Géosciences Environnement Toulouse - Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées
Recent publications
High-quality and long-term surface soil moisture (SSM) and root-zone soil moisture (RZSM) data are critical for agricultural water management of Jiangsu province, which is a major agricultural province in China. However, few studies assessed the accuracy of SSM and RZSM datasets in croplands of Jiangsu province. The study addressed this gap by firstly using observations from ninety-one sites to assess thirteen satellite and model-based SSM products (Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) Combined/Passive/Active, Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity in version IC (SMOS-IC), Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP)-Multi-Temporal Dual-channel Algorithm (MTDCA)/Level 3 (L3)/Level 4 (L4)/SMAP-INRAE-BORDEAUX (IB)/Multi-channel Collaborative Algorithm (MCCA), the fifth generation of the land component of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts atmospheric reanalysis (ERA5-Land), and the Noah land surface model driven by Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS-Noah)), and four RZSM products (ERA5-Land, GLDAS-Noah, SMAP-L4 and ESA CCI (retrieved using ESA CCI Combined SSM coupled with an exponential filter)). We also inter-compared time-invariant and time-variant Triple Collocation Analysis (TCA)-based R with in situ-based R calculated using SSM anomalies. Various evaluation strategies were compared using different groups of available sites and temporal samplings. Our results showed that the model-based and combined SSM products (i.e., ERA5-Land, SMAP-L4, ESA CCI Combined/Passive/Active, GLDAS-Noah, ASCAT) performed better than the other SSM products and ERA5-Land, SMAP-L4 and ESA CCI RZSM generally performed better than the GLDAS-Noah RZSM product with higher R. Similar performance rankings were observed among time-invariant and time-variant TCA-R and in situ-based R, in which the TCA-R values for all SSM datasets were higher than the in situ-based R as the representativeness errors of the in situ measurements may bias in situ-based R. The accuracy of the ESA CCI, GLDAS-Noah and ERA5-Land SSM products was expected to be enhanced by considering the water effect and high uncertainties were observed for MTDCA and SMAP-MCCA SSM over dense vegetation periods and regions. Also, it is important to select appropriate evaluation strategies to conduct the SSM and RZSM evaluations according to the situation as the available sites and temporal samplings may bias the evaluation results.
Trace elements and δ¹⁵N values were analysed in micronekton (crustaceans, fishes and squids) sampled in the south-western Indian Ocean. Myctophids were associated with high concentrations of arsenic at La Pérouse and MAD-Ridge seamounts, and with lead and manganese at MAD-Ridge and in the Mozambique Channel. The difference in cadmium, copper and zinc concentrations between micronekton broad categories reflected differing metabolic and storage processes. When significant, negative relationships were found between micronekton body size and trace element concentrations, which can possibly be attributed to differing metabolic activity in young and old individuals, dietary shifts and/or dilution effect of growth. No relationships were found between trace element concentrations and δ¹⁵N values of micronekton (except cobalt which decreased with increasing δ¹⁵N values), since most trace elements are not biomagnified in food webs due to regulation and excretion processes within organisms. All trace element pairs were positively correlated in fishes suggesting regulation processes.
Quantitative estimates of past vegetation with a clearly defined spatial scale are a critical step to better understand the patterns and processes of changes in vegetation and land-cover over time and space. However, such estimates are difficult to obtain from pollen data due to their lack of spatial dimension and the inter-taxonomic differences in pollen production, dispersal, and deposition mechanisms. This study assesses the potential of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) to reconstruct the spatial and temporal patterns of upland vegetation in the Bassiès Valley, northern Pyrenees over the last 200 years, a period characterised by a decline of traditional pastoral activities. We used well-dated pollen records from eight bogs and ponds and vegetation and land-cover data within a 1-km radius from each site to evaluate the LRA-based reconstruction of local land-cover. The LRA approach was then used to reconstruct the 200-year history of local land-cover dynamics at 10 to 20-year intervals around each site in relation to land-abandonment. Our study shows that in addition to allowing long-term reconstruction, LRA estimates (1) are more sensitive to vegetation composition changes over time and space compared to historical land-cover maps and pollen percentages, and (2) improve the reconstruction of past local vegetation compared to pollen percentages alone. The LRA results reveal site-specific land-cover trajectories within the small-sized study area over 200 years. Some sites exhibit changes in land-cover composition with heathland and tree cover increase (ESC, EM), while others are found to be more stable, dominated 1) exclusively by heathland (LEG, W1652), 2) heathland with intermediate proportions of grassland (FOUZ, SIG), or 3) exclusively by grassland (OT). This land-cover composition variability over space and time may be related both to local topography and past grazing activity. The quantification of past vegetation dynamics provides opportunities for bridging the gap between researchers, policy makers and practitioners, and should be taken into account to further investigate the effect of long-term grazing activities on the past and modern plant and landscape diversity.
The Permian–Triassic Mass Extinction (PTME), life’s most severe crisis1, has been attributed to intense global warming triggered by CO2 emissions from Large Igneous Province volcanism2–8. It remains unclear, however, why super-greenhouse conditions persisted for around five million years after the volcanic episode, when Earth system feedbacks should have returned temperatures to pre-extinction levels within a few hundred thousand years8. Here we use fossil occurrences and lithological indicators of climate to reconstruct spatio-temporal maps of plant productivity and biomass changes through the Permian–Triassic and undertake climate-biogeochemical modelling to investigate the unusual longevity and intensity of warming. Our reconstructions show that terrestrial vegetation collapse during the PTME, especially in tropical regions, resulted in an Earth system with low levels of organic carbon sequestration and chemical weathering, leading to limited drawdown of greenhouse gases. This led to a protracted period of extremely high surface temperatures, during which biotic recovery was delayed for millions of years. Our results support the idea that thresholds exist in the climate-carbon system beyond which warming may be amplified substantially.
Permafrost, i.e., soil that is year-round frozen in depth, is covering a quarter of the continents of the northern hemisphere. It currently experiences fast changes due to climate change at global scale and technogenic perturbations at local scale, and the assessment and anticipation of these changes are of primary importance for many environmental and engineering applications in cold regions. To these ends, permafrost modeling is required, while the strong couplings and non-linearities involved in the physics at stake make it highly challenging, especially from a computational point of view. In this work we present a new solver for permafrost hydrology developed in the framework of OpenFOAM®, allowing to benefit from its advanced high-performance computing capabilities. The solver is tested for realistic, field-based cases, and its parallel performances are characterized up to ∼16 000 cores on IRENE supercomputer (TGCC, CEA). Program summary Program Title: permaFoam CPC Library link to program files: https://doi.org/10.17632/swp88cvpwb.1 Developer's repository link: https://develop.openfoam.com/Community/hydrology/ Licensing provisions: GPLv3 Programming language: C++ Nature of problem: This software solves the coupled equations that govern water flow and heat transfer in variably saturated and variably frozen porous media, for transient problems in Three-dimensional, heterogeneous domains. The equation for water flow is Richards equation, which is a very popular model for water transfer in variably saturated porous media (e.g.: soils), and the equation for heat transfer is a Fourier equation including advection and the freeze/thaw of the pore water. The solver is designed to take advantage of the massively parallel computing performance of OpenFOAM®. The goal is to be able to model natural hydrosystems of cold regions on large temporal and spatial scales. Solution method: For each equation a mixed implicit (FVM for Finite Volume Method in the object oriented OpenFOAM framework) and explicit (FVC for Finite Volume Calculus in the object oriented OpenFOAM® framework) discretization with backward time scheme is embedded in an iterative linearization procedure (Picard algorithm). The coupling between the two equations is performed through an operator splitting approach. The implementation has been carried out with a concern for robustness and parallel efficiency. Additional comments including restrictions and unusual features: This version of permaFoam has been tested with OpenFOAM_v1912, v2106, v2112 and v2206, thus everything might not work with other (especially older) versions of OpenFOAM®. When using permaFoam, one should be careful to use fine enough spatial and temporal discretisations where and when steep fronts (freeze/thaw fronts, imbibition/drainage fronts) occur, otherwise numerical stability problems might arise.
It is well-acknowledged that the northern margin of the Gondwana supercontinent was affected by a major magmatic event at late Cambrian (Furongian) to early Ordovician (Tremadocian) times. However, an accurate assessment of its extent, origin, and significance is partly hampered by the incomplete characterization of the numerous gneiss massifs exposed in the inner part of the Variscan belt, as some of them possibly represent dismembered and deformed Furongian–Tremadocian igneous bodies. In this study, we document the case of the “Cézarenque–Joyeuse” gneisses in the Cévennes parautochton domain of the French Massif Central. The gneisses form decametre- to kilometre-thick concordant massifs interlayered within a pluri-kilometric sequence of mica- and quartz schists. They encompass two main petrological types: augen gneisses and albite gneisses, both typified by their blue and engulfed quartz grains with the augen facies differing by the presence of centimetre-sized pseudomorphs after K-feldspar and the local preservation of igneous textures. Whole-rock geochemistry highlights that many gneisses have magmatic ferrosilicic (acidic with anomalously high FeOt and low CaO) compositions while others are akin to grauwackes. Collectively, it is inferred that the bulk of the Cézarenque–Joyeuse gneisses represent former rhyodacite lava flows or ignimbrites and associated epiclastic tuffs. Volumetrically subordinate, finer-grained, and strongly silicic leucogneisses are interpreted as microgranite dykes originally intrusive within the volcanic edifices. LA–ICP–MS U–Pb dating of magmatic zircon grains extracted from an augen gneiss and a leucogneiss brackets the crystallization age of the silicic magmas between 486.1±5.5 Ma and 483.0±5.5 Ma which unambiguously ties the Cézarenque–Joyeuse gneisses to the Furongian–Tremadocian volcanic belt of SW Europe. Inherited zircon date distributions, Ti-in-zircon and zircon saturation thermometry demonstrate that they formed by melting at 750–820 °C of Ediacaran sediments. Zircon Eu/Eu* and Ce/Ce* systematics indicate that the melts were strongly reduced (fO2 probably close to the values expected for the iron–wustite buffer), possibly because they interacted during ascent with Lower Cambrian black shales. This would have enhanced Fe solubility in the melt phase and may explain the peculiar ferrosilicic signature displayed by many Furongian–Tremadocian igneous rocks in the northern Gondwana realm. We infer that crustal melting resulted from a combination of mantle-derived magma underplating in an extensional environment and anomalously elevated radiogenic heat production within the Ediacaran sedimentary sequences.
Plain Language Summary After a quake, the surface of our planet vibrates like the surface of a drum. These vibrations generate sound waves at low frequencies that propagate upward in the atmosphere. These signals from two earthquakes have been recorded by barometers on board a network of long duration high altitude balloons deployed by the Strateole‐2 experiment. The analysis of these records demonstrates that the amplitude and arrival time of the vibrations are properly predicted by our modeling tools. The oscillations of the balloon/gondola system forced by the acoustic waves are also observed, but the quake distance and magnitude can be estimated only from the data recorded on board the balloon gondolas. Moreover, the shape of the pressure perturbations recorded by the balloons contains the seismic surface waves that are sounding the first hundred kilometers of the Earth's internal structure. These observations clearly demonstrate the interest of a similar experiment in the atmosphere of Venus to sound its poorly known internal structure.
In radar quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE), the progressive evolution of rainfall algorithms has been guided by attempts to reduce the uncertainties in rainfall retrieval. However, because most of the algorithms are based on the linear dependence between radar and rain variables and designed for rain rates ranging from light to moderate rainfall, they result in misleading estimations of intense or strong rainfall rates. In this paper, based on extensive data gathered during the AMMA and Megha-Tropiques data campaigns, we provided a way to improve the estimation of intense rainfall rates from radar measurements. To this end, we designed a formulation of the QPE algorithm that accounts for the co-dependency between radar observables and rainfall rate using copula simulation synthetic datasets and using the quantile regression features for a more complete picture of covariate effects. The results show a clear improvement in heavy rainfall retrieval from radar data using copula-based R(KDP) algorithms derived from a realistic simulated dataset. For a better performance, Gaussian copula-derived algorithms require a 0.8 percentile distribution to be considered. Conversely, lower percentiles are better for Student’s, Gumbel and HRT copula estimators when retrieving heavy rainfall rates (R > 30). This highlights the need to investigate the entire conditional distribution to determine the performance of radar rainfall estimators.
Since the onset of plate tectonics, continents have evolved through a balance between crustal growth, reworking, and recycling at convergent plate margins. The term “reworking” involves the re-insertion of crustal material into pre-existing crustal volumes, while crustal growth and recycling respectively represent gains from and losses to the mantle. Reworking that occurs in the mantle wedge (“source” contamination from slab material) or within the upper plate (“path” contamination), will have contrasting effects on crustal evolution. However, due to limited access to deep crustal and mantle rocks, quantifying source vs. path contamination remains challenging. Based on the 4-dimensional record of the fossil (Ordovician) Famatinian continental arc (Argentina), we demonstrate that source contamination plays a dominant role in imprinting mafic to granitic rocks with crustal oxygen-hafnium (O-Hf) isotopic compositions. We argue that source contamination at convergent plate margins significantly increased the diversity of O-Hf isotopic signatures of continents over geologic time. Our interpretation implies that crustal evolution models attributing this isotopic diversity dominantly to intra-crustal reworking may be over-simplistic and may underestimate continental growth in the last 2.5 billion years.
Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are currently expanding across the global ocean due to climate change, leading to a compression of usable habitat for several marine species. Mercury stable isotope compositions provide a spatially and temporally integrated view of marine predator foraging habitat and its variability with environmental conditions. Here, we analyzed mercury isotopes in blue sharks Prionace glauca from normoxic waters in the northeastern Atlantic and from the world's largest and shallowest OMZ, located in the northeastern Pacific (NEP). Blue sharks from the NEP OMZ area showed higher Δ¹⁹⁹Hg values compared to sharks from the northeastern Atlantic, indicating a reduction in foraging depth of approximately 200 m. Our study suggests for the first time that blue shark feeding depth is altered by expanding OMZs and illustrates the use of mercury isotopes to assess the impacts of ocean deoxygenation on the vertical foraging habitat of pelagic predators.
Abrasive water jet machining is a process that removes material using sand and water. This versatile process uses a high-pressure water jet loaded with abrasive particles of mineral origin. It allows the machining of all materials and is particularly suitable for machining or stripping applications on hard metal sheets. Due to a local action, the abrasive water jet limits heating and deformation. During machining, the removal of material occurs abrasion and erosion [1]. The identification of the respective importance of this abrasion and this erosion conditions the precision of the modeling of the machined depth. In this study, these mechanisms are presented and characterized for machining on 6mm thickness TiAl6V titanium alloys sheets with or without inclination of the jet. It is possible to model an elementary passage and it allows predicting the pocket bottom profile obtained after a succession of passages. During machining, two mechanisms appear. Abrasion occurs when machining an elementary pass. Erosion will characterize the effect of repetition of passages. The analysis of the machined profiles makes it possible to characterize the influence of the abrasion mechanism and abrasion mechanism. The variation of the coefficients associated with these mechanisms can be characterized as a function of the angle of inclination of the jet.Keywords: Abrasive water jet machining, Material removal mechanism, Abrasion, Erosion, Titanium alloy, Abrasive particles
In the last decades, methodological advancements in the natural and exact sciences have increasingly been used to study the past. In this chapter, we review how such developments can be applied to address questions regarding Neanderthal identification, phylogeny, chronology, mobility, climate, and diet. These examples illustrate how prehistoric studies are becoming inherently multidisciplinary, as each research strategy brings forward a different type of information. Piecing these various data together can enrich our understanding of Neanderthals, allowing us to gain a more comprehensive view of our past.
The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the world's most rapidly warming regions; over the last hundred years, glaciers have retreated, exposing new rocky areas to physical weathering. In its northernmost part, the Trinity Peninsula, physical weathering processes on exposed bedrock between west and east coasts may not be at the same weathering stage as surface temperature conditions are assumed historically different. Thus, we examined rock outcrops in ice-free coasts, assessed surface temperature conditions, rock fracturing degree from rock samples, and analyzed the local context for permafrost occurrence. The survey through Trinity Peninsula covered a transect over three ice-free locations between Cape Legoupil and Düse Bay (63°30′S). Our findings support that ice-free-bedrock surfaces at both coasts of the Trinity Peninsula are at an early weathering stage under equivalent air temperature and wind speed conditions over the last decades. Temperature analysis indicated that if surface temperatures sustain its 2015–2016 magnitude, the permafrost distribution will likely become sporadic. Findings indicate that the physical weathering rates should have been significantly slower or have remained ice-covered much longer than in other areas of the Antarctic Peninsula. Nevertheless, a sustained surface warming will elicit higher physical weathering rates beyond the initial stage attested.
Investigations conducted during the GEOSECS program concluded that radium-226 (T1/2 = 1602 y) and barium are tightly correlated in waters above 2500 m in the Atlantic, Pacific and Antarctic Oceans, with a fairly uniform 226Ra/Ba ratio of 2.3 ± 0.2 dpm µmol-1 (4.6 nmol 226Ra/mol Ba). Here, we report new 226Ra and Ba data obtained at three different stations in the Pacific Ocean: stations K1 and K3 in the North-West Pacific and station old Hale Aloha, off Hawaii Island. The relationship between 226Ra and Ba found at these stations is broadly consistent with that reported during the GEOSECS program. At the three investigated stations, however, we find that the 226Ra/Ba ratios are significantly lower in the upper 500 m of the water column than at greater depths, a pattern that was overlooked during the GEOSECS program, either because of the precision of the measurements or because of the relatively low sampling resolution in the upper 500 m. Although not always apparent in individual GEOSECS profiles, this trend was noted before from the non-zero intercept of the linear regression when plotting the global data set of Ba versus 226Ra seawater concentration and was attributed, at least in part, to the predominance of surface input from rivers for Ba versus bottom input from sediments for 226Ra. Similarly, low 226Ra/Ba ratios in the upper 500 m have been reported in other oceanic basins (e.g. Atlantic Ocean). Parallel to the low 226Ra/Ba ratios in seawater, higher 226Ra/Ba ratios were found in suspended particles collected in the upper 500 m. This suggests that fractionation between the two elements may contribute to the lower 226Ra/Ba ratios found in the upper 500 m, with 226Ra being preferentially removed from surface water, possibly as a result of mass fractionation during celestite formation by acantharians and/or barite precipitation, since both chemical elements have similar ionic radius and the same configuration of valence electrons. This finding has implications for dating of marine carbonates by 226Ra, which requires a constant initial 226Ra/Ba ratio incorporated in the shells and for using 226Ra as an abyssal circulation and mixing tracer.
This study examines how microscale differences in skeletal ultrastructure affect the crystallographic and nanomechanical properties of two related bryozoan species: (i) Hornera currieae, which is found at relatively quiescent depths of c. 1000 m, and (ii) Hornera robusta, which lives at depths of 50-400 m where it is exposed to currents and storm waves. Microstructural and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) observations show that in both species the secondary walls are composed of low-Mg calcite crystallites that grow with their c-axes perpendicular to the wall. Branches in H. currieae develop a strong preferred orientation of the calcite c-axes, while in H. robusta the c-axes are more scattered. Microstructural observations suggest that the degree of scattering is controlled by the underlying morphology of the skeletons: in H. currieae the laminated branch walls are smooth and relatively uninterrupted, whereas the wall architecture of H. robusta is modified by numerous deflections, forming pustules and ridges associated with microscopic tubules. Modelling of the Young’s modulus and measurements of nanoindentation hardness indicate that the observed scattering of the crystallite c-axes affects the elastic modulus and nanohardness of the branches, and therefore controls the mechanical properties of the skeletal walls. At relatively high pressure in deep waters, the anisotropic skeletal architecture of H. currieae is aimed at concentrating elasticity normal to the skeleton wall. In comparison, in the relatively shallow and active hydrographic regime of the continental shelf, the elastically isotropic skeleton of H. robusta is designed to increase protection from external predators and stronger omni-directional currents.
Diffusion‐based stratigraphic models are widely used to simulate sedimentary systems and margin deltas. Diffusion‐based models assume that the topographic evolution primarily depends from its slope. Limited attention has however been given to the calibration of the transport coefficients. Here, we evaluate transport coefficient values from natural examples, the Ogooué and Zambezi rifted margin deltas over the last 5 to 12 Ma respectively. We developed a method to estimate transport coefficients based on high resolution seismic stratigraphy analysis of the stratigraphic architecture of these deltas. For each stratigraphic sequence, we calibrated the sand/shale ratios of the deposits, we restored their depositional slopes, we estimated their uncompacted accumulated volumes and we calculated the transport coefficient (Kd) from the sediment flux / slope ratio. Estimated values of Kd fall within one order of magnitude (x 0.1 km2/ka), a much narrower range than previously published values (x0.0001 to x100 km2/ka). We show that the diffusion approximation is optimal at 10 ‐ 100 km scale and 0.5 ‐ 1 Ma time resolution, independently of the stratigraphic context. We show that the diffusion assumption is appropriate for the formation of the clinoforms (mainly gravity driven). It is however not optimal for the shelf and distal domains where additional processes (e.g. wave, flood, hemipelagic, turbidites, oceanic current), not accounted for it the diffusion assumption, significantly impact sediment transport. We documented a significant increase of Kd values after 0.9 Ma, coeval of an increase in the amplitude of eustatic variations at this time indicating that the calibration of Kd from present day sedimentary systems might not be optimal for simulations of sedimentary systems before the last million years.
This Editorial is based on the recent advances presented in the Special Issues related to tectonics across South America, released in the last three years. Its objective is to display the intense work focused on different lines of research of the Andean and Pre-Andean tectonic field and also to summarize key aspects extracted from these volumes in one single document. These Special Issues describe recent advances related to supercontinent Gondwana formation and posterior peripheral accretions during the Early Paleozoic, the instalment of coetaneous arc along the paleo-Pacific trench, the development of Late Paleozoic basins in the retro-arc region, Early Mesozoic extension related to the break-up of Gondwana, Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic closure of main retroarc depocenters, conformation of the proto-Andes, the growth of their structure and temporal destabilization during the Cenozoic, exhumation degree, paleoenvironmental changes experienced during these processes, and their neotectonic and seismological behavior. In the following paragraphs we will describe their general content and main achievements reached in these volumes.
We propose to derive local sea level variations by using the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the GNSS reflected signals at four GNSS single antenna sites (ILDG, TAR0, FFT2, LYTT) located at different latitudes. For these sites representing various ocean conditions (waves, tides, storm surges, etc…), tides estimates by SNR are highly consistent to tide gauges records as highlighted by tidal harmonic analysis, with a Root-Sum-Square (RSS) ranging from few centimeter in micro-tidal environment to near a decimeter in macro-tidal environment. SNR non-tidal residuals (NTR) are compared to two modelled sea level responses to meteorological forcing, namely the analytical Local Inverse Barometer (LIB) model and the numerical Dynamic Atmospheric Correction (DAC). Both DAC and LIB models are coherent with this non-tidal SNR residual in a 2-days to 2-months time window with correlations reaching 0.7 and high coherences. Several noteworthy atmospheric events are observed in the time series of about one year. During intense events, SNR and models are highly correlated. According to the results obtained in this study, we conclude that the GNSS reflectometry technique is relevant to derive sea level variations at tidal periods but also for studying the behaviour of the sea surface in response to atmospheric forcing at short-term scales.
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Toulouse, France
Head of institution
Etienne Ruellan