The specific activity and spatial distribution of 238U, 232Th and 40K were determined in the surface soil from the Lișava uranium mining sector. This sector belongs to the Banat district, an historically important uranium mining area in Romania (an area with closed uranium mines and a radioactive waste dump). Gamma-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used to measure the activity of naturally occurring radionuclides in the soil. The average specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K in the soil were 197.21 Bq/kg for 238U, 16.21 Bq/kg for 232Th and 543.21 Bq/kg for 40K. The mineral contents of selected waste rock samples (sandstones) were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), which revealed that brannerite, pitchblende and coffinite were the most important uranium-bearing minerals. The means of the radiological hazard parameters were calculated to be 262.22 Bq/kg radium equivalent activity (Raeq), 123.72 nGy/h absorbed gamma dose rates (DR), 0.7 external hazard index (Hex) and 1.8 representative level index (RLI). The spatial distribution of the risk assessment indices associated with the investigated soils exceeded the median values provided by UNSCEAR and reflected the geological settings and influences of anthropic activities such as uranium mining practices and the tipping of radioactive mining waste.
The distribution of the high concentrations of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F-) in groundwater on a Pan-European scale could be explained by the geological European context (lithology and structural faults). To test this hypothesis, seventeen countries and eighteen geological survey organizations (GSOs) have participated in the dataset. The methodology has used the HydroGeoToxicity (HGT) and the Baseline Concentration (BLC) index. The results prove that most of the waters considered in this study are in good conditions for drinking water consumption, in terms of As and/or F- content. A low proportion of the analysed samples present HGT≥ 1 levels (4% and 7% for As and F-, respectively). The spatial distribution of the highest As and/or F- concentrations (via BLC values) has been analysed using GIS tools. The highest values are identified associated with fissured hard rock outcrops (crystalline rocks) or Cenozoic sedimentary zones, where basement fractures seems to have an obvious control on the distribution of maximum concentrations of these elements in groundwaters
The paper explores and documents the Eocene limestones from the Albeşti village (Argeş County, Romania) in terms of the relationship between geology, geoheritage and cultural heritage. Known as the Albeşti Limestone/Stone, this rock, extracted from small quarries, has been used for centuries in the construction of an impressive number of public buildings, monuments, houses, etc. Nowadays, many of them are on the List of the Historical Monuments of Romania; one is a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site (Horezu Monastery, Vâlcea County). The findings of this research are synthesized and presented in several maps resulted from integration of published and unpublished data with our field survey. The study emphasis the Albeşti Limestone both as an important geoheritage (the Albeşti Nummulitic Limestone Nature Reserve, established in 1954) and a significant heritage stone of national interest that could have a substantial role in heritage preservation, geoeducation, and geotourism development.
Objective: Cancer patients and their family caregivers have reported various needs that are not met. Recognition of the unmet needs by healthcare professionals may be a first step to adequately and systematically addressing them. Thus, the International Psycho-Oncology Society Survivorship Online Survey was developed to measure healthcare professionals' evaluation about the unmet needs of their patients and family caregivers around the globe. Methods: The survey was developed in English and translated to additional 14 different languages. The survey was distributed on the web-based REDCap application to over 50 psycho-oncology societies and their networking platforms as well as social media and to authors who have published in psycho-oncology journals globally. Results: A total of 1472 participants from 36 countries at least partially completed the survey. Healthcare professionals evaluated needs for managing one's emotional distress and patients' medical care and symptoms as the most common concerns for both patients and their family caregivers across all patient age groups. Less than two-thirds of the participating healthcare professionals reported that their institution had services or programs to address the needs of the patients or caregivers. Conclusions: Findings suggest several directions for further analyses to provide more specific information that would be readily translated into clinical practices, research, and policy aimed to enhance the quality of life of cancer patients, survivors, and family caregivers around the globe. In addition, this collaborative effort also hints at the importance of establishing international networks to promote equity in care for people touched by cancer worldwide.
One of the main forms of expression of the power of the Dacian Kingdom, with its capital at Sarmizegetusa Regia, was represented by the monumental constructions built in ashlar stone, the result of a mixture between local traditions and Greek and Roman influences. The fortified acropolis at Piatra Roșie is one of the main components of this center of power and one of the most important archaeological sites from the Late Iron Age in Romania. In 1999 it was inscribed on the World Heritage List as part of the serial site “Dacian Fortresses in the Orăștie Mountains”. This paper presents the most recent data regarding the stones used in the construction of the Piatra Roșie fortress, the most important building material from the point of view of volume and durability. The historiographical and archaeological data, the field investigations and measurements, together with the mineralogical analysis of stone varieties have been corroborated with specific interpretations for construction engineering and 3D modeling applied in the evaluation of the dimension stone volume. The present approach constitutes an absolute novelty for the site of Piatra Roșie, and, also, a model that can be applied to the specific conditions of the other Dacian Fortresses.
In the Mănăila alpine area, the soil layer developed in situ on top of the sericite-schists, which belong to the Tulghes 3 metamorphic unit. The aim of the present work was to determine the degree of soil formation using both mineralogical and geochemical exploration methods. XRD, FTIR and SEM-EDS results showed that the soil constituents were dioctahedral 2:1 minerals, quartz, chlorite, Na-feldspar, rutire and ilmenite. Mainly illite and secondarily mixed-layer minerals were considered to be the most likely minerals resulting from the transformation of sericite and chlorite under acidic alpine conditions. Geochemical modeling inferred the dominance of illite and the presence of smectite as a chlorite alteration product. The weathering indices supported the moderate stage of the soil development agreeing with mineralogical observations. Because of the abundance of sericite and quartz in the parent material, the soil formation was retarded, and its present composition is still related to the bedrocks.
To evaluate the prospects of using Baikal endemic sponges as bioindicators of chemical elements pollution, the elemental composition of sponges, water and substrate samples, collected in two areas with different levels of anthropogenic loading of the Baikal Lake, was determined using two analytical techniques. The content of Cl, Ca, V, Zn, As, Se, Ba, Cd, and Cu in the sponges collected in Listvennichny Bay was significantly higher than in Bolshye Koty Bay. The values of the pollution indices point at the slight to moderate pollution of the substrates. According to the bioaccumulation factor values, sponges accumulate mainly Cd, Cu and Br from the substrate, and the main part of the elements from water. The distribution of elements longwise the sponges and their intraspecific variation were evaluated. It was shown that Lubomirskia baikalensis sponges were suitable bioindicators to assess the pollution of Lake Baikal.
A carbonate-bearing, fluorine-overcompensated fluorapatite (F = 4.42 wt.% as compared with 3.77 wt.% F in the Ca5(PO4)3F end-member), was identified in forsterite-bearing skarns from Valea Rea (N 46°39′48″, E 22°36′43″), located near the contact of the granodiorite laccolith from Budureasa, of Upper Cretaceous Age, with Anisian dolostones. The chemical structural formula (with carbonate not included) is: (Ca4.989Mn0.001Fe2+0.003Mg0.003Ce0.001La0.001)(P2.992Si0.008)(O11.894F1.202Cl0.001). No major structural distortions due to (CO3F)3--for-(PO4)3- replacement were identified by single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman or FTIR. The mineral crystallizes in space group P63/m, having as cell parameters a = 9.3818(1) Å and c = 6.8872(1) Å. The indices of refraction are: ω = 1.634(2) and ε = 1.631(1). The calculated density is Dx = 3.199 g/cm3 and the measured density is Dm = 3.201(3) g/cm3. Calculation of the Gladstone–Dale compatibility indices gave in all cases values indicative of superior agreement between physical and chemical data. In the infrared spectra, the multiplicity of the bands assumed to phosphate modes (1ν1 + 2ν2 + 3ν3 + 3ν4) agrees with the reduction of the symmetry of PO43− ion from Td to C6. Chemical peculiarities and textural relations agree with a hydrothermal origin of the mineral, crystallized from F-rich fluids originating from the granodiorite intrusion.
To estimate the contribution of Chernobyl ¹³⁷ Cs contamination, in 1993 and especially 2016, its total inventory was determinate by gamma-ray high resolution spectroscopy in 62 and respectively 747 soil samples covering entire Romanian territory. This permitted to estimate the 1993 and 2016 total ¹³⁷ Cs inventory to 43 ± 2 TBq and respectively to 14.1 ± 0.7 Tbq, the last one reduced by factor of 3 ± 0.3. This value, about twice higher than natural disintegration suggests a significant amount of ¹³⁷ Cs being washed out by precipitation and, in a lower measure, incorporated into plants. At the same time, by evaluating the maximum contribution of ¹³⁷ Cs to the population exposure, in 1993 and especially in 2016, the supplementary annual effective dose did not exceed, the maximum accepted value 1 mSv.
To estimate the contribution of Chernobyl ¹³⁷ Cs contamination, in 1993 and especially 2016, its total inventory was determined by gamma-ray high-resolution spectroscopy in 62 and respectively 747 soil samples covering the entire Romanian territory. This permitted us to estimate the 1993 and 2016 total ¹³⁷ Cs inventory to 43 ± 2 TBq and respectively to 14.1± 0.7 Tbq, the last one reduced by a factor of 3 ± 0.3. This value, about twice higher than natural disintegration suggests a significant amount of ¹³⁷ Cs being washed out by precipitation and, in a lower measure, incorporated into plants. At the same time, by evaluating the maximum contribution of ¹³⁷ Cs to the population exposure, in 1993 and especially in 2016, the supplementary annual effective dose did not exceed, the maximum accepted value of 1 mSv.
Natural samples of sphalerites containing Mn in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25 apfu from the Săcărâmb Au–Ag–Te ore deposit, found in the Apuseni Mountains, Romania, were investigated using Raman spectroscopy to determine its capability to provide estimates of Mn content. Raman data for the natural Mn-rich sphalerite have not been published so far, with the largest concentration of Mn in sphalerites being from Romanian territory (i.e., 14.1 wt.%). The results are in good agreement with SEM-EDS data. In this study, three genetic types of sphalerites were identified: from ferroan (Zn0.87Fe0.16)∑=1.03S0.97 to manganoferroan (Zn0.77Mn0.14Fe0.06)∑=0.97S1.03, as well as mangan-rich (Zn0.8Mn0.25)∑=1.05S0.95 compositions. Sphalerites with a high content of Mn (up to 14.1 wt.%) were strongly connected to the presence of alabandite in the mineralized assemblages. The formation of several types of sphalerites in the Săcărâmb Au–Ag–Te ore deposit was caused by the succession of different types of hydrothermal fluids and the interaction between the fluids and the host materials (host rocks and earlier mineralized stages).
The purpose of this study was to assess the level of anthropogenic contamination as well as to collect more data concerning the mineral composition of scleractinian corals from Southern Red Sea, Hodeidah Governorate, Yemen. The mass fractions of 31 elements were determined in the skeleton of nine coral colonies collected in the vicinity of the south-western coast of Yemen. All measurements were conducted by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The final results concerning the distribution of considered elements were comparable and, in some cases, inferior to those reported worldwide. The determined mass fractions of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn as Presumably Contaminating Elements (PCE) together with the mass fractions of the same elements previously reported in the literature regarding Red Sea Pleistocene corals permitted calculating the individual Contamination Factor (CF) and collective Pollution Load Index (PLI). In spite of high mass fraction values of Mn and Fe in only a few coral colonies, for all investigated places, the PLI values corresponding to studied areas were less than unit, suggesting the investigated areas could be considered as uncontaminated.
Karst aquifers are both a valuable resource for humankind and a habitat for unique biota. The quality of freshwater sources may be easily affected by natural (e.g., geology, climate, and vegetation) and anthropogenic (e.g., agriculture, livestock, and tourism) changes, particularly in karst landscapes with highly vulnerable groundwater reservoirs. We seasonally monitored nine representative freshwater sources (i.e., six springs, a well, a surface stream, and a cave stream resurgence) in the karst system of the Runcuri Plateau (KSRP) (Western Romanian Carpathians) during seven sampling campaigns in 2019–2021. We assessed how these natural and anthropogenic factors influenced the water quality based on the European and national standards for drinking water. The geological structure (i.e., tectonics and lithology) of the KSRP was reassessed, and the environmental variables of the freshwater sites were investigated in order to evaluate their impact on the physicochemical profile, the microbial contamination, and on the meiofauna presence. Multivariate statistics were performed to gain insights into the interplay among all these factors and to evaluate the self-purification capacity of the KSRP for chemical and microbial pollutants. The most relevant drivers shaping the microbial content of the freshwater sources were the altitude of the sampling sites, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and air temperature, followed by the physicochemical profile of the waters (i.e., calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, nitrites, nitrates, conductivity, phosphates, total dissolved solids, and iron concentrations). The meiofauna presence was influenced mostly by precipitation, air temperature, and NDVI. Our results reflected the effect of the geological structure and environment on water chemistry and biota assemblages. A pollutant attenuation trend was observed in discharging waters, even though the self-purification capacity of the studied karst system was not statistically supported. More investigations are needed to comprehend the processes developed in the black box of the KSRP.
Convergent plate boundaries are key sites for continental crustal formation and recycling. Quantifying the evolution of crustal thickness and paleoelevation along ancient convergent margins represents a major goal in orogenic system analyses. Chemical and in some cases isotopic compositions of igneous rocks formed in modern supra‐subduction arcs and collisional belts are sensitive to Moho depths at the location of magmatism, implying that igneous suites from fossil orogens carry information about crustal thickness from the time they formed. Several whole‐rock chemical parameters correlate with crustal thickness, some of which were calibrated to serve as “mohometers,” that is, quantitative proxies of paleo‐Moho depths. Based on mineral‐melt partition coefficients, this concept has been extended to detrital zircons, such that combined chemical and geochronological information extracted from these minerals allows us to reconstruct the crustal thickness evolution using the detrital archive. We discuss here the mohometric potential of a variety of chemical and isotopic parameters and show that their combined usage improves paleocrustal thickness estimates. Using a MATLAB® app developed for the underlying computations, we present examples from the modern and the deeper time geologic record to illustrate the promises and pitfalls of the technique. Since arcs are in isostatic equilibrium, mohometers are useful in reconstructing orogenic paleoelevation as well. Our analysis suggests that many global‐scale correlations between magma composition and crustal thickness used in mohometry originate in the sub‐arc mantle; additional effects resulting from intracrustal igneous differentiation depend on the compatible or incompatible behavior of the involved parameters.
A comprehensive dataset concerning the geochemical composition of unconsolidated shallow marine sediments collected along coastal areas of Northern Nile Delta and Egyptian sector of Red Seas is presented. The sediment samples were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics FLNP – Joint Institute for Nuclear Research JINR and inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) in Actlabs – Canada. Data thus collected supported the research published and published articles conducted to evaluate the geochemistry of shallow marine sediments covering mentioned areas , , . The mass fractions of 43 and 39 trace elements and oxides were determined in the unconsolidated marine sediments of Northern Nile Delta and Egyptian sector of Red Sea, respectively. Final data were expressed in wt.% and mg/kg for major and trace elements, respectively. Different statistical tests such as Shapiro-Wilk, Anderson-Darling, Lilliefors and Jarque–Bera were used to check the normality of data. At the same time, distribution patterns of the rare earth elements (lanthanides) as well as Eu and Ce anomalies were investigated. Quality control of analytical measurements was carried out using certified reference materials. Different univariate and multivariate as well as graphic statistical analyses were performed. Presented data were used in identifying, by means of more pollution indices, the degree of local contamination. The present dataset could be further used in establishing geochemical background for the studied areas and tracking eventually changes posing significant threat to environment and humans.
This study pursues to build the conceptual model of entrepreneurial success (ES) that discusses the concept and phenomenon of ES and its perquisites and outcomes. This proposed mode anticipated that factors technological knowledge (TK), entrepreneurial orientation (EO), and psychological knowledge influence ES. This paper explains previous literature on perquisites, the phenomenon of TK, EO and psychological knowledge, and ES. This conceptual paper targets the scholarly works that provide support for the proposed model. A significant contribution of this paper is to propose an original relationship between prerequisites, phenomena, and consequences in ES. The proposed model shows a novel conceptualization of how these constructs may be connected to affect ES outcomes. This study enhances the literature by providing the theoretical literature of forerunners and outcomes for ES. In addition, this study has important implications for practitioners and entrepreneurs to generate success in entrepreneurial activities. Based on new insights, this study also developed and suggested new approaches and opportunities for future research.
The Metaliferi Mountains (Western Romania) are known worldwide as the richest gold region in Romania and hosts for numerous porphyry and epithermal deposits. In these mountains, mining for gold dates back to Roman and even pre-Roman times. The Golden Quadrilateral constitutes a remarkable example of an area having a significant geological and mining heritage. The main purposes of this work are to emphasize this heritage, to present, for the first time, an assessment of the geological and mining heritage of the Golden Quadrilateral as a possible geotourism destination, and to point out the important role that geotourism could have in the sustainable development of local communities. To achieve our goals, the features of thirteen sites are presented, and two geotourism itineraries are proposed. A quantitative assessment of the geosites’ capacity to support scientific, educational, and geotourism/recreational uses indicates that the Golden Quadrilateral presents a high potential not only for scientific studies but, also, for enhancement of the public understanding of science; geotourism could be part of the development strategy of rural areas. The two museums (Gold Museum and Gold Mining Museum) can have an important contribution both to the geo-education of visitors and in promoting the sustainable development of the region.
This study mainly deals with the consequences of inadequate data coverage on the interpretation of geophysical information. The results of the joint gravity and geomagnetic survey of the Ciomadul Volcano are discussed in connection with conclusions of previously performed magneto-telluric (MT) investigations.In the first step, inversion of both the potential fields and MT data apparently suggested the existence of a shallow (i.e., <5 km) magma chamber containing residual melt, or alternatively, highly hydrothermally altered rocks. However, strong arguments exist against both of these hypotheses such as lack of strong geothermal manifestations at the surface, or the too young age of the volcano, inconsistent with the assumed advanced alteration stage. During the next step, a brief study on the limitations of the inversion approach revealed significant shortcomings generated by uneven data distribution. Based on these conclusions, the gravity inversion results were reconsidered by substituting the initially assumed single magma chamber with a hypothetical swarm of narrow volcano conduits, each with size below the Nyquist threshold of the gravity survey as determined by an observations coverage density of less than one station/km². The new 3D density-based model was obtained by forward modelling, unveiling the structure of the shallow part of the volcanic feeder system that gradually developed and branched bottom-to-top.Given the shortcomings of the inversion due to inappropriate data coverage, it was speculated that a former solution of MT inversion might have been biased also by data scarcity. That leads to the integration of local effects (caused by narrow, but highly conductive fluid-filled conduits) into a single electrical resistivity anomaly that is improperly interpreted.
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