Gettysburg College
  • Gettysburg, United States
Recent publications
Cyberbullying theory and research puts much emphasis on the role that anonymity perceptions has in the prediction of online aggression. However, some individuals choose to cyberbully others when identifying information (e.g., their name) is clearly visible to the victim and the online community at large. Two correlational studies with US adults examined one possible reason for this effect: dispositional fear of retaliation (DFoR) – a personality variable characterized by the anxiety related to other's retaliatory behavior. Participants completed measures of perceived anonymity, positive cyberbullying attitudes, cyberbullying perpetration, and DFoR. Results showed DFoR moderated the (a) direct relationship between anonymity perceptions and cyberbullying attitudes and behavior and the (b) mediating role of cyberbullying attitudes in the link between anonymity and cyberbullying perpetration.
The U.S. National Science and Mathematics Access to Retain Talent (SMART) Grant program provided up to $8000 to high‐achieving, low‐income undergraduates majoring in STEM fields. We evaluate the effects of this financial incentive on college graduates' major fields and subsequent STEM workforce retention using nationally‐representative survey data and a difference‐in‐differences quasi‐experimental approach. The SMART Grant program significantly increased the probability that first‐generation college graduates majored in STEM, by about 7 percentage points. However, this increase is almost entirely offset by affected STEM graduates' significantly lower STEM workforce retention. These program effects also appear to be concentrated among students whose parents had some college experience rather than those who were first in their families to attend college.
Airborne sound signals function as key mediators of mate-choice, aggression, and other social interactions in a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Calling animals produce more than sound, however. When displaying on or near a solid substrate, such as vegetation or soil, they also unavoidably excite substrate vibrations due to the physics of sound production and of acoustic propagation, and these vibrations can propagate to receivers. Despite their near ubiquity, these vibrational signal components have received very little research attention, and in vertebrates it is completely unknown whether they are relevant to mate-choice, an important driver of evolutionary divergence. Here we show that female red-eyed treefrogs are more than twice as likely to choose a male mating call when airborne sound is paired with its corresponding substrate vibrations. Furthermore, males of the same species are more aggressive towards and display a greater range of aggressive behaviors in response to bimodal (sound and vibration) versus unimodal (sound or vibration alone) calls. In aggressive contexts, at least, air- and substrate-borne signal components function non-redundantly. These results are a clear demonstration that vibrations produced by a calling animal can function together with airborne sound to markedly enhance the function of a signal. If this phenomenon proves widespread, this finding has the potential to substantially influence our understanding of the function and evolution of acoustic signals.
In a seminal study, Kobayashi and Kohshima (1997) found that the human sclera—the white of the eye—is unique among primates for its whitish color, and subsequent work has supported the notion that this coloration underlies the human ability to gaze follow. Kobayashi and Kohshima also claimed that there is no significant sex difference in sclera color, though no data were presented to support the claim. We investigated sclera color in a standardized sample of faces varying in age and sex, presenting the first data comparing male and female sclera color. Our data support the claim that indeed there is a sex difference in sclera color, with male sclera being yellower and redder than female sclera. We also replicated earlier findings that female sclera vary in color across the adult lifespan, with older sclera appearing yellower, redder, and slightly darker than younger sclera, and we extended these findings to male sclera. Finally, in two experiments we found evidence that people use sclera color as a cue for making judgements of facial femininity or masculinity. When sclera were manipulated to appear redder and yellower, faces were perceived as more masculine, but were perceived as more feminine when sclera were manipulated to appear less red and yellow. Though people are typically unaware of the sex difference in sclera color, these findings suggest that people nevertheless use the difference as a visual cue when perceiving sex-related traits from the face.
Purpose of Review Review work to create and evaluate educational materials that could serve as a primary prevention strategy to help both providers and patients in Panama, Colombia, and the USA reduce disease burden of Toxoplasma infections. Recent Findings Educational programs had not been evaluated for efficacy in Panama, USA, or Colombia. Summary Educational programs for high school students, pregnant women, medical students and professionals, scientists, and lay personnel were created. In most settings, short-term effects were evaluated. In Panama, Colombia, and USA, all materials showed short-term utility in transmitting information to learners. These educational materials can serve as a component of larger public health programs to lower disease burden from congenital toxoplasmosis. Future priorities include conducting robust longitudinal studies of whether education correlates with reduced adverse disease outcomes, modifying educational materials as new information regarding region-specific risk factors is discovered, and ensuring materials are widely accessible.
Traditional bullying perpetration explicates the importance of a power differential between the bully and the victim—predominantly physical and/or social status. The application of power from traditional to cyberbullying is unclear. The current research utilized a longitudinal study to examine the relationships between four different derivations of power—belief in the irrelevance of muscularity for online bullying (BIMOB), social capital, harmful computer skills, and popularity motivation—and cyberbullying attitudes and perpetration. Participants (185 US emerging adults) completed self‐report assessments of the aforementioned power constructs, cyberbullying attitudes, and cyberbullying behavior twice—6 months apart. Results showed only Wave 1 BIMOB predicted cyberbullying attitudes to yield subsequent cyberbullying perpetration.
Over the past decades humor studies has formed an unprecedented interdisciplinary consolidation, connected with a consolidation in philosophy of humor scholarship. In this essay, I focus specifically on feminist philosophy of humor as an area of study that highlights relationships between humor, language, subjectivity, power, embodiment, instability, affect, and resistance, introducing several of its key themes while mapping out tensions that can be productive for further research. I first cover feminist theories of humor as instability and then move to feminist theories of humor as generative of social relationships. Though I diagnose several tensions between these approaches that require further elaboration and discussion, I conclude that feminist philosophy of humor is a crucial area of humor research that focuses on systematic oppression, political engagement, embodiment, and affective ties.
Traditional cooking with solid fuels (biomass, animal dung, charcoals, coal) creates household air pollution that leads to millions of premature deaths and disability worldwide each year. Exposure to household air pollution is highest in low- and middle-income countries. Using data from a stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial of a cookstove intervention among 230 households in Honduras, we analyzed the impact of household and personal variables on repeated 24-hour measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) exposure. Six measurements were collected approximately six-months apart over the course of the three-year study. Multivariable mixed models explained 37% of variation in personal PM2.5 exposure and 49% of variation in kitchen PM2.5 concentrations. Additionally, multivariable models explained 37% and 47% of variation in personal and kitchen BC concentrations, respectively. Stove type, season, presence of electricity, primary stove location, kitchen enclosure type, stove use time, and presence of kerosene for lighting were all associated with differences in geometric mean exposures. Stove type explained the most variability of the included variables. In future studies of household air pollution, tracking the cooking behaviors and daily activities of participants, including outdoor exposures, may explain exposure variation beyond the household and personal variables considered here.
Operationalizing social group identification as political partisanship, we examine followers’ (i.e., US residents’) affective experiences and behavioral responses during the initial COVID‐19 outbreak in the United States (March to May 2020). In Study 1, we conducted content analyses on major news outlets’ coverage of COVID‐19 (N = 4319) to examine media polarization and how it plays a role in shaping followers’ perceptions of the pandemic and leadership. News outlets trusted by Republicans portrayed US President Donald Trump as more effective, conveyed a stronger sense of certainty with less negative affective tone, and had a lower emphasis on COVID‐19 prevention compared to outlets trusted by Democrats. We then conducted a field survey study (Study 2; N = 214) and found that Republicans perceived Trump as more effective, experienced higher positive affect, and engaged in less COVID‐19 preventive behavior compared to Democrats. Using a longitudinal survey design in Study 3 (N = 251), we examined how emotional responses evolved in parallel with the pandemic and found further support for Study 2 findings. Collectively, our findings provide insight into the process of leadership from a social identity perspective during times of crisis, illustrating how social identity can inhibit mobilization of united efforts. The findings have implications for leadership of subgroup divides in different organizational and crisis contexts.
In this article, we construct an empirical framework to identify and measure the adoption of green technologies across countries. Using an annual dataset covering 89 countries from 1990 to 2016, we conduct a principal component analysis incorporating the different dimensions of the adoption of green technologies. The analysis allows us both to rank countries for their level of green technology adoption and also recommend policies to improve their current stance.
Purpose of Review Review comprehensive data on rates of toxoplasmosis in Panama and Colombia. Recent Findings Samples and data sets from Panama and Colombia, that facilitated estimates regarding seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma and risk factors, were reviewed. Summary Screening maps, seroprevalence maps, and risk factor mathematical models were devised based on these data. Studies in Ciudad de Panamá estimated seroprevalence at between 22 and 44%. Consistent relationships were found between higher prevalence rates and factors such as poverty and proximity to water sources. Prenatal screening rates for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were variable, despite existence of a screening law. Heat maps showed a correlation between proximity to bodies of water and overall Toxoplasma seroprevalence. Spatial epidemiological maps and mathematical models identify specific regions that could most benefit from comprehensive, preventive healthcare campaigns related to congenital toxoplasmosis and Toxoplasma infection.
Managing wildlife populations in the face of global change requires regular data on the abundance and distribution of wild animals but acquiring these over appropriate spatial scales in a sustainable way has proven challenging. Here we present the data from Snapshot USA 2020, a second annual national mammal survey of the United States of America. This project involved 152 scientists setting camera traps in a standardized protocol at 1485 locations across 103 arrays in 43 states for a total of 52,710 trap‐nights of survey effort. Most (58) of these arrays were also sampled during the same months (September and October) in 2019, providing a direct comparison of animal populations in two years that include data from both during and before the COVID‐19 pandemic. All data were managed by the eMammal system, with all species identifications checked by at least two reviewers. In total we recorded 117,415 detections of 78 species of wild mammals, 9236 detections of at least 43 species of birds, 15,851 detections of six domestic animals and 23,825 detections of humans or their vehicles. Spatial differences across arrays explained more variation in the relative abundance than temporal variation across years for all 38 species modeled, although there are examples of significant site‐level differences between years for many species. Temporal results show how species allocate their time and can be used to study species interactions, including between humans and wildlife. These data provide a snapshot of the mammal community of the USA for 2020 and will be useful for exploring the drivers of spatial and temporal changes in relative abundance and distribution, and the impacts of species interactions on daily activity patterns. There are no copyright restrictions, and please cite this paper when using these data, or a subset of these data, for publication.
For many frog species that aggregate around ponds or streams, chorus attendance, the percentage of time or nights a given male is present and actively calling at an aggregation, is the strongest documented predictor of inter‐male variation in reproductive success in the wild. Males are, thus, thought to compete via endurance rivalry, where available energetic reserves and individual physiology interact to determine chorus tenure. Frogs often exhibit territorial behavior within these aggregations, and territorial status is likely to influence a male's rate of energy expenditure. While males of several anuran species have been shown to hold territories across nights, it is not well understood whether such calling site fidelity is correlated with chorus attendance or mating success. Using subdermal RFID (PIT) tags to minimize disturbance to chorus structure, we quantified site fidelity, chorus attendance, and mating success for all male red‐eyed treefrogs (Agalychnis callidryas) within a breeding aggregation in Panama across 50 consecutive nights. We found that nearly half of these males held territories across nights, that this cross‐night territorial behavior was highly correlated with chorus attendance, and that chorus attendance was, in turn, the strongest predictor of male mating success. Males were most faithful to calling sites containing vegetation contiguous with adjacent sites and were more likely to remain at a site if they were successful in acquiring a mate there on the previous night. To our knowledge, this is the first study linking male site fidelity to chorus attendance and mating success in anurans. While female mate choice is an established driver of lineage diversification and the evolution of sexual signals, agonistic interactions between males at breeding aggregations are well‐documented from a wide range of anuran taxa. The relationship between male–male interactions and mating success deserves broader research attention among anuran species. Chorus attendance, the proportion of nights a frog is found at a breeding aggregation, is often shown to be the single most important predictor of male mating success in the wild. While many frogs show territorial behavior when calling for mates, little is known about how territoriality is related to chorus attendance. This study finds that red‐eyed treefrog males can hold territories across nights, that territorial males have higher chorus attendance, and that they have relatively higher mating success.
Despite the mounting research on gender inequality in the workplace, progress toward gender parity in organizational practice has stalled. We suggest that one reason for the lack of progress is that empirical research has predominately focused on the antecedents and manifestations of gender inequality in the workplace, paying inadequate attention to the solutions that could potentially improve gender equality and women’s experiences at work. Indeed, we report here that less than 5% of the relevant studies published in preeminent management, psychology, and diversity journals since the turn of the century identify practical interventions for solving gender inequality in organizations. To advance gender equality at work, we argue that a paradigm shift from problems to solutions is critical and urgent. Using ecological systems theory (EST; Bronfenbrenner, 1977) as our guiding framework, we present an integrative review of gender equality interventions spanning across the management, psychology, and feminist literature over the past two decades at the ontogenic system, interpersonal microsystem, and organizational microsystem levels of analysis. We subsequently provide an overview of domains not currently addressed in extant research (meso‐, macro‐, and chronosystems) and identify future research directions to spur progress towards workplace gender equality.
The mycobacteriophages InvictusManeo (K5 subcluster) and Netyap (L2 subcluster) were isolated from soils in Cullowhee Creek, Cullowhee, North Carolina. Both exhibit Siphoviridae morphology and infect Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155. The InvictusManeo genome is 61,147 bp and contains 96 predicted protein-coding genes, whereas the Netyap genome is 76,366 bp with 131 predicted protein-coding genes.
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829 members
Kristin J Stuempfle
  • Department of Health Sciences
Kathy R Berenson
  • Department of Psychology
Caroline A. Hartzell
  • Department of Political Science
Amy B Dailey
  • Department of Health Sciences
Ryan Kerney
  • Department of Biology
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Gettysburg, United States