Background Identification of widespread biases present in reported research findings in many scientific disciplines, including psychology, such as failures to replicate and the likely extensive application of questionable research practices, has raised serious concerns over the reliability and trustworthiness of scientific research. This has led to the development of, and advocacy for, ‘open science’ practices, including data, materials, analysis, and output sharing, pre-registration of study predictions and analysis plans, and increased access to published research findings. Implementation of such practices has been enthusiastic in some quarters, but literacy in, and adoption of, these practices has lagged behind among many researchers in the scientific community. Advances In the current article I propose that researchers adopt an open science ‘mindset’, a comprehensive approach to open science predicated on researchers’ operating under the basic assumption that, wherever possible, open science practices will be a central component of all steps of their research projects. The primary, defining feature of the mindset is a commitment to open science principles in all research projects from inception to dissemination. Other features of the mindset include the assumption that all components of research projects (e.g. pre-registered hypotheses, protocols, materials, analysis plans, data, and output) will be accessible broadly; pro-active selection of open fora to disseminate research components and findings; open and transparent dissemination of reports of the research findings in advance of, and after, formal publication; and active promotion of open science practices through education, modeling, and advocacy. Conclusion The open science mindset is a ‘farm to fork’ approach to open science aimed at promoting comprehensive quality in application of open science, and widening participation in open science practices so that they become the norm in research in health psychology and behavioral medicine going forward.
Maturation of the HIV-1 viral particles shortly after budding is required for infectivity. During this process, the Pr55Gag precursor undergoes a cascade of proteolytic cleavages, and whilst the structural rearrangements of the viral proteins are well understood, the concomitant maturation of the genomic RNA (gRNA) structure is unexplored, despite evidence that it is required for infectivity. To get insight into this process, we systematically analysed the interactions between Pr55Gag or its maturation products (NCp15, NCp9 and NCp7) and the 5' gRNA region and their structural consequences, in vitro. We show that Pr55Gag and its maturation products mostly bind at different RNA sites and with different contributions of their two zinc knuckle domains. Importantly, these proteins have different transient and permanent effects on the RNA structure, the late NCp9 and NCp7 inducing dramatic structural rearrangements. Altogether, our results reveal the distinct contributions of the different Pr55Gag maturation products on the gRNA structural maturation.
Synthetic biology has played a key role in responding to the current pandemic. Biofoundries are critical synthetic biology infrastructure which should be available to all nations as a part of their independent bioengineering, biosecurity, and countermeasure response systems.
Background Cannabidiol (CBD) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anxiolytic and neuroprotective effects that have the potential to benefit athletes. This pilot study investigated the effects of acute, oral CBD treatment on physiological and psychological responses to aerobic exercise to determine its practical utility within the sporting context. Methods On two occasions, nine endurance-trained males (mean ± SD V̇O 2max : 57.4 ± 4.0 mL·min ⁻¹ ·kg ⁻¹ ) ran for 60 min at a fixed intensity (70% V̇O 2max ) (RUN 1) before completing an incremental run to exhaustion (RUN 2). Participants received CBD (300 mg; oral) or placebo 1.5 h before exercise in a randomised, double-blind design. Respiratory gases (V̇O 2 ), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR), blood glucose (BG) and lactate (BL) concentrations, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and pleasure–displeasure were measured at three timepoints (T1–3) during RUN 1. V̇O 2max , RER max , HR max and time to exhaustion (TTE) were recorded during RUN 2. Venous blood was drawn at Baseline, Pre- and Post-RUN 1, Post-RUN 2 and 1 h Post-RUN 2. Data were synthesised using Cohen’s d z effect sizes and 85% confidence intervals (CIs). Effects were considered worthy of further investigation if the 85% CI included ± 0.5 but not zero. Results CBD appeared to increase V̇O 2 (T2: + 38 ± 48 mL·min ⁻¹ , d z : 0.25–1.35), ratings of pleasure (T1: + 0.7 ± 0.9, d z : 0.22–1.32; T2: + 0.8 ± 1.1, d z : 0.17–1.25) and BL (T2: + 3.3 ± 6.4 mmol·L ⁻¹ , d z : > 0.00–1.03) during RUN 1 compared to placebo. No differences in HR, RPE, BG or RER were observed between treatments. CBD appeared to increase V̇O 2max (+ 119 ± 206 mL·min ⁻¹ , d z : 0.06–1.10) and RER max (+ 0.04 ± 0.05 d z : 0.24–1.34) during RUN 2 compared to placebo. No differences in TTE or HR max were observed between treatments. Exercise increased serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α, lipopolysaccharide and myoglobin concentrations (i.e. Baseline vs. Post-RUN 1, Post-RUN 2 and/or 1-h Post-RUN 2, p ’s < 0.05). However, the changes were small, making it difficult to reliably evaluate the effect of CBD, where an effect appeared to be present. Plasma concentrations of the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide (AEA), increased Post-RUN 1 and Post-RUN 2, relative to Baseline and Pre-RUN 1 ( p ’s < 0.05). CBD appeared to reduce AEA concentrations Post-RUN 2, compared to placebo (− 0.95 ± 0.64 pmol·mL ⁻¹ , d z : − 2.19, − 0.79). Conclusion CBD appears to alter some key physiological and psychological responses to aerobic exercise without impairing performance. Larger studies are required to confirm and better understand these preliminary findings. Trial Registration This investigation was approved by the Sydney Local Health District’s Human Research Ethics Committee (2020/ETH00226) and registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12620000941965).
Background To report a case of Fuchs’ adenoma occurring in an eye with a large choroidal melanoma. We have reviewed the literature to describe the clinical presentation, ultrasound characteristics and pathological features of these entities. Case presentation A 69-year-old Caucasian man presented with vision loss from a large choroidal melanoma. Enucleation showed an incidental Fuchs’ adenoma in the same eye. Whole-exome sequence analysis was also performed on the patient’s blood and melanoma, which showed a rarely-reported ATRX mutation. Conclusions Fuchs’ adenoma is an under-diagnosed benign age-related hyperplasia of the non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (NPCE). Given its location and characteristics, it can be mistaken for choroidal melanoma and clinicians are reminded how to differentiate between these pathologies and that they may co-exist.
Background Diabetes-related foot disease (DFD) is a leading cause of the Australian disease burden. The 2011 Australian DFD guidelines were outdated. We aimed to develop methodology for systematically adapting suitable international guidelines to the Australian context to become the new Australian evidence-based guidelines for DFD. Methods We followed the Australian National Health Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for adapting guidelines. We systematically searched for all international DFD guideline records. All identified records were independently screened and assessed for eligibility. Those deemed eligible were further assessed and included if scoring at least moderate quality, suitability and currency using AGREE II and NHMRC instruments. The included international guidelines had all recommendations extracted into six sub-fields: prevention, wound classification, peripheral artery disease, infection, offloading and wound healing. Six national panels, each comprising 6–8 multidisciplinary national experts, screened all recommendations within their sub-field for acceptability and applicability in Australia using an ADAPTE form. Where panels were unsure of any acceptability and applicability items, full assessments were undertaken using a GRADE Evidence to Decision tool. Recommendations were adopted, adapted, or excluded, based on the agreement between the panel’s and international guideline’s judgements. Each panel drafted a guideline that included all their recommendations, rationale, justifications, and implementation considerations. All underwent public consultation, final revision, and approval by national peak bodies. Results We screened 182 identified records, assessed 24 full text records, and after further quality, suitability, and currency assessment, one record was deemed a suitable international guideline, the International Working Group Diabetic Foot Guidelines (IWGDF guidelines). The six panels collectively assessed 100 IWGDF recommendations, with 71 being adopted, 27 adapted, and two excluded for the Australian context. We received 47 public consultation responses with > 80% (strongly) agreeing that the guidelines should be approved, and ten national peak bodies endorsed the final six guidelines. The six guidelines and this protocol can be found at: https://www.diabetesfeetaustralia.org/new-guidelines/ Conclusion New Australian evidence-based guidelines for DFD have been developed for the first time in a decade by adapting suitable international guidelines. The methodology developed for adaptation may be useful for other foot-related conditions. These new guidelines will now serve as the national multidisciplinary best practice standards of DFD care in Australia.
Aqueous zinc-ion batteries (AZIBs) can be one of the most promising electrochemical energy storage devices for being non-flammable, low-cost, and sustainable. However, the challenges of AZIBs, including dendrite growth, hydrogen evolution, corrosion, and passivation of zinc anode during charging and discharging processes, must be overcome to achieve high cycling performance and stability in practical applications. In this work, we utilize a dual-functional organic additive cyclohexanedodecol (CHD) to firstly establish [Zn(H 2 O) 5 (CHD)] ²⁺ complex ion in an aqueous Zn electrolyte and secondly build a robust protection layer on the Zn surface to overcome these dilemmas. Systematic experiments and theoretical calculations are carried out to interpret the working mechanism of CHD. At a very low concentration of 0.1 mg mL ⁻¹ CHD, long-term reversible Zn plating/stripping could be achieved up to 2200 h at 2 mA cm ⁻² , 1000 h at 5 mA cm ⁻² , and 650 h at 10 mA cm ⁻² at the fixed capacity of 1 mAh cm ⁻² . When matched with V 2 O 5 cathode, the resultant AZIBs full cell with the CHD-modified electrolyte presents a high capacity of 175 mAh g ⁻¹ with the capacity retention of 92% after 2000 cycles under 2 A g ⁻¹ . Such a performance could enable the commercialization of AZIBs for applications in grid energy storage and industrial energy storage.
Bismuth-based materials (e.g., metallic, oxides and subcarbonate) are emerged as promising electrocatalysts for converting CO 2 to formate. However, Bi o -based electrocatalysts possess high overpotentials, while bismuth oxides and subcarbonate encounter stability issues. This work is designated to exemplify that the operando synthesis can be an effective means to enhance the stability of electrocatalysts under operando CO 2 RR conditions. A synthetic approach is developed to electrochemically convert BiOCl into Cl-containing subcarbonate (Bi 2 O 2 (CO 3 ) x Cl y ) under operando CO 2 RR conditions. The systematic operando spectroscopic studies depict that BiOCl is converted to Bi 2 O 2 (CO 3 ) x Cl y via a cathodic potential-promoted anion-exchange process. The operando synthesized Bi 2 O 2 (CO 3 ) x Cl y can tolerate − 1.0 V versus RHE, while for the wet-chemistry synthesized pure Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 , the formation of metallic Bi o occurs at − 0.6 V versus RHE. At − 0.8 V versus RHE, Bi 2 O 2 (CO 3 ) x Cl y can readily attain a FE HCOO - of 97.9%, much higher than that of the pure Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 (81.3%). DFT calculations indicate that differing from the pure Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 -catalyzed CO 2 RR, where formate is formed via a * OCHO intermediate step that requires a high energy input energy of 2.69 eV to proceed, the formation of HCOO ⁻ over Bi 2 O 2 (CO 3 ) x Cl y has proceeded via a * COOH intermediate step that only requires low energy input of 2.56 eV.
Background Pressure offloading treatment is critical for healing diabetes-related foot ulcers (DFU). Yet the 2011 Australian DFU guidelines regarding offloading treatment are outdated. A national expert panel aimed to develop a new Australian guideline on offloading treatment for people with DFU by adapting international guidelines that have been assessed as suitable to adapt to the Australian context. Methods National Health and Medical Research Council procedures were used to adapt suitable International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) guidelines to the Australian context. We systematically screened, assessed and judged all IWGDF offloading recommendations using best practice ADAPTE and GRADE frameworks to decide which recommendations should be adopted, adapted or excluded in the Australian context. For each recommendation, we re-evaluated the wording, quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and provided rationale, justifications and implementation considerations, including for geographically remote and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. This guideline, along with five accompanying Australian DFU guidelines, underwent public consultation, further revision and approval by ten national peak bodies (professional organisations). Results Of the 13 original IWGDF offloading treatment recommendations, we adopted four and adapted nine. The main reasons for adapting the IWGDF recommendations included differences in quality of evidence ratings and clarification of the intervention(s) and control treatment(s) in the recommendations for the Australian context. For Australians with plantar DFU, we recommend a step-down offloading treatment approach based on their contraindications and tolerance. We strongly recommend non-removable knee-high offloading devices as first-line treatment, removable knee-high offloading devices as second-line, removable ankle-high offloading devices third-line, and medical grade footwear as last-line. We recommend considering using felted foam in combination with the chosen offloading device or footwear to further reduce plantar pressure. If offloading device options fail to heal a person with plantar DFU, we recommend considering various surgical offloading procedures. For people with non-plantar DFU, depending on the type and location of the DFU, we recommend using a removable offloading device, felted foam, toe spacers or orthoses, or medical grade footwear. The six new guidelines and the full protocol can be found at: https://diabetesfeetaustralia.org/new-guidelines/ . Conclusions We have developed a new Australian evidence-based guideline on offloading treatment for people with DFU that has been endorsed by ten key national peak bodies. Health professionals implementing these offloading recommendations in Australia should produce better DFU healing outcomes for their patients, communities, and country.
Introduction Patients with chronic foot/ankle pain are often referred for orthopaedic assessment. Psychological vulnerabilities influence pain states (including foot and ankle), therefore this study aimed to establish the prevalence and relative importance of compromised psychological health to perceived foot/ankle pain severity in people referred to an orthopaedic foot and ankle clinic with non-urgent presentations. Methods Patients with triaged non-urgent foot/ankle referrals to the Department of Orthopaedics at Gold Coast University Hospital were recruited over a 12-month period and completed the Manchester-Oxford Foot and Ankle Questionnaire which was the primary measure. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing their anthropometric, demographic and health characteristics ( Self-Administered Comorbidity Questionnaire ) as well as measures of health-related quality of life ( EuroQol-5-Dimensions-5-Level Questionnaire and EQ Visual Analogue Scale ) and psychological health ( Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale , Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Central Sensitization Inventory ) . Descriptive statistics were used to summarise participant characteristics and a hierarchical multiple linear regression was employed to establish the extent to which psychological variables explain additional variance in foot/ankle pain severity beyond the effects of participant characteristics (age, sex, body mass index (BMI)). Results One hundred and seventy-two adults were recruited ((64.0% female), median (IQR) age 60.9 (17.7) years and BMI 27.6 (7.5) kg/m ² ). Specific psychological comorbidities were prevalent including depressive symptoms (48%), central sensitisation (38%) and pain catastrophising (24%). Age, sex and BMI accounted for 11.7% of the variance in MOXFQ-index and psychological variables accounted for an additional 28.2%. Pain catastrophising was the most significant independent predictor of foot/ankle pain severity (accounting for 14.4% of variance), followed by BMI (10.7%) and depressive symptoms (2.3%). Conclusions This study demonstrated that specific psychological comorbidities and increased BMI are common in this cohort and that these factors are associated with the symptoms for which patients are seeking orthopaedic assessment. This knowledge should prompt clinicians to routinely consider the psychosocial components of patient presentations and develop non-operative and pre-operative treatment strategies which consider these factors with the goal of improving overall patient outcomes.
Objective The objective of this study was to identify the diagnostic performance of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) among patients presenting with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) and negative bidirectional endoscopy to a gasteroendoscopy practice in regional Australia. The secondary objectives were to identify the distribution of findings and factors predictive of positive findings in a regional setting. Results In total 123 procedures were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 67.9 years. Females made up 60.2% (n = 74) of the study population. Mean haemoglobin and ferritin levels were 93.3 g/L and 11.9 ug/L, respectively. Positive findings were present in 67 procedures (54.5%) with the most frequent finding being small bowel angiodysplasia (53.7%, n = 36/67), followed by ulceration/significant erosion (26.8%, n = 18/67), fresh blood (20.8%, n = 14/67) and tumour/polyp (16.4%, n = 11/67). Haemoglobin level was the only variable associated with positive findings (p = 0.005) in the study population. Of the procedures reporting positive findings outside the small bowel, the majority (80%) were within reach of conventional upper endoscopy and may have implications for future practice, particularly when allocating health resources in a rural setting.
Background Diabetes-related foot ulceration (DFU) has a substantial burden on both individuals and healthcare systems both globally and in Australia. There is a pressing need for updated guidelines on wound healing interventions to improve outcomes for people living with DFU. A national expert panel was convened to develop new Australian evidence-based guidelines on wound healing interventions for people with DFU by adapting suitable international guidelines to the Australian context. Methods The panel followed National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) procedures to adapt suitable international guidelines by the International Working Group of the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) to the Australian context. The panel systematically screened, assessed and judged all IWGDF wound healing recommendations using ADAPTE and GRADE frameworks for adapting guidelines to decide which recommendations should be adopted, adapted or excluded in the Australian context. Each recommendation had their wording, quality of evidence, and strength of recommendation re-evaluated, plus rationale, justifications and implementation considerations provided for the Australian context. This guideline underwent public consultation, further revision and approval by ten national peak bodies. Results Thirteen IWGDF wound healing recommendations were evaluated in this process. After screening, nine recommendations were adopted and four were adapted after full assessment. Two recommendations had their strength of recommendations downgraded, one intervention was not currently approved for use in Australia, one intervention specified the need to obtain informed consent to be acceptable in Australia, and another was reworded to clarify best standard of care. Overall, five wound healing interventions have been recommended as having the evidence-based potential to improve wound healing in specific types of DFU when used in conjunction with other best standards of DFU care, including sucrose-octasulfate impregnated dressing, systemic hyperbaric oxygen therapy, negative pressure wound therapy, placental-derived products, and the autologous combined leucocyte, platelet and fibrin dressing. The six new guidelines and the full protocol can be found at: https://diabetesfeetaustralia.org/new-guidelines/ Conclusions The IWGDF guideline for wound healing interventions has been adapted to suit the Australian context, and in particular for geographically remote and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. This new national wound healing guideline, endorsed by ten national peak bodies, also highlights important considerations for implementation, monitoring, and future research priorities in Australia.
This paper investigates the potential of transformative governance to address the wicked tourism problem of climate change. Drawing on a pragmatic constructivist approach that synthesises related concepts such as crisis, tourisystem, “dragons of inaction”, adaptive cycles and “panarchy”, we contend that progress toward lower-carbon tourism is currently impeded by mutually reinforcing poverty and rigidity traps which perpetuate gaps between pro-environmental attitudes and actual behaviour. Poverty traps occur when insufficient creativity is injected into the threatened system, while rigidity traps describe conservation of maladaptive system structures that reject creativity. Tourism responses to COVID-19 further demonstrate the intractability of these traps. “Soft” transformative governance, proposed as a realistic path for escaping the traps and improving system resilience, entails accelerated accrual of micro-transformations through paradigm nudge, or “transformation by stealth”. Facilitative strategies include constructive manipulation of stakeholder values, and adaptive mobilisation of citizenship rights and responsibilities.
Background Breaststroke is a technically complex stroke characterised by discontinuous propulsive phases, large intracyclic velocity variation and low mean velocity. The performance of this stroke at an elite level is influenced by a number of biomechanical, physiological and psychological factors. The present systematic review aimed to synthesise the biomechanical factors influencing elite breaststroke swimming performance. This review aims to provide elite coaches and performance scientists with a breadth of knowledge from which training and racing interventions can be developed. Methods Electronic searches of Medline, Scopus and SPORTDiscus databases were conducted in May 2020 and March 2022. Search results that were peer-reviewed, published in English and published during or after the year 2000 were considered for review. The methodological rigour of studies was assessed using a risk of bias scale previously used for the evaluation of sports science research. Results Thirty-eight articles were included in the present review. Articles investigated elite breaststroke performance in relation to one of the following areas: stroke kinematics, temporal patterns, neuromuscular activity, pacing and kinetics. Discussion Kinematic, temporal and neuromuscular activity comparisons between groups of various race distance, performance or experience level, and athlete sex were common in the literature. These analyses demonstrated differences in stroke rate, stroke length, propulsive time, recovery time, glide time, sum of total integrated EMG and triceps brachii activation patterns between groups. The evaluation of various pacing strategies, and the relationship between kinetics and breaststroke performance was comparatively rare within the literature. Further research into the relationship between kinetics and breaststroke performance, and the manipulation of pacing strategy would increase the breadth of knowledge from which coaches and performance scientists can develop evidence-based training and racing interventions.
Background Diabetes-related foot infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality, both globally and in Australia. There is a need for up-to-date evidence-based guidelines to ensure optimal management of patients with diabetes-related foot infections. We aimed to identify and adapt high quality international guidelines to the Australian context to become the new Australian evidence-based guideline for people with a diabetes-related foot infection. Methods Following Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) procedures we identified the 2019 International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) guidelines as suitable for adaptation to the Australian context. Guidelines were screened, assessed and judged by an expert panel for the Australian context using the guideline adaptation frameworks ADAPTE and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Judgements led to recommendations being adopted, adapted or excluded, with additional consideration regarding their implementation, monitoring and future research for the Australian context. Clinical pathways were then developed to assist implementation. Results Of 36 original diabetes-related foot infection IWGDF sub-recommendations, 31 were adopted, four were adapted and one was excluded. Adaption was primarily undertaken due to differences or clarification of the sub-recommendations’ intended population. One sub-recommendation was excluded due to substantial differences in judgements between the panel and IWGDF and unacceptable heterogeneity of the target population. Therefore, we developed 35 evidence-based sub-recommendations for the Australian context that should guide best practice diagnosis and management of people with diabetes-related foot infection in Australia. Additionally, we incorporated these sub-recommendations into two clinical pathways to assist Australian health professionals to implement these evidence-based sub-recommendations into clinical practice. The six guidelines and the full protocol can be found at: https://www.diabetesfeetaustralia.org/new-guidelines/ . Conclusions A new national guideline for the diagnosis and management of people with diabetes-related foot infections were successfully developed for the Australian context. In combination with simplified clinical pathway tools they provide an evidence-based framework to ensure best management of individuals with diabetes-related foot infections across Australia and highlight considerations for implementation and monitoring.
Celebrity endorsement has become ubiquitous in international destination marketing, but studies have rarely assessed the differences between the effects of endorsement by a local celebrity vs. a celebrity from tourist source countries (source celebrity). To bridge the literature gap, this paper draws on meaning transfer theory and match-up hypothesis to examine the effectiveness of these two types of celebrity endorsement by exploring the underlying mechanism. By carrying out a pretest and three experiments, the eye-tracking results and lab experiments show that international destination marketing involving a source celebrity (vs. local celebrity) can significantly increase tourists’ visual attention to the advertising destination scenery, positive attitudes toward the destination and intentions to visit. Furthermore, a serial mediation model of celebrity endorsement → celebrity–tourist congruency → tourist attitude toward celebrity → tourist response is also identified. Finally, this paper empirically examines the moderating role of regulatory focus on the celebrity endorsement effect.
Despite the mounting prominence of COVID-induced virtual substitutes to face-to-face events, the boundaries and terminology between different types of virtual events have not been clearly defined. Theoretical misconceptions exist surrounding the diffusion of virtual reality and existing virtual events into the tourism, hospitality and events sectors, with conceptual ambiguity generating contention. Consequently, this paper develops a typology of virtual events designed to clarify theoretical misconceptions and establish clear limits whereby all virtual events can be classified. Integrating the three dimensions of social presence, virtuality of environment, and location, the SPEL cube is presented as a conceptual model. This paper contributes to understanding the extant literature and practices of virtual events, providing implications for the management of events in the tourism, hospitality, and events sectors; and delivering a foundation for future research into optimal adaptations of immersive technologies.
Provan et al (2017) conducted a systematic literature review in Safety Science that included more than 100 publications of the last 30 years published on the role of the safety professional. This comprehensive review identified 25 factors that shape and influence the role of the safety professional. These factors are organized in three categories: institutional, relational, and individual. The review highlighted a dearth of empirical research into the practice and role of the safety professionals. This article presents the results of a project combining two objectives: (1) conduct empirical research into the practice and role of the safety professionals; (2) support the reflection by safety students about their future role in organizations and the factors that will influence that role. The main contribution of this paper consists in delivering empirical data from a research setup that helped students to understand more clearly their role as (future) safety professionals. This is achieved through getting the students themselves engage with Provan's work and do interviews with practicing safety professionals using Provan's categories as inspiration for interview questions and discussion topics. The blending of Provan’s categories of factors with a role theory was used as a general analysis frame. This work presents several findings: (1) the factors identified by Provan et al. (2017) can be associated to a theoretical model of factors involved in the taking of organizational roles by the safety professionals. (2) We can also identify those 25 factors in real professional contexts, these factors are pertinent and relevant for safety professionals. (3) The 25 factors are not independent, some of them are reciprocal related and some of them have dependencies. Those relationships can give light on how roles of safety professionals are socially constructed. Reflection on those factors is very useful for future safety professionals (the students), this appeared to be an effective pedagogic process that enhance the processes of professional socialization of future safety professionals (Foussard et al., 2021). However, this last point will not be discussed in this paper.
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