Studies on cultural ecosystem services (CES) in urban forests using Public Participation GIS mapping are a well-established field of research. However, far fewer studies do exist that also illuminate perceived disservices, thus omitting an important part of human-forest relation- ships. Advancing knowledge on unpleasant places can promote outdoor recreation and help forest managers focus on disservices that matter. This study aims at spatially identifying people’s perceptions in urban forests with focus on unpleasant experiences. We elicited perceived disservices and CES spatially by collecting Public Participation GIS data (PPGIS) from city dwellers in three urban forests in Germany’s Southwest (755 respondents mapped 1552 places of disservices). We investigated relationships between sociodemographic char- acteristics and the number of mapped places using Spearman’s rank. We also explored the spatial concurrence between disservices and CES using Spearman’s rank. We identified a hierarchy of importance of forest visitors’ perceived dislikes. We revealed that negative perceptions of urban forest visitors originated broadly from people and their traces and rarely from the ecosystem according to existing ecosystem disservices typologies (EDS). We found a significant relationship between age and the number of mapped services. We found clusters of disliked places and correlations between disservices and CES, indicating that hotspots of CES in turn are also hotspots of disservices. We conclude that city foresters may best address disservices by advancing guidance-concepts for spatial movements of urban forest visitors within the forest to avoid conflicting clusters of various stakeholders. Our results may help city foresters to better manage both the forest and visitors’ various interests.
ABSTRACT Long-term livestock grazing has shaped landscapes, biodiversity, societies, cultures, and economies in the North Atlantic over time. However, overgrazing has become a major environmental sustainability challenge for this region, covering the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, and Scotland. The objective of this study was to elicit narratives and spatial patterns of local people’s management preferences for sheep grazing in the Faroe Islands through a socio-cultural lens. We collected data via a Public Participation Geographic Information Systems (PPGIS) survey with an open question about hopes and concerns for sheep management in the Faroe Islands and a mapping exercise for expressing spatial preferences for sheep management. Four distinct narratives emerged from a qualitative analysis of responses to the open question (n = 184): (1) Sustainable sheep management, (2) Nature without sheep, (3) Sheep as part of Faroese culture, and (4) Sheep as nuisance. Visual inspection of narrative-specific maps with locations where either no or fewer sheep were preferred indicated that sheep management is not simply a ’sheep vs. no sheep’ issue but embedded in a more nuanced consideration of the place of sheep in the landscape and society. For example, for some residents sheep-farming is not a commercial enterprise but a social activity and local source of food. Our combined methodological approach using qualitative and spatial data can help researchers in other fields identify the interplay between place-specific areas of grazing management concern and socio-ultural values, enabling more targeted land-use management policies or plans.
Background The ability of overstory tree species to regenerate successfully is important for the preservation of tree species diversity and its associated flora and fauna. This study investigated forest regeneration dynamics in the Cat Ba National Park, a biodiversity hotspot in Vietnam. Data was collected from 90 sample plots (500 m ² ) and 450 sub-sample plots (25 m ² ) in regional limestone forests. We evaluated the regeneration status of tree species by developing five ratios relating overstory and regeneration richness and diversity. By examining the effect of environmental factors on these ratios, we aimed to identify the main drivers for maintaining tree species diversity or for potential diversity gaps between the regeneration and the overstory layer. Our results can help to increase the understanding of regeneration patterns in tropical forests of Southeast Asia and to develop successful conservation strategies. Results We found 97 tree species in the regeneration layer compared to 136 species in the overstory layer. The average regeneration density was 3764 ± 1601 per ha. Around 70% of the overstory tree species generated offspring. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List, only 36% of threatened tree species were found in the regeneration layer. A principal component analysis provided evidence that the regeneration of tree species was slightly negatively correlated to terrain factors (percentage of rock surface, slope) and soil properties (cation exchange capacity, pH, humus content, soil moisture, soil depth). Contrary to our expectations, traces of human impact and the prevailing light conditions (total site factor, gap fraction, openness, indirect site factor, direct site factor) had no influence on regeneration density and composition, probably due to the small gradient in light availability. Conclusion We conclude that the tree species richness in Cat Ba National Park appears to be declining at present. We suggest similar investigations in other biodiversity hotspots to learn whether the observed trend is a global phenomenon. In any case, a conservation strategy for the threatened tree species in the Cat Ba National Park needs to be developed if tree species diversity is to be maintained.
The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hard scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.
Background Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)–associated neuropsychiatric disorders (TAND) is an umbrella term for the behavioural, psychiatric, intellectual, academic, neuropsychological and psychosocial manifestations of TSC. Although TAND affects 90% of individuals with TSC during their lifetime, these manifestations are relatively under-assessed, under-treated and under-researched. We performed a comprehensive scoping review of all TAND research to date (a) to describe the existing TAND research landscape and (b) to identify knowledge gaps to guide future TAND research. Methods The study was conducted in accordance with stages outlined within the Arksey and O’Malley scoping review framework. Ten research questions relating to study characteristics, research design and research content of TAND levels and clusters were examined. Results Of the 2841 returned searches, 230 articles published between 1987 and 2020 were included (animal studies = 30, case studies = 47, cohort studies = 153), with more than half published since the term TAND was coined in 2012 (118/230; 51%). Cohort studies largely involved children and/or adolescents (63%) as opposed to older adults (16%). Studies were represented across 341 individual research sites from 45 countries, the majority from the USA (89/341; 26%) and the UK (50/341; 15%). Only 48 research sites (14%) were within low–middle income countries (LMICs). Animal studies and case studies were of relatively high/high quality, but cohort studies showed significant variability. Of the 153 cohort studies, only 16 (10%) included interventions. None of these were non-pharmacological, and only 13 employed remote methodologies (e.g. telephone interviews, online surveys). Of all TAND clusters, the autism spectrum disorder–like cluster was the most widely researched (138/230; 60%) and the scholastic cluster the least (53/200; 27%). Conclusions Despite the recent increase in TAND research, studies that represent participants across the lifespan, LMIC research sites and non-pharmacological interventions were identified as future priorities. The quality of cohort studies requires improvement, to which the use of standardised direct behavioural assessments may contribute. In human studies, the academic level in particular warrants further investigation. Remote technologies could help to address many of the TAND knowledge gaps identified.
Cancer therapies with anthracyclines have been shown to induce cardiovascular complications. The aims of this study were to establish an in vitro induced pluripotent stem cell model (iPSC) of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (ACT) from patients with an aggressive form of B-cell lymphoma and to examine whether doxorubicin (DOX)-treated ACT-iPSC cardiomyocytes (CM) can recapitulate the clinical features exhibited by patients, and thus help uncover a DOX-dependent pathomechanism. ACT-iPSC CM generated from individuals with CD20⁺ B-cell lymphoma who had received high doses of DOX and suffered cardiac dysfunction were studied and compared to control-iPSC CM from cancer survivors without cardiac symptoms. In cellular studies, ACT-iPSC CM were persistently more susceptible to DOX toxicity including augmented disorganized myofilament structure, changed mitochondrial shape, and increased apoptotic events. Consistently, ACT-iPSC CM and cardiac fibroblasts isolated from fibrotic human ACT myocardium exhibited higher DOX-dependent reactive oxygen species. In functional studies, Ca²⁺ transient amplitude of ACT-iPSC CM was reduced compared to control cells, and diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ leak was DOX-dependently increased. This could be explained by overactive CaMKIIδ in ACT CM. Together with DOX-dependent augmented proarrhythmic cellular triggers and prolonged action potentials in ACT CM, this suggests a cellular link to arrhythmogenic events and contractile dysfunction especially found in ACT engineered human myocardium. CamKIIδ inhibition prevented proarrhythmic triggers in ACT. In contrast, control CM upregulated SERCA2a expression in a DOX-dependent manner, possibly to avoid heart failure conditions. In conclusion, we developed the first human patient-specific stem cell model of DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction from patients with B-cell lymphoma. Our results suggest that DOX-induced stress resulted in arrhythmogenic events associated with contractile dysfunction and finally in heart failure after persistent stress activation in ACT patients.
Background Structural variants (SV) are causative for some prominent phenotypic traits of livestock as different comb types in chickens or color patterns in pigs. Their effects on production traits are also increasingly studied. Nevertheless, accurately calling SV remains challenging. It is therefore of interest, whether close-by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with SVs and can serve as markers. Literature comes to different conclusions on whether SVs are in LD to SNPs on the same level as SNPs to other SNPs. The present study aimed to generate a precise SV callset from whole-genome short-read sequencing (WGS) data for three commercial chicken populations and to evaluate LD patterns between the called SVs and surrounding SNPs. It is thereby the first study that assessed LD between SVs and SNPs in chickens. Results The final callset consisted of 12,294,329 bivariate SNPs, 4,301 deletions (DEL), 224 duplications (DUP), 218 inversions (INV) and 117 translocation breakpoints (BND). While average LD between DELs and SNPs was at the same level as between SNPs and SNPs, LD between other SVs and SNPs was strongly reduced (DUP: 40%, INV: 27%, BND: 19% of between-SNP LD). A main factor for the reduced LD was the presence of local minor allele frequency differences, which accounted for 50% of the difference between SNP – SNP and DUP – SNP LD. This was potentially accompanied by lower genotyping accuracies for DUP, INV and BND compared with SNPs and DELs. An evaluation of the presence of tag SNPs (SNP in highest LD to the variant of interest) further revealed DELs to be slightly less tagged by WGS SNPs than WGS SNPs by other SNPs. This difference, however, was no longer present when reducing the pool of potential tag SNPs to SNPs located on four different chicken genotyping arrays. Conclusions The results implied that genomic variance due to DELs in the chicken populations studied can be captured by different SNP marker sets as good as variance from WGS SNPs, whereas separate SV calling might be advisable for DUP, INV, and BND effects.
The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has a broad physics programme ranging from precision measurements to direct searches for new particles and new interactions, requiring ever larger and ever more accurate datasets of simulated Monte Carlo events. Detector simulation with Geant4 is accurate but requires significant CPU resources. Over the past decade, ATLAS has developed and utilized tools that replace the most CPU-intensive component of the simulation—the calorimeter shower simulation—with faster simulation methods. Here, AtlFast3, the next generation of high-accuracy fast simulation in ATLAS, is introduced. AtlFast3 combines parameterized approaches with machine-learning techniques and is deployed to meet current and future computing challenges, and simulation needs of the ATLAS experiment. With highly accurate performance and significantly improved modelling of substructure within jets, AtlFast3 can simulate large numbers of events for a wide range of physics processes.
It is widely recognized that participation in producer groups is advantageous for smallholders who must deal with complex production and marketing constraints and dynamic business environments. However, available data on this process are scarce in the fishery sector, while existing evidence is limited by smallholders’ potential self-selection into producer groups. This study, therefore, examined the selectivity-corrected role of fisher groups in improving shrimpers’ technological and technical efficiency. Using the latest primary data from artisan shrimpers in Nigeria, we applied propensity score matching and Greene’s selectivity stochastic production frontier model to control for selection bias from both observable and unobservable factors. Empirical results from our metafrontier approach show that technical efficiency scores for members tend to be overestimated if selectivity is not properly controlled. However, the technical efficiencies and productivities of members were significantly higher regardless of how biases were corrected, implying that participation in fisher groups is positively related to increases in shrimpers’ capture and technical efficiency. Further findings suggest that current artisanal fisher groups are “production-oriented” as they ensure that members access vital shrimping inputs at lower costs. With declining returns to scale for members, the study concludes that without public and private support for collective action in the fishery sector, membership in artisanal fisher groups may not lead to significant improvement in shrimpers’ productivity. The study discusses several recommendations on how collective action can be further encouraged and developed among artisan fishers.
Background In severe cases, SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), often treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). During ECMO therapy, anticoagulation is crucial to prevent device-associated thrombosis and device failure, however, it is associated with bleeding complications. In COVID-19, additional pathologies, such as endotheliitis, may further increase the risk of bleeding complications. To assess the frequency of bleeding events, we analyzed data from the German COVID-19 autopsy registry (DeRegCOVID). Methods The electronic registry uses a web-based electronic case report form. In November 2021, the registry included N = 1129 confirmed COVID-19 autopsy cases, with data on 63 ECMO autopsy cases and 1066 non-ECMO autopsy cases, contributed from 29 German sites. Findings The registry data showed that ECMO was used in younger male patients and bleeding events occurred much more frequently in ECMO cases compared to non-ECMO cases (56% and 9%, respectively). Similarly, intracranial bleeding (ICB) was documented in 21% of ECMO cases and 3% of non-ECMO cases and was classified as the immediate or underlying cause of death in 78% of ECMO cases and 37% of non-ECMO cases. In ECMO cases, the three most common immediate causes of death were multi-organ failure, ARDS and ICB, and in non-ECMO cases ARDS, multi-organ failure and pulmonary bacterial ± fungal superinfection, ordered by descending frequency. Interpretation Our study suggests the potential value of autopsies and a joint interdisciplinary multicenter (national) approach in addressing fatal complications in COVID-19.
Background Biological interaction affects diverse facets of microbial life by modulating the activity, diversity, abundance, and composition of microbial communities. Aerobic methane oxidation is a community function, with emergent community traits arising from the interaction of the methane-oxidizers (methanotrophs) and non-methanotrophs. Yet little is known of the spatial and temporal organization of these interaction networks in naturally-occurring complex communities. We hypothesized that the assembled bacterial community of the interaction network in methane hotspots would converge, driven by high substrate availability that favors specific methanotrophs, and in turn influences the recruitment of non-methanotrophs. These environments would also share more co-occurring than site-specific taxa. Results We applied stable isotope probing (SIP) using ¹³ C-CH 4 coupled to a co-occurrence network analysis to probe trophic interactions in widespread methane-emitting environments, and over time. Network analysis revealed predominantly unique co-occurring taxa from different environments, indicating distinctly co-evolved communities more strongly influenced by other parameters than high methane availability. Also, results showed a narrower network topology range over time than between environments. Co-occurrence pattern points to Chthoniobacter as a relevant yet-unrecognized interacting partner particularly of the gammaproteobacterial methanotrophs, deserving future attention. In almost all instances, the networks derived from the ¹³ C-CH 4 incubation exhibited a less connected and complex topology than the networks derived from the unlabelled C-CH 4 incubations, likely attributable to the exclusion of the inactive microbial population and spurious connections; DNA-based networks (without SIP) may thus overestimate the methane-dependent network complexity. Conclusion We demonstrated that site-specific environmental parameters more strongly shaped the co-occurrence of bacterial taxa than substrate availability. Given that members of the interactome without the capacity to oxidize methane can exert interaction-induced effects on community function, understanding the co-occurrence pattern of the methane-driven interaction network is key to elucidating community function, which goes beyond relating activity to community composition, abundances, and diversity. More generally, we provide a methodological strategy that substantiates the ecological linkages between potentially interacting microorganisms with broad applications to elucidate the role of microbial interaction in community function.
The reconstruction of the trajectories of charged particles, or track reconstruction, is a key computational challenge for particle and nuclear physics experiments. While the tuning of track reconstruction algorithms can depend strongly on details of the detector geometry, the algorithms currently in use by experiments share many common features. At the same time, the intense environment of the High-Luminosity LHC accelerator and other future experiments is expected to put even greater computational stress on track reconstruction software, motivating the development of more performant algorithms. We present here A Common Tracking Software (ACTS) toolkit, which draws on the experience with track reconstruction algorithms in the ATLAS experiment and presents them in an experiment-independent and framework-independent toolkit. It provides a set of high-level track reconstruction tools which are agnostic to the details of the detection technologies and magnetic field configuration and tested for strict thread-safety to support multi-threaded event processing. We discuss the conceptual design and technical implementation of ACTS, selected applications and performance of ACTS, and the lessons learned.
Preparation strategies of cellulose nanopaper were elaborated.Functionalization of cellulose nanopaper and its advanced applications were summarized.Prospects and challenges of cellulose nanopaper were discussed. Preparation strategies of cellulose nanopaper were elaborated. Functionalization of cellulose nanopaper and its advanced applications were summarized. Prospects and challenges of cellulose nanopaper were discussed. Cellulose nanopaper has shown great potential in diverse fields including optoelectronic devices, food packaging, biomedical application, and so forth, owing to their various advantages such as good flexibility, tunable light transmittance, high thermal stability, low thermal expansion coefficient, and superior mechanical properties. Herein, recent progress on the fabrication and applications of cellulose nanopaper is summarized and discussed based on the analyses of the latest studies. We begin with a brief introduction of the three types of nanocellulose: cellulose nanocrystals, cellulose nanofibrils and bacterial cellulose, recapitulating their differences in preparation and properties. Then, the main preparation methods of cellulose nanopaper including filtration method and casting method as well as the newly developed technology are systematically elaborated and compared. Furthermore, the advanced applications of cellulose nanopaper including energy storage, electronic devices, water treatment, and high-performance packaging materials were highlighted. Finally, the prospects and ongoing challenges of cellulose nanopaper were summarized.
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major risk factor for heart failure and is associated with the development of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Using a patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (iPSC-CM) model harbouring a mutation in cardiac troponin T (R173W), we aim to examine the cellular basis of arrhythmogenesis in DCM patients with this mutation. iPSC from control (Ctrl) and DCM-TnT-R173W donors from the same family were differentiated into iPSC-CM and analysed through optical action potential (AP) recordings, simultaneous measurement of cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca ²⁺ ] i ) and membrane currents and separately assayed using field stimulation to detect the threshold for AP- and [Ca ²⁺ ] i -alternans development. AP duration was unaltered in TnT-R173W iPSC-CM. Nevertheless, TnT-R173W iPSC-CM showed a strikingly low stimulation threshold for AP- and [Ca ²⁺ ] i -alternans. Myofilaments are known to play a role as intracellular Ca ²⁺ buffers and here we show increased Ca ²⁺ affinity of intracellular buffers in TnT-R173W cells, indicating increased myofilament sensitivity to Ca ²⁺ . Similarly, EMD57033, a myofilament Ca ²⁺ sensitiser, replicated the abnormal [Ca ²⁺ ] i dynamics observed in TnT-R173W samples and lowered the threshold for alternans development. In contrast, application of a Ca ²⁺ desensitiser (blebbistatin) to TnT-R173W iPSC-CM was able to phenotypically rescue Ca ²⁺ dynamics, normalising Ca ²⁺ transient profile and minimising the occurrence of Ca ²⁺ alternans at physiological frequencies. This finding suggests that increased Ca ²⁺ buffering likely plays a major arrhythmogenic role in patients with DCM, specifically in those with mutations in cardiac troponin T. In addition, we propose that modulation of myofilament Ca ²⁺ sensitivity could be an effective anti-arrhythmic target for pharmacological management of this disease.
Tilletia caries and T. laevis , which are the causal agents of common bunt, as well as T. controversa, which causes dwarf bunt of wheat, threaten especially organic wheat farming. The three closely related fungal species differ in their teliospore morphology and partially in their physiology and infection biology. The gene content as well as intraspecies variation in these species and the genetic basis of their separation is unknown. We sequenced the genome of four T. caries , five T. controversa , and two T. laevis and extended this dataset with five publicly available ones. The genomes of the three species displayed microsynteny with up to 94.3% pairwise aligned regions excluding repetitive regions. The majority of functionally characterized genes involved in pathogenicity, life cycle, and infection of corn smut, Ustilago maydis, were found to be absent or poorly conserved in the draft genomes and the biosynthetic pathway for trimethylamine in Tilletia spp. could be different from bacteria. Overall, 75% of the identified protein-coding genes comprising 84% of the total predicted carbohydrate utilizing enzymes, 72.5% putatively secreted proteins, and 47.4% of effector-like proteins were conserved and shared across all 16 isolates. We predicted nine highly identical secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters comprising in total 62 genes in all species and none were species-specific. Less than 0.1% of the protein-coding genes were species-specific and their function remained mostly unknown. Tilletia controversa had the highest intraspecies genetic variation, followed by T. caries and the lowest in T. laevis. Although the genomes of the three species are very similar, employing 241 single copy genes T. controversa was phylogenetically distinct from T. caries and T. laevis , however these two could not be resolved as individual monophyletic groups. This was in line with the genome-wide number of single nucleotide polymorphisms and small insertions and deletions. Despite the conspicuously different teliospore ornamentation of T. caries and T. laevis , a high degree of genomic identity and scarcity of species-specific genes indicate that the two species could be conspecific.
Context Tangled commits are changes to software that address multiple concerns at once. For researchers interested in bugs, tangled commits mean that they actually study not only bugs, but also other concerns irrelevant for the study of bugs. Objective We want to improve our understanding of the prevalence of tangling and the types of changes that are tangled within bug fixing commits. Methods We use a crowd sourcing approach for manual labeling to validate which changes contribute to bug fixes for each line in bug fixing commits. Each line is labeled by four participants. If at least three participants agree on the same label, we have consensus. Results We estimate that between 17% and 32% of all changes in bug fixing commits modify the source code to fix the underlying problem. However, when we only consider changes to the production code files this ratio increases to 66% to 87%. We find that about 11% of lines are hard to label leading to active disagreements between participants. Due to confirmed tangling and the uncertainty in our data, we estimate that 3% to 47% of data is noisy without manual untangling, depending on the use case. Conclusion Tangled commits have a high prevalence in bug fixes and can lead to a large amount of noise in the data. Prior research indicates that this noise may alter results. As researchers, we should be skeptics and assume that unvalidated data is likely very noisy, until proven otherwise.
To reconstruct the Holocene vegetation history from Liaohe Delta in northeast (NE) China, a high-resolution palynological study on a well-dated sediment core ZK2 was conducted. The pollen record of ZK2 suggests that during the early Holocene, the regional vegetation in the plain was meadow-dominated by Artemisia. And forest with cool-temperate conifers and temperate broad-leaved trees were present in the nearby hills, which is coincident with the gradual climate warming and delta transgression. From mid-Holocene to early late Holocene, meadow vegetation with Artemisia was relatively stable, while the forest vegetation with broadleaved trees reached the maximum expansion in the nearby hills. The large expansion of broadleaved trees indicates warm and humid regional environmental conditions and this is coincidental with the relatively high regional sea-level stand during this period. Since ca. 1470 cal yr BP, with the continuous delta progradation, a large coastal region was colonized by Suaeda spp., which suggests that the formation of unique red beach wetlands along the coastal region of the Liaohe Delta. By analysis of pollen dispersal and transportation mechanism in surface sediments of Liaodong Bay, it is indicated that the percentage changes of arboreal pollen dominated by Pinus and Quercus and the non-arboreal pollen dominated by Amaranthaceae and Artemisia in core ZK2 may as an index refers to the local sea level oscillation and paleoclimate change. Then by comparison with previous multi-proxy records together with the surface sediment record from Liaodong Bay, it is suggested that the Holocene vegetation changes of the Liaohe Delta are mainly driven by the intensity changes of East Asia monsoon and regional sea-level oscillation.
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