Government College University, Lahore
Recent publications
Science has benefited greatly from the theory of convexity both in pure and applied sciences. The concepts of convexity and integral inequality can be linked in accordance with their definitions. Since the last few years, there has been a growing connection between the two, and we can apply what we learn from one to the other. Utilizing unique and imaginative methods and concepts, various integral inequalities for convex functions are constructed. In this paper, various types of inequalities are introduced using centre order (cr) relation. The cr-order relation enables us firstly to derive some Hermite-Hadamard (H .H) inequalitie, and then to present Jensen-type inequality for h-Godunova-Levin interval-valued functions (GL-IV F S ) using Riemann integral operator. This kind of convexity unifies several new and well-known convex functions. Additionally, the study includes useful examples to support its findings.
This paper aims to study the impacts of COVID-19 and dengue vaccinations on the dynamics of zika transmission by developing a vaccination model with the incorporation of saturated incidence rates. Analyses are performed to assess the qualitative behavior of the model. Carrying out bifurcation analysis of the model, it was concluded that co-infection, super-infection and also re-infection with same or different disease could trigger backward bifurcation. Employing well-formulated Lyapunov functions, the model’s equilibria are shown to be globally stable for a certain scenario. Moreover, global sensitivity analyses are performed out to assess the impact of dominant parameters that drive each disease’s dynamics and its co-infection. Model fitting is performed on the actual data for the state of Amazonas in Brazil. The fittings reveal that our model behaves very well with the data. The significance of saturated incidence rates on the dynamics of three diseases is also highlighted. Based on the numerical investigation of the model, it was observed that increased vaccination efforts against COVID-19 and dengue could positively impact zika dynamics and the co-spread of triple infections.
Poor economic conditions and a lack of proper medical facilities have made rural communities dependent on herbal medicine. The collection of knowledge regarding the ethnomedicinal importance of various local plants would help in drug discovery and sustainable development. In this regard, a survey study was carried out to evaluate the medicinal value of some important plants in the district of Khanewal, Pakistan. Interviews with 55 people were conducted to collect information about the ethnomedicinal importance of local plants. In total, sixty-five plants were documented to belong to twenty-seven families, while the families Poaceae (7 species) and Amaranthaceae (6 species) were the most dominant families in this study. Based on quantitative analysis, Acacia nilotica and Aloe barbadensis presented the maximum Relative Frequency Citation value among the species (0.85 each) followed by Melia azedarach (0.84). The maximum Fidelity Level percentage was represented by Azadirachta indica (91%) for blood purification and Aloe barbadensis (89%) for skin issues such as wounds and erupted surfaces, respectively, followed by Ficus religiosa (88%) for impotency in females. Similarly, the maximum Use Value was represented by Foeniculum vulgare (0.70) and Salvodora oleoides (0.67) followed by Oxalis corniculata (0.62). The highest Informant Consensus Factor (IFC) value was recorded for blood purification (0.86) followed by the ICF value for spider bites, snake bites, and mosquito bites. Overall, the present investigation revealed many vital findings in the discipline of herbal plants and their ethnomedicinal applications.
SMEs (small and medium enterprises) contribute substantially to the global and national economies. So, their activities can significantly affect the ecosystem; however, environmental performance is primarily targeted at larger corporations. Therefore, this study measures the SMEs’ impact on environmental quality through CO2 emissions. For this purpose, data on twenty-five Asian and European economies from 2005 to 2020 is utilized, and the effect of SMEs on the environment is measured in the light of the EKC hypothesis. In order to validate and test the influence of SMEs on the environment, the pooled mean group (PMG) model with cointegration approaches is utilized. The results show that the flare-up of small and medium enterprises increases environmental pollution through high carbon emissions at micro levels. Thus, the study suggests that governments, SMEs, and other stakeholders have to create strategies and regulations targeted at SMEs to minimize their negative environmental impact.
This study explores the topological analysis of an entropy measure concerning silver iodide through the application of regression models. Entropy, as a fundamental concept in thermodynamics, is a crucial property in understanding the behavior of materials. In this research, we investigate the entropy of silver iodide and its relationship with various topological characteristics. The ruby-red color of silver iodide \({Ag}_{13}{I}_{4}({AsO}_{4})_{3}\) indicates optical properties, suitable for opto-electronics, lasers, and display technologies. The probability distribution of the vertex sets and the particular structure of the graph are considered by the measure of graph entropy, which expresses the complexity and uncertainty inside a graph. In this paper, we modify Zagreb indices and use them to compute entropy measurements. By analyzing these relationships, we aim to gain deeper insights into the structural properties of silver iodide and its impact on its entropy. In addition, we build a regression model to illustrate how the estimated indices and entropy fit the curve. The outcomes show how well the suggested Zagreb indices capture information content and how they relate to entropy.
Industrialization and urbanization have now become major factors in damaging different segments of the environment. Synthesis of novel nanomaterials for the removal of dyes and free radicals from aqueous medium has become a challenge for the researchers. The present work describes formation of novel-franklinite (ZnFe 2 O 4 ) nanoparticles (FNPs) which have been synthesized adopting economical route of green method using extracts of fresh and dried leaves of Coriandrum sativum . The fabricated NPs were characterized employing state of the art analytical techniques including UV-visible, FTIR, SEM and XRD. The nanocatalyst exhibited excellent catalytic properties for the degradation of eosin yellow up to 86 % in 22 min and 90 % in 16 min using zinc-ferrite NPs synthesized using dried and fresh leaves respectively. Antioxidant activity of ZnFe 2 O 4 in terms of DPPH and ABTS free radicals scavenging was also determined. Nanoparticles synthesized using fresh leaves exhibited better antiradical potential in comparison to NPs synthesized dried leaves. Therefore, synthesis of FNPs with active features can be achieved using extract of fresh plant. Franklinite NPs can be used as promising photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants and scavenging of free radicals.
Nanofluids with peristaltic flows are being studied in depth because they can be used in so many different ways, such as to diagnose and treat diseases. In this paper, the peristaltic flow of a nanofluid with viscosity and electric conductivity that change with temperature is used. There are different base fluids and nanoparticles that are being thought about. First, the governing equations are modeled, and then they are made easier to understand by assuming that the wavelength is long and the Reynolds number is small. To make a dimensionless differential system, the right dimensionless numbers are added. Mathematica’s built-on function NDSolve is used to figure out the numerical solution of the resulting system. To figure out how fast heat moves, researchers compare different combinations of base fluids and nanoparticles.
This study highlighted the role played by digitalization elements, such as information and communication technology (ICT) adoption, the social internet of things (IoT), and artificial intelligence (AI), in e-learning systems. It also examined the mediating role of digital literacy (DL) and pedagogical digital competence (PDC) and the potential moderating role of technostress (TS). A total of 262 responses to survey questionnaires were received from the IT administrators who worked under the directorate of information technology in top QS ranking Malaysian universities; the survey data was then analyzed through PLS-SEM. The study findings revealed that ICT adoption and the social IoT considerably impact e-learning systems and highlighted that artificial intelligence also has a partial impact. Digital literacy and pedagogical digital competence also significantly mediated the relationships between ICT adoption, artificial intelligence, and e-learning systems. Social IoT and technostress did not show a significant impact. The study developed a new theoretical concept for adopting innovative technology in e-learning systems through 'Four Tier Technology Gears', such as start-up, boost-up, smooth-up, and speed-up technology gears. From a theoretical perspective, the study has built-up a theoretical affiliation with the TAM and UTAUT models, which are especially proposed for technology adoption in real-life. The study provides remarkable and valuable recommendations to researchers, designers, policymakers, IT instructors, and structural developers in the context of awareness of key facts for e-learning systems in practical life – especially in an emergency condition, such as the Covid-19 pandemic in Malaysia.
In Millimeter-Wave (mm-Wave) massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems, hybrid precoders/combiners must be designed to improve antenna gain and reduce hardware complexity. Sparse Bayesian learning via Expectation Maximization (SBL-EM) algorithm is not practically feasible for high signal dimensions because estimating sparse signals and designing optimal hybrid precoders/combiners using SBL-EM still provide high computational complexity for higher signal dimensions. To overcome the issues of high computational complexity along with making it suitable for larger data sets, in this paper, we propose Learned-Sparse Bayesian Learning with Generalized Approximate Message Passing algorithm (L-SBL-GAMP) algorithm for designing optimal hybrid precoders/combiners suitable for mmWave Massive MIMO systems. The L-SBL-GAMP algorithm is an extension of the SBL-GAMP algorithm that incorporates a Deep Neural Network (DNN) to improve the system performance. Based on the nature of the training data, the L-SBL-GAMP can design the optimal Hybrid precoders/combiners, which enhances the spectral efficiency of mmWave massive MIMO systems. The proposed L-SBL-GAMP algorithm reduces the iterations, training overhead, and computational complexity compared to the SBL-EM algorithm. The simulation results unveil that the proposed L-SBL-GAMP provides higher achievable rates, better accuracy, and low computational complexity compared to the existing algorithm, such as Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP), Simultaneous Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (SOMP), SBL-EM and SBL-GAMP for mmWave massive MIMO architectures.
Current study was aimed to determine the antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) and Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs). Nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Vis spectrophotometry, particle size analyzer (PSA), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by standard agar dilution method. Antibacterial potential of nanoparticles was analyzed by standard disc diffusion method against bacterial strains including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia. Different concentrations of NPs (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 mg/mL) were incorporated to evaluate the antimicrobial activity. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of these NPs was analyzed by DPPH method and brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay, respectively. The MIC of TiO2NPs against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae was 0.04, 0.08 and 0.07 mg/mL respectively while the MIC of ZnONPs against the above strains was 0.01, 0.015 and 0.01 mg/mL. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed for K. pneumoniae i.e., 20mm and 25mm against TiO2 and ZnO NPs respectively, at 1.4 mg/mL concentration of NPs. The susceptibility of NPs against bacterial strains was evaluated in the following order: K. pneumoniae > P. aeruginosa > E. coli. The antioxidant activity of nanoparticles increased by increasing the concentration of NPs while cytotoxic analysis exhibited non-toxic effect of ZnO NPs while TiO2 had toxic effects on 1.2 and 1.4 mg/mL concentrations. Results revealed that ZnO NPs have more antibacterial and negligible cytotoxic potential in contrast to TiO2 NPs.
Water stored in trunk sapwood is vital for the canopy to maintain its physiological function under high transpiration demands. Little is known regarding the anatomical properties that contribute to the hydraulic capacitance of tree trunks, and whether trunk capacitance is correlated with the hydraulic and gas-exchange traits of canopy branches. We examined sapwood capacitance, xylem anatomical characteristics of tree trunks, embolism resistance, the minimal xylem water potential of canopy branches, leaf photosynthesis, and stomatal conductance in 22 species from a tropical seasonal rainforest and savanna. The results showed that the mean trunk sapwood capacitance did not differ between the two biomes. Capacitance was closely related to the fiber lumen fraction and fiber wall reinforcement, not the axial and ray parenchyma fractions. Additionally, it was positively correlated with the theoretical hydraulic conductivity of a trunk and the specific hydraulic conductivity of branches and showed a trade-off with branch embolism resistance. Species with a high trunk sapwood capacitance maintained less negative canopy water potentials in the dry season, but higher leaf photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance in the wet season. This study provides a functional link among trunk sapwood capacitance, xylem anatomy, canopy hydraulics, and photosynthesis in tropical trees.
The southern tip of the Thal desert in Pakistan harbors the remnants of the original tropical thorn forest, amounting to two percent, which covered the province of Punjab a hundred years ago. In the past three decades, there has been a progressive decline in woody species cover on dunes, which is directly related to the increase in population in the surrounding area. Stabilized and destabilized dunes were subjectively selected followed by quantification of cover and diversity of woody species on the top and lower slopes. Dunes closely resembling the overall cover were grouped to suggest corresponding restoration measures. The results suggest that trends of decrease in cover and diversity of woody species were evident in the upper slopes of some stabilized dunes having less than 50% cover. The destabilized dunes with less than 20% cover are highly vulnerable to erosion. A general trend observed among dunes was that with a decrease in the cover of upper slopes, there is a decrease in the cover on lower slopes. The number of destabilized dunes is increasing without effective restoration measures against the prevailing trends of disturbances. Ranking dunes on the basis of cover could help in proposing simple restoration measures as a first step towards developing an understanding of designing adaptive strategies to restore the woody cover.
This research presents the novel synthesis of CeO 2 nanostructures (NSs) doped with a fixed amount of capping agent (polyacrylic acid-PAA) and different concentrations (0.01 and 0.03) of silver (Ag). This work aimed to examine the catalytic and antibacterial efficacy with evidential molecular docking analysis of Ag/PAA doped CeO 2. Systematic characterization was used to analyze the effect of Ag and a capping agent on crystal structure, morphology, absorbance wavelength, and the exciton recombination rate of CeO 2. The silver metal and capping agent (PAA) were added into CeO 2 to reduce the size of NSs, enhancing the catalytic efficacy. These binary dopants (Ag-PAA) based CeO 2 revealed remarkable results for catalytic de-colorization of rhodamine B dye and antimicrobial potential as the dopants provide more active sites. Notably, (0.03) Ag/PAA doped CeO 2 NSs exhibited a substantial catalytic reduction (98.9%) of rhodamine B dye in an acidic medium. The higher doped CeO 2 revealed a significant inhibition zone (3.75 mm) against Escherichia coli at maximal concentration. Furthermore, in silico docking showed the possible inhibitory impact of produced nanomaterials on the fatty acid biosynthesis enzymes FabI and FabH.
The current study reports a novel synthesis of bismuth oxybromide (BiOBr) quantum dots (QDs) doped with different concentrations (3 and 6 wt%) of silver (Ag) and a fixed amount of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). This research investigated the catalytic and antibacterial activity with evidential molecular docking analysis of Ag/PVP doped BiOBr QDs. The Ag and capping agent (PVP) were added to BiOBr as they regulate the growth of QDs and prevent their agglomeration that caused to increase in the catalytic and antibacterial activity. These binary dopants-based BiOBr QDs can be an ideal catalyst for disintegrating methylene blue dye and a potential inhibitor against the multiple drug resistance (MDR) Escherichia coli (E. coli) pathogen. Notably, 6% Ag/PVP doped BiOBr showed a significant catalytic reduction of methylene blue (MB) in a basic medium (pH~12) compared to other environments. The results of the molecular docking investigation suggested that Ag/PVP-doped BiOBr QDs might be inhibitors of FabH and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) gyrase from E. coli, which was consistent with their In vitro antimicrobial activity.
Chitosan-based composites with considerable interest have great significance in photocatalytic and antibacterial applications. Chitosan itself is a special accepted adsorbent for the removal of organic pollutants due to presence of energetic amino and hydroxyl groups. The positive charge of amino group interacts electrostatically with surface of shell membrane to block enzyme actions. In this regard, we have synthesized chitosan supported nickel oxide/zinc oxide composite (Chitosan-NiO/ZnO) via alcohothermal process. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the NiO/ZnO composite which contained cubical NiO and hexagonal ZnO structure. FTIR spectrum demonstrated the presence of vibrational mode of Zn-O and Ni-O in the composite. The UV-vis spectroscopy showed the reduction in optical band gap of Chitosan-NiO/ZnO composite from 2.70 to 2.32 eV as compared to NiO/ZnO. Moreover, Chitosan-NiO/ZnO composite showed 91.8% degradation of methyl blue (MB) dye in 70 min whereas NiO/ZnO showed 90.8% in 100 min. This improvement in photocatalytic behavior is mainly credited to porous structure of Chitosan-NiO/ZnO which helped to provide large surface area and more active sites. Furthermore, addition of chitosan also provided solid support on the surface of composite to enhance the electron/hole pairs recombination. The Chitosan-NiO/ZnO composite also showed high recyclability in the photocatalytic efficiency with loss of only 3% after five runs. Moreover, Chitosan-NiO/ZnO also showed improved antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus), which is relatively higher than that of NiO/ZnO composite.
Water management techniques are improving at the farm level, but they are not enough to deal with the limited availability of water and increased crop yields. Soil microbes play a vital role in nitrogen fixation, improving soil fertility and enhancing plant growth hormones under drought conditions. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of water management combined with Azospirillum brasilense and Rhizobium pisi on wheat crop productivity and soil properties in dry regions. Three water management techniques were compared, normal irrigation as a control (C), deficit irrigation (DI), and partial root drying irrigation (PRD), together with the interaction of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Experiments were conducted with six treatments in total: T1 = C + No PGPR, T2 = C + PGPR, T3 = DI + No PGPR, T4 = DI + PGPR, T5 = PRD + No PGPR, and T6 = PRD + PGPR. The highest grain yield was achieved in the control irrigation treatment using seeds inoculated with rhizobacteria, followed by control treatment without any inoculation, and the lowest was recorded with deficit irrigation without rhizobacteria inoculated in the seeds. However, PRD irrigation resulted in significantly higher plant growth and grain yield than the DI treatment. PGPR inoculation combined with PRD resulted in a 22% and 20% higher number of grains per spike, a 19% and 21% higher grain yield, and a 25% and 22% higher crop growth rate compared to rhizobacteria inoculation combined with the DI system in 2021-22 and 2022-23, respectively. This increase was due to the higher production of growth hormones and higher leaf area index under water-limited conditions. A greater leaf area index leads to a higher chlorophyll content and higher food production for plant growth.
This paper presents a model of a doubly clamped electrically actuated microbeam, which is a commonly used structure in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The model is based on Euler–Bernoulli beam theory and includes the effect of electrostatic forces on the beam’s deflection. The electric field is modeled using the parallel plate capacitor model, and the deflection of the beam is calculated using the Galerkin method. The behavior of a microbeam subjected to the van der Waals force, which is a weak intermolecular force that arises from the interaction between the beam and a nearby surface. The microbeam is modeled using the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory, and the van der Waals force is modeled using the Lennard–Jones potential. At the last we study the model of MEMS based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs have unique mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, which make them ideal for use in MEMS applications. The approximate solution of the developed models is found by using homotopy perturbation based Aboodh transformation (HPATM). HPATM is a mathematical method used to solve nonlinear equations by converting them into linear forms. This approach involves introducing a small parameter and applying perturbation theory to obtain a solution in a series form. The method’s accuracy is defined based on the existing literature because its solution matched the variation iteration-based Laplace method. Also, we compared its results with the finite difference method. The validity of the stability analysis is further established by examining the stability in the vicinity of the fixed points. Sketches are made of the phase portraits close to the equilibrium points.
Background Infertility negatively affects nearly all aspects of women’s life and is a source of demotion in the rank/status of women that they have achieved after marriage. This social rank/status demotion due to infertility may result in depression and several other psychopathologies. No extant instrument is available to measure the phenomenon of social rank in women with infertility in Pakistan.Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and validate the Social Rank Scale for women experiencing infertility in Pakistan.MethodologyThis study was conducted in four phases. The data were collected from women with primary infertility who visited hospitals all over Pakistan from 2016 to 2018. Social Rank Scale for Women with Infertility (SRS-WI) comprising of two scales, the Social Comparison Scale for Women with Infertility (SCS-WI) and the Submissive Behavior Scale for Women with Infertility (SBS-WI), was developed.ResultsThe factor structure of 37 items of SCS-WI and of 21 items of SBS-WI was determined through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on a sample of 215 women with primary infertility with an age range of 20–45 years (Mage = 31.03; SD = 6.18). Principal component analysis with varimax rotation method yielded a three-factor solution for SCS-WI, and 32 items were retained for SCS-WI that accounted for 62.38% variance. For SBS-WI, a uni-factor solution was obtained, and 20 items were retained for SBS-WI, which collectively accounted for 42.01% variance. The factor structure for both scales was confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis among a sample of 210 participants with good model fit indices.Conclusion The study provides acceptable psychometric properties of the SRS-WI in Pakistan. Testing of psychometric properties in different groups of samples would justify the generalized use of the instrument.
Citation: Ali, H.H.; Shehzadi, N.; Zaheer, M.S.; Seleiman, M.F.; Aldhuwaib, K.J.; Din Khan, W.u.; Raza, A. Exploring the Impact of Salicylic Acid and Farmyard Manure on Soil Rhizospheric Properties and Cadmium Stress Alleviation in Maize (Zea mays L.). Plants 2023, 12, 3115. Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a growing environmental problem that negatively impacts plant growth and development, particularly in maize. In this research, the impact of farmyard manure (FYM) and salicylic acid (SA) on rhizospheric characteristics and the reduction of Cd stress in maize was examined at Government College (GC) University, Lahore, in 2022. The experiment was arranged with a randomized design, including three replications of 12 treatments (T 1 = Control; T 2 = Farmyard manure; T 3 = Salicylic Acid; T 4 = 100 mg/kg of soil Cd; T 5 = 200 mg/kg of soil Cd; T 6 = Farmyard manure + Salicylic acid; T 7 = FYM + 100 mg/kg soil Cd; T 8 = FYM + 200 mg/kg soil Cd; T 9 = SA + 100 mg/kg soil Cd; T 10 = SA + 200 mg/kg soil Cd; T 11 = FYM + SA + 100 mg/kg soil Cd; T 12 = FYM + SA + 200 mg/kg soil Cd). Results demonstrated that Cd stress negatively affected the maize plant and soil properties, but the application of SA and FYM was effective to mitigate the Cd stress up to a certain level. A reduction of 41.52%, 39.14%, and 39.94% in root length, length of the leaf, and crop growth rate was noticed, due to the Cd stress at 200 mg/kg soil, but this reduction was reduced to 18.83%, 10.35%, and 12.26%, respectively, when FYM and salicylic acid were applied as a combined application under the same stress level of Cd. The root biomass, leaf surface area, and length were all improved by SA and FYM, which enhanced the plant's capacity to absorb nutrients and improve growth under Cd stress. In conclusion, the use of salicylic acid together with farm manure can be an effective approach to mitigate Cd stress in maize crops.
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1,032 members
Tousif Hussain
  • Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics
Muhammad Nauman Aftab
  • Institute of Industrial Biotechnology
Sikander Ali
  • Institute of Industrial Biotechnology (IIB)
Hamid Mukhtar
  • Institute of Industrial Biotechnology
GC University, Katchery Road Lahore , 54000, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Head of institution
Prof. Dr. Asghar Ali Zaidi
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