that the participants accepted the vaccine at 72.8%, and the trust rate in the vaccine was 66.0%. It was also found that women, single participants, those who had immune system diseases, and with COVID-19 had higher Coronavirus Anxiety Scale scores at significant levels. According to Logistic Regression Analysis, gender, age, trust in the vaccine, perception of risk levels regarding COVID-19, and coronavirus anxiety levels are factors affecting the intentions of participants to accept/reject the vaccine. It was determined that male participants were more likely to accept the coronavirus vaccine (P = 0.028). It was found that health-care employees had higher trust in the coronavirus vaccine (P = 0.006) and acceptance rates (P = 0.010) at significant levels compared with the general population. Conclusion: The COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate in Turkish society was found to be high, and the level of trust in vaccines and anxiety levels were above the moderate level.
AimsThis study was designed to determine the coronavirus-associated anxiety, fear, and awareness of nursing students who will start face-to-face education.Methods In this descriptive and cross-sectional study, the data were collected using the socio-demographic characteristics form, Fear of COVID-19 Scale, Coronavirus Anxiety Scale-Short Form, and COVID-19 Awareness Scale between 29 November 2021 and 1 January 2022. The sample consisted of 344 nursing students.ResultsThe mean age of the students participating in the study was 20.49±1.78. It was determined that there was a significant difference between gender and the total score of Fear of COVID-19 Scale and the total score of COVID-19 Awareness Scale. Individuals having a nuclear family had significantly higher levels of fear of COVID-19 than those having an extended family. There was a positive and significant relationship between number of vaccinations, age, total score of the Coronavirus anxiety scale, total score of the COVID-19 awareness scale, total score of the hygiene subscale, total score of distance subscale, and total score of mask subscale. It was determined that there was a negative significant correlation between age and the total score of COVID-19 awareness scale and the total score of the Coronavirus anxiety scale.Conclusion It was determined that women’s levels of fear of COVID-19 and coronavirus awareness levels were significantly higher compared to their male counterparts. The fear of COVID-19 increased as the number of vaccination, age. As the fear of COVID-19 increased, the level of COVID-19 awareness also increased.
The Yedisu Seismic Gap is one of the most important seismic gaps throughout the North Anatolian Fault Zone since it has not produced destructive earthquakes for a long time. To analyze the characteristics of future seismic hazards, the interrelationships between seismotectonic b-values, Coulomb stress changes, and S-wave velocity models of crust are presented in and around the Yedisu Seismic Gap located northwest of the Karlıova Triple Junction. For this purpose, the most up-to-date earthquake catalog and the focal mechanism solutions of recent earthquakes are used to image the different depth intervals. Results show that the relatively positive stresses are accumulating along the Varto Fault Zone and Kargapazarı and Yedisu Segments between 5 and 15 km depth intervals. At the same time, the lower b-values between 0.6 and 1.0 are found in the same segments. However, in the volcanic regions around the Karlıova Triple Junction, the low S-wave velocity zones may be related to high b-values, negative stress changes, and volcanic structures. The region between the Turnadağ volcano and the Varto caldera shows scattered stress and b-value changes in the upper crust. Moreover, the probability of earthquakes for Mw = 6.0, 7.0, and 7.7 in the intermediate term (10 years) is estimated as ~ 65%, ~ 17%, and ~ 5%, respectively. Recurrence of earthquakes with Mw = 6.0, 7.0, and 7.7 are calculated as ~ 10, ~ 55, and ~ 187 years, respectively. Consequently, the regions characterized by low strong b-values and positive stress loading reveal high earthquake hazard potential on the whole in the next decade.
Aim The aims of this study were to evaluate hand grip strength in young adults, to examine its relationship with anthropometric values, and to determine which values are predictive. Subject and methods This prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted with 913 healthy young adults aged 18–30 years. A questionnaire form was administered in face-to-face interviews, and anthropometric measurements including height, body weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), neck circumference (NC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and hand grip strength (kg) were performed for each participant. Results Hand grip strength was significantly higher for men than for women (p < 0.001), and was also higher in obese and overweight people compared to underweight participants (p < 0.001). Hand grip strength was correlated with weight, height, body mass index, MAC, TSF, WC, and NC (p < 0.001). The predictive ability of anthropometric measurements in estimating hand grip strength was thus demonstrated in a large population of healthy young adults. Significant regression was found, with an R² value of 0.556. Hand grip strength increased by 0.282 kg for each centimeter of height and by 0.135 kg for each centimeter of MAC. The hand grip strength of male participants was 0.424 kg greater than that of females. Height, MAC, TSF, and sex were significant predictors of hand grip strength. Conclusion According to our results, variability in hand grip strength among healthy subjects can be explained by height, MAC, TSF, WC, HC, age, and sex. The estimation of hand grip strength could be established based on these demographic and anthropometric variables.
This study aims to evaluate the relationship of geographical factors, including precipitation, slope, air pollution and elevation with adult obesity prevalence in Türkiye (TR) using a cross-regional study design. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) were performed to evaluate the spatial variation in the relationship between all geographic factors and obesity prevalence. In the model, a positive relationship was found between obesity prevalence and slope, whereas a negative significant relationship was determined between obesity prevalence and elevation (p < 0.05). These results, revealing spatially varying associations, were very useful in refining the interpretations of the statistical results on adult obesity. This research suggests that geographical factors should be considered as one of the components of the obesogenic environment. In addition, it is recommended that national and international strategies to overcome obesity should be restructured by taking into account the geographical characteristics of the region.
Rheumatic diseases (RDs) include a variety of autoimmune disorders defined by severe inflammation, primarily affecting the joints, tendons, ligaments, bones, and muscles. Recent research has revealed the association between rheumatic diseases and gut microbiota, thereby providing insights into the underlying mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantity and quality of scientific research regarding the association between RDs and gut microbiota, as well as to elucidate the characteristics of worldwide research output in this field. The present bibliometric analysis was carried out using the Scopus database, using the keywords "rheumatology," "arthritis," and "gut microbiota." The study involved determining the number of articles, the number of active countries with journals, the identification of prolific authors, and the collection of citation data. Additionally, analyses of trends were conducted. 503 articles in all were reviewed. Collaboration networks were visualized using mapping techniques. The number of articles on RDs and gut microbiota exhibited a consistent pattern from 2002 to 2022 (p < 0.05). The five most productive countries were China (n = 128; 25.45%), the United States (n = 101; 20.07%), Italy (n = 40; 7.95%), the United Kingdom (n = 20; 3.98%), and Japan (n = 17; 3.38%). Israel, Italy, Belgium, and Portugal had the highest values regarding the number of articles per million population. Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom were the top three countries regarding average citation count. This bibliometric analysis evaluates and synthesizes global scientific output on RDs and gut microbiota. The literature on the association between rheumatic diseases and gut microbiota is growing. Supporting researchers in countries with limited involvement in this field will contribute to its growth.
Vitamin C, enzyme activities, phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity, and essential oil analyses of ripe and unripe fruits of P. terebinthus were investigated. Vitamin C amounts of ripe and unripe fruits were 63.2 and 15.4 mg/100g, respectively. The main phenolic compounds of unripe and ripe fruits are rutin, syringic acid, and gallic acid. It was determined that the enzyme inhibitor activities in the ripe and unripe fruits were 0.136 mg/mL and 2.14 mg/mL. In all of the free radical scavenging (DPPH and ABTS) activity, ferric (III) ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) capacity, total phenolic substance amounts (TPC), total flavonoid substance amounts (TFC), and total antioxidant activity (TAC) antioxidant methods analyzed with plant parts, the methanol extracts obtained from the ripe fruits of the P. terebinthus showed higher antioxidant properties than the methanol extracts obtained from the unripe fruits. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 showed antimicrobial activity against microorganisms, while methanol extracts obtained from unripe fruit samples did not show antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms used. The chemical grade with the most compounds in the essential oils of P. terebinthus were monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, and monoterpenes in unripe and ripe fruits, respectively. The main components were α-pinene with 22.8% and 27.3% ratios in unripe and ripe fruits, respectively.
Volatile oil analysis, phenolic constituents, antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity, vitamin C, and enzyme activities of the fruits of Rhus coriaria L. were studied. The chemical with the highest percentage was sesquiterpene hydrocarbons with 40.4%. The major compound was detected as caryophyllene (36.9%). The main phenolic constituents of fruit samples were gallic acid, syringic acid, protocatechuic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. The highest phenolic constituent of fruits was gallic acid. Ferric (III) ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) capacity (14.9 mg FeSO4 eq./g), free radical scavenging (ABTS) capacity (68.8 mg AA eq./g), ABTS % inhibition rate (98.0%), free radical scavenging (DPPH) (53.1 mg AA eq./g), and DPPH % inhibition (79.6%) amounts were determined in antioxidant capacities of the samples. The bioactive component contents of the samples were total antioxidant amounts (TAC) (32.8 mg GA/g), total flavonoid substance amounts (TFC) (73.8 mg QE eq./g), and total phenolic substance amounts (TPC) (41.4 mg GA eq./g). The results of the antimicrobial activity analysis of R. coriaria fruit samples showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes microorganisms. The amount of vitamin C and enzyme inhibitor activity in the fruits of R. coriaria were determined as 35.5 mg/100 g and 0.07 mg/mL, respectively.
Ecological balance is an indicator of environmental degradation, which is computed as the difference between biocapacity and ecological footprint. In this study, we examine whether the effect of shocks on the ecological balance is permanent or temporary in the EU-15 countries, considering the period from 1961 to 2018. The application of unit root tests, with and without a Fourier function, indicates that the effects of shocks are temporary in only four countries. To reveal the persistence of shocks at different frequencies, that is, the short-, medium-, and long-run, we decomposed the ecological balance series by using the Discrete Wavelet Transform method. The unit root test results show that the effects of shocks are temporary in all countries in the short-run. However, the results also show that the shocks are temporary in nine countries in the medium-run and ten countries in the long-run. Thus, the implemented policies to balance ecology are not effective in the short-run but are effective in only six countries in the medium-term and in only five countries in the long-term. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering different frequencies when testing the effectiveness of empirically implemented policies. Regarding policy implications, this study suggests focusing on medium- and long-term environmental policies rather than short-term ones.
Environmental degradation is one of the most significant issues that developing nations confront and needs to be resolved right away in order for them to achieve sustainable development. Government policies are crucial in this situation since emerging nations frequently struggle with the issue of policy ambiguity, which can result in environmental deterioration. In this context, this study investigates how policy uncertainty affects environmental degradation in the five fragile emerging economies known as the Fragile Five—Brazil, India, Indonesia, South Africa, and Turkey. Using data from 1996 to 2019, we estimate a Panel Quantile Regression analysis. The empirical findings indicate that economic policy uncertainty and technology innovation increases the environmental degradation whereas environmental degradation is slowed down by financial development and renewable energy consumption. Empirical evidence also confirms the presence of EKC hypothesis in fragile economies. Based on the findings, we suggest both a policy and an environmental framework for achieving sustainable development in fragile economies. Graphical Abstract
In this study, Laplace transformation, which is very important for solutions to initial value problems, is examined. To solve the initial value problem of a discrete‐time equation, Laplace implements the conversion method. Here, Laplace transformation is used to obtain an approach to the solutions of random difference equations formed by randomizing components of deterministic difference equations. For random behavior of linear difference equations under random effects, uniform, geometric, binomial, Poisson, and Bernouilli distributions are used, and approximate expected value, variance, standard deviation, and confidence interval of equations obtained by Laplace transformation are calculated. The results were obtained through the Maple package program.
Oxidation is one of the most important factors limiting shelf life and is a major deterioration process affecting both the sensory and nutritional quality of food. The high oxidation stability of lipids, which can be improved by the addition of antioxidants, is important for health protection, food quality, and economic reasons. In recent years, research on plant-derived antioxidants for use in human health and food has steadily increased. The aim of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects of green tea powder (GTP) in butter with those of commercial antioxidants (BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol, and Trolox). In addition, the effects on colour, sensory, gross physicochemical properties, and β-carotene content were investigated in butter. After the separation of butter into five pieces, the first part was chosen as the control sample without GTP; the second part has 100 mg/kg of BHT added to it; and the third, fourth, and fifth parts had 1, 2, and 3% of GTP added in the samples. They were stored at 4 ± 1 °C. Analysis was performed at intervals of 15 days. According to the iron reduction, CUPRAC and FRAP methods were performed, and parallel results were observed. Using the radical elimination methods (ABTS, DPPH•, and DMPD•+), IC50 values were calculated for the samples. According to the IC50 values, the GTP-containing samples were good antioxidants. The total phenolic andf β-carotene contents increased as the GTP addition increased. The addition of GTP had an antioxidant capacity equal to or higher than that of the BHT-added sample. For the production of a sensory-pleasing, greenish-coloured, new functional butter, the 1% GTP addition showed the most positive results.
The Eastern Anatolia is an active tectonic region where the collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates take place. Due to the subduction of Arabian plate’s oceanic lithosphere under Eurasian plate, widespread volcanism observed in large areas began in Serravallian. There is no consensus in the literature for the tectonic evolution of the region. Therefore, there are many geological and geophysical studies conducted with the intention of explaining the tectonic evolution of Eastern Anatolia by geodynamic models. Our paleomagnetism study aims to reveal the tectonic rotations in order to better understand the development of the prevailing tectonism in the region from the volcanic rocks. Paleomagnetic samples were collected from 86 sites of the Late Miocene–Pleistocene volcanic rocks located at the north of Lake Van. Isothermal remanent magnetization studies show that magnetite is the mineral responsible for magnetization in most rocks, while both magnetite and hematite are responsible for the rest of the rocks. Curie temperatures and alteration degrees of rock samples were also determined by high-temperature susceptibility (HTS) studies. In some samples, titanomagnetite component was observed in the heating phase of the HTS measurements. The absence of this component in the cooling step indicates that Ti-magnetite is transformed into magnetite by alteration. The Pleistocene volcanics show counterclockwise rotation of R ± ΔR = 13.4° ± 3.8°. The Pliocene volcanic rocks were defined in four different groups: south of Erciş Fault, north of Erciş Fault, around Muradiye and north of Van. Also, the remarkable clockwise rotation is observed in the north of Van and near Muradiye R ± ΔR = 24.4° ± 17.0° and R ± ΔR = 6.9° ± 9.4°, respectively. In addition, counterclockwise rotation (R ± ΔR = 14.5° ± 6.1°) is obtained in the southern part of the Erciş Fault, while there is no significant rotation (R ± ΔR = 0.6° ± 7.4°) on the northern side. Late Miocene volcanic rocks show no significant rotation either (R ± ΔR = 1.8° ± 13.7°). Our new paleomagnetic results indicate that the left-lateral strike-slip Çakırbey Fault, located to the east of the Erciş fault and extending roughly in the northeast–southwest direction, may be active.
Millions of people are grieving the loss of someone who died of COVID-19. The current study aims to validate a Kurdish version of the Pandemic Grief Scale which is a brief English-language mental health screener to identify cases of dysfunctional grief associated with a COVID-19 death. We recruited 501 participants. Participants completed the PGS, WSAS, PHQ-9, and Optimism scales. The factor structure, reliability, and validity of the PGS were analyzed. Using exploratory factor analysis (N1 = 300), we derived an one-factor structure. In confirmatory factor analysis (N2 = 201), the one-factor model showed good to excellent fitness. The PGS was positively correlated with PHQ-4, and WSAS and negatively correlated with optimism. The scale was internally consistent with a Cronbach's alpha of .79. These results support that the Kurdish version of the PGS is a valid and reliable assessment to assess the severity of dysfunctional grief associated with a COVID-19 death.
Local gravity and magnetic anomalies are employed to identify potential hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Middle Kura Depression (MKD) within the South Caspian basin in Azerbaijan. The MKD basin in Azerbaijan including the Yevlakh-Agjabedi trough covers a large part of the Kura intermountain basin between the Greater and Lesser Caucasus. In the study region, several local gravity and magnetic anomalies are discovered related to oil and gas deposits in the sedimentary depression whose thickness is 12–14 km. Gravity minima and maxima expressed by different wavelength anomalies are indicative of density variations within the basin. Local gravity minima with an intensity of 0.3–0.4 mGal identified in the study areas are related to the oil–gas deposits. While the local positive magnetic anomalies are associated with the volcanic formations, local negative magnetic anomalies appear over the productive parts of the buried structure within the sedimentary complex. Intense local magnetic minima anomalies with an intensity of 20–30 nT are evidence of oil and gas accumulations. The limitations of traditional methods for interpreting gravity and magnetic data to locate oil and gas fields have led to the use of gravity field gradients. This alternative approach has proven advantageous, as it confirms the results of gravity exploration and is useful for directly searching for hydrocarbons.
Anthropogenic climate change (ACC) is considered one of the biggest threats to humanity in the century, with severe direct or indirect impacts on people’s lives. Such a significant threat causes serious concern, which can motivate low-level pro-environmental behaviour and lead to serious health problems at high levels. Therefore, determining the level of this concern is crucial. Outdoor recreation participants, who are constantly in contact with nature, can closely witness the effects of ACC due to these interactions. Therefore, evaluating their ACC worry is essential. In this study, the aim was to determine the ACC worry levels of outdoor recreation participants. The research data was collected through an online survey from a sample reached through convenience sampling method throughout Türkiye. The data were analyzed using AMOS and SPSS software. The relationship between independent variables and ACC concern was revealed through ordinal logistic regression. The research found that the participants had a high level of concern about ACC, with a score of 3.50. It was also determined that this level of concern was influenced by variables such as the type of outdoor recreation, the duration of participation in outdoor recreation, and exposure to the effects of ACC. Considering ACC can motivate pro-environmental behaviours, the research suggests that outdoor recreational participants with high levels of concern about ACC should not be ignored in the adaptation process.
In the current study, the effects of silver (Ag) additive on the radiation shielding efficiency of BiPbSrCaCuO superconducting ceramics was calculated using the EGS4 code and discussed theoretically by comparison with XCOM data. The mass attenuation coefficients (µ/ρ) for BiPbSrCaCuO superconductor ceramics and their contents were investigated theoretically (WinXcom and EGS4) at gamma-ray energies ranging from 59.5 to 1332 keV. The theoretical values were computed in the energy range from 1 keV to 100 MeV using the WinXcom program. Then, using the mass attenuation coefficients, some shielding parameters were determined, such as the mean free path (MFP), the half value layer (HVL), the effective atomic number (Zeff), the radiation protection efficiency (RPE), the macroscopic fast neutron removal cross-sections (ΣR, cm−1) and the gamma-ray kerma coefficients (kγ). Theoretically, the results obtained with XCOM and EGS-4 were found to be in good agreement. The radiation shielding efficiency (RPE), neutron removal cross-section (ΣR, cm−1), maximum and semi-valent layer (HVL), and mean free path (MFP) values were found to be smaller for BiPbSrCaCuO superconducting ceramics as the silver (Ag) contribution was increased. Data from this study can guide further research and development of shielding materials for gamma-ray and neutron shielding.
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