The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-harvest gibberellic acid (GA3) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) and post-harvest modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) applications on fruit quality of sweet cherry during the cold storage. At the end of the cold storage, GA3+CaCl2 applications in MAP-applied fruit and CaCl2 in non-MAP-applied fruit significantly delayed weight loss compared to the control. During the cold storage, the decay of CaCl2-applied fruit has not been observed. At the end of cold storage, the a* and firmness values of the fruit treated with GA3 and CaCl2 were significantly higher than the control. The CaCl2-applied fruit had less soluble solids than the control, but they had significantly higher acidity compared to other applications. In MAP, GA3- and CaCl2-applied fruit had higher vitamin C and antioxidant activity values than the control fruit, but their total phenolics were higher. However, the total flavonoids of CaCl2-applied fruit were higher than the control. On fruit in non-MAP, with GA3 application, less anthocyanin was obtained compared to the control. As a result, GA3-treated fruit had a relatively lower bioactive compound content compared to the fruit of the CaCl2 and control applications both during the harvest and the cold storage. However, it has been revealed that GA3 and CaCl2 applications can be used as significant pre-harvest tools to delay the loss of the fruit firmness.
Background The wheat stink bug, Aelia rostrata Boheman (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is one of the harmful insects that caused significant product losses in cereals due to outbreaks. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are natural enemies of soil insect pests whose effects as a biocontrol agent against many harmful pests have been demonstrated by many laboratories and field/garden studies in the world. The present laboratory studies, using native EPNs [ Steinernema carpocapsae (Black sea isolate), S. feltiae (isolate 09-31) (Aydin isolate) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (isolate 09-43) (Aydin isolate)] against the wheat stink bug adults, were carried out. Results In the application of EPNs to the soil in plastic cups, the highest mortality rates (75 and 70%) on wheat stink bug occurred at 200 IJs cm ⁻² concentration of S. carpocapsae isolate at 15 and 12 °C, respectively. In other tested nematode species, the highest insect mortality was observed at 200 IJs cm ⁻² concentration of S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora isolates, with mortality rates of 65–35% and 55–25%, at 15 and 12 °C, respectively. S. carpocapsae (Black sea isolate) was the most pathogenic among the three nematodes tested. Conclusions It was concluded that S. carpocapsae had the potential as a biocontrol agent against the wheat stink bug, A. rostrata . The applications of S. carpocapsae were the great potential for the management of the pest. Effective use of EPNs should be evaluated in integrated pest management strategies between other biological control agents. According to EPNs laboratory experiments results, field trials should be conducted in future studies.
A newly synthesized xanthate functionalized chlorinated polypropylene (PP-Xa) was used as adsorbent for the orbital shaker based on dispersive solid phase microextraction (OS-DSPME) of caffein from several tea, coffee, energy drink, coca-cola and chocolate samples using UV-vis. spectrophotometer. Synthesized PP-Xa was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H NMR). Various parameters like pH, PP-Xa amount, extraction time, type of eluent and its volume were optimized. Linear range, detection limit (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), relative standard deviation (RSD), recovery values, and enrichment factor (EF) were found 90–1000 μg L⁻¹, 27.3 µg L⁻¹, 90 µg L⁻¹, 1.9–2.6%, 98 ± 2%, and 167, respectively. Adsorption capacity of PP-Xa was found 271.9 mg g⁻¹. Standard addition and reference method were used for confirm the accuracy of present method.
Purpose Since dental age estimation methods' accuracy and reliability levels differ in each society, the method should be appropriate for societies. This study aims to evaluate the applicability of Nolla, Willems, and Cameriere methods to Turkish children in the Central Black Sea Region. Material and method This study was conducted based on the panoramic radiographs of 400 children between the ages of 6–14 years admitted to Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa University Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Pediatric Dentistry for examination between 2016 and 2020. Nolla, Willems, and Cameriere methods estimated dental age on the selected panoramic radiographs. While 14 teeth in the left mandible and maxilla were evaluated for Nolla method, seven teeth in the left mandible were evaluated for Willems and Cameriere methods. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS V23. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyze the relationship between the chronological age (CA) and dental age (DA), and the paired sample t-test was used to analyze the difference. Results A statistically significant difference was found between CA-Nolla dental age (p = 0.002), CA-Willems dental age (p < 0.001), and CA-Cameriere dental age (p = 0.033) in boys. The mean differences between dental age and chronological age in boys were −0.24 years in the Nolla method, +0.49 years in Willems method, and −0.17 years in the Cameriere method. A statistically significant difference was found between CA-Nolla dental age (p = 0.001) and CA-Willems dental age (p < 0.001) in girls. The mean differences between dental age and chronological age in girls were −0.27 years in the Nolla method, +0.76 years in the Willems method, and −0.1 years in the Cameriere method. Conclusion In this study method providing closest estimation for chronological age among children aged 6–14.99 that were examined in Central Black Sea Region, was the Cameriere method in both girls (79.9%) and boys (80.6%), followed by Nolla method and Willems method, respectively.
Background To determine the ideal fixation technique for an ACL reconstruction with a hamstring graft, multiple studies have been undertaken to define the initial biomechanical properties of tibial fixation. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of tibial fixation methods by creating single or hybrid systems. Methods Bovine tibias and forefoot digital extensor tendons were prepared with four different tibial anterior cruciate ligament fixation methods and compared biomechanically. Fixation materials included polyethylene Ultrabraid high-strength sutures, Biosure interference screws (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA), staples (Smith and Nephew, Richards Regular Fixation Staples without Spikes, Memphis, TN, USA), and knotless suture anchors (Multifix-S PEEK) (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA). Four groups (n = 5 specimens) were established – group I: single fixation with interference screws; group II: single fixation with knotless anchors; group III: hybrid fixation with interference screws and staples; group IV: hybrid fixation with interference screws and knotless anchors. Each specimen underwent evaluations for cyclic displacement, cyclic stiffness, initial loading strength, ultimate failure load, pull-out displacement, and pull-out stiffness. Results All specimens completed cyclic loading and load-to-failure. The cyclic displacement in group II, which had a single fixation, indicated significantly greater elongation compared with the other groups (P = 0.002). The hybrid systems were more rigid than the single systems in terms of cyclic stiffness, and no statistically significant difference was observed between the hybrid systems (P = 0.461). Group IV was significantly superior in terms of the ultimate failure load (P = 0.004). No statistically significant differences were noted between the groups for pull-out displacement or pull-out stiffness. Conclusion Single fixation with bioscrews as an in-tunnel tibia fixation method was as successful as hybrid systems. Multifix-S PEEK knotless suture anchors, which can be combined with bioscrews, can be a superior fixation alternative due to its flexibility and ultimate failure load values.
Leaf spot disease, which causes 10 - 50% loss in sugar beet yield, causes great damage on the leaves. This disease physiologically appears as individual circular spots on the sugar beet leaves and over time spreads to the entire leaf, resulting in complete death of the leaf. Therefore, in our study, Faster R-CNN, SSD, VGG16, Yolov4 deep learning models were used directly, and Yolov4 deep learning model with image processing was used in a hybrid way for automatic determination of leaf spot disease on sugar beet and classification of severity. The proposed hybrid method for the diagnosis of diseases and identifying the severitywere trained and tested using 1040 images, and the classification accuracy rate of the most successful method was found to be 96.47%. The proposed hybrid approach showed that the combined use of image processing and deep learning models yield more successful results than the analysis made using only deep learning models. In this way, both the time spent for the diagnosis of leaf spot disease on sugar beet will be reduced and human error will be eliminated, and the relevant pesticides will be sprayed to the plant at the right time.
Nanotechnology is arising as a fast-developing research discipline with many usages areas. The silver nanoparticles synthesis (sm-AgNPs) is accomplished by reduction of silver ions in treatment with aqueous extract of Sideritis montana L. leaves. The colour change from yellow to dark brown confirmed the structures. The spectroscopic studies revealed the desired structure. In the UV-Vis spectrum, the maximum absorption was observed at 480 nm. The diffraction peaks (2θ) at the degrees of 38.14°, 44.29°, 64.48°, and 77.38° can correspond to 111, 200, 220, and 311 facets that indicates the nanostructure to be a face-centered cubic unit structure. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analyses indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles were spherical with an average particle size of 36.42 nm. The zeta potential of sm-AgNPs was found as -35.2 mV which indicated the repulsion among nanoparticles and their stability. The peaks from Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) were associated with the phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and alkaloids, indicating that the corresponding compounds might act as reducing agents. The photocatalytic effect of sm-AgNPs was examined by degradation of methylene blue and sm-AgNPs were able to degrade the dye by about 67% at 96 h.
Background Based on the literature review, shared characteristics of integrated STEM (I-STEM) curriculum includes an engaging and motivating context, student participation in engineering design activities, opportunity to redesign, engaging in mathematics or science content, having student-centred pedagogies, and teamwork and communication. These principles and more were used to analyse STEM activities published in NSTA journals. Purpose It was to determine the extent to which the STEM activities published in three NSTA journals (Science and Children, Science Scope, and The Science Teacher) between the years 2013 and 2020 reflected the shared characteristics of I-STEM education. Sample A total of 161 STEM teaching activities were analysed during the study. Methods A STEM rubric (abbreviated as RACSTEM) developed by the authors. Expert panel reviews and intercoder agreement calculations provided support for the content validity and reliability of RACSTEM. The rubric was composed of seven main categories, namely, integrating different disciplines, real-world problem, learner-centeredness, teamwork, communication, redesign, and assessment. STEM activities were analysed based on RACSTEM through content analysis and reported using descriptive statistics. Results Different combinations of STEM and non-STEM disciplines were integrated into the activities. 76% of the activities included real-world problems. Learner centred strategies (e.g. project-based learning) were utilized in 81% of the STEM papers. In 94% of the papers, students mostly participated in group work. Analysis revealed that 58% of the papers asked learners what they would change at the redesign stage. Finally, in the assessment aspect, the most problematic one, results showed discrepancies between the integrative nature of STEM and its assessment. Conclusion It was unclear how many I-STEM activities were published in NSTA publications that fit the requirements for I-STEM once the NGSS was launched. The findings of this study, as well as the development of the RACSTEM instrument, seem to have the ability to resolve ambiguity.
COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, continues to spread at full speed with its new variants including omicron, while SARS-CoV-2 vaccination also continues at full speed. Currently, the most powerful tool in combating the COVID-19 pandemic is vaccination along with personal measures against SARS-CoV-2. During the 2 year pandemic period, it was observed that SARS-CoV-2 is associated with multiple system involvements, including the skin, apart from lung involvement. There are certain similar skin disorders that are both associated with the new coronavirus and its vaccines [1,2]. Fortunately, these reactions are commonly short, benign and self-limited. Herein, we have discussed the common cutaneous manifestations that are both associated with the new coronavirus and its vaccines. Chilblain-like lesions Chilblain-like lesions (CLL) are mostly asymmetrical acral distributed in patients with COVID-19. It is a sign of mild-course COVID-19 and is predominant in younger patients. The localized acral skin damage may be the result of a strong immune-mediated reaction triggered by SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, patients with CLL have mild or no symptoms, negative RT-PCR and localized endothelial injury to the acral sites. The average occurrence time of lesions is about 10-14 days and lasts about 2 weeks, with spontaneous improvement [3,4]. There are numerous reports that revealed both virus related protein based weakened inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus and mRNA vaccines including BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) can lead to CLL. The CLL may occur after the first and second doses of the vaccines. The onset of the lesions has been reported as 2-21 days [5,6]. Considering the characteristic formation and disappearance times of CLL lesions, no significant difference was found between the lesions that occurred after the COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination . Vasculitis Vasculitis is another common cutaneous manifestation of the new coronavirus and its vaccines. As it is known, leukocytoclastic vasculitis can be associated with infections, drugs, and vaccines. Similarly, there are numerous reports that revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis is related to COVID-19 and its vaccines. The other reported vasculitic patterns that occurred after COVID-19 were small-vessel vasculitis, IgA vasculitis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, purpura fulminans, urticarial vasculitis, lymphocytic and ANCA associated vasculitis. The SARS-CoV-2 and its vaccines can imitate the self antigens of the body that resulted in immune dysregulation that resulted in vasculitis [1,2]. Most cases of COVID-19 related vasculitis run a mild to moderate course. The cornerstone of the medical treatment is systemic corticosteroids. Complete remission could be achieved in most patients . Morbiliform eruptions Maculopapular rash, which also includes morbilliform eruptions, is the most common cutaneous side effect of the COVID-19 followed by CLL. The morbilliform eruption is also one of the common side effects of the COVID-19 vaccines and usually has a mild course [1,2]. Considering the characteristic formation and disappearance times of Future Virol. (Epub ahead of print)
PurposeThis study aimed to evaluate parents' knowledge and attitudes about dental practices who visited a pedodontics clinic during the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods In the present work, data were collected via questionnaires from 475 parents who brought their children (between 0 and 14 years old) to our clinic for routine pedodontic examinations. The data obtained were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Frequency and percentage values of answers to questions were obtained.ResultsThe majority of the participants (67.9%) indicated sufficient knowledge about COVID-19. Although 75% of parents were fearful and worried about the possibility of contracting virus during admission to the hospital, it was observed that 92% of them highly counted on the measures taken by their dentists and 72% did not hesitate to take their children to dentists during the pandemic.Conclusion Within the limitations of the present study, it has been shown that despite the increased level of parents’ knowledge about the pandemic, it was evident that anxiety and fear were present when visiting hospitals/clinics as a result of the possible transmission due to the high number of COVID-19 cases. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further studies on how to increase public awareness of the transmission routes of aerosols released during dental treatments.
This study investigates the effect of elevated temperature on cementitious composites with 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% firebrick powder (FBP). In this regard, cementitious composite mortars with dimensions of 40 × 40 × 160 mm, which were water-cured at 20 ± 2 °C for 56 days, were produced. Produced samples were exposed to 300, 600, 750, and 900 °C, then air- and water-cooling processes were applied. Cooling processes were continued until the samples reached the laboratory temperature. Unit weight, ultrasonic pulse velocity, compressive strength, and mass loss of the FBP-based cementitious composite samples were measured after both air- and water-cooling regimes. Finally, microstructural analysis was performed for reference samples and samples with 20% FBP. As a result, the compressive strengths of the samples exposed to 600, 750, and 900 °C showed that up to 15% of FBP-based cementitious composite samples had better results compared to the reference samples. The compressive strengths of the water-cooled samples were lower than those of the air-cooled samples. The mass loss results of FBP-based samples decreased with the increase in temperature. The mass loss of the air-cooled samples was higher than that of the water-cooled samples.
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may affect many biological processes like growth and stress response. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plasticizer that is used to harden plastics and polycarbonates. Phthalates are used to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride containing plastics. The main metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and it is even more toxic than the parent compound. Humans are usually exposed to these chemicals in mixtures by different routes starting from fetal period. However, there are not many studies in literature that investigate the combined effects of these chemicals. The aim of this study is to investigate toxic effects of BPA and/or MEHP on HepG2 cell line. We have evaluated cytotoxicity, cytomorphological, apoptotic changes, oxidative stress, oxidant/antioxidant status alterations, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Combined exposure to BPA and MEHP caused alterations in oxidant/antioxidant status and ER stress marker proteins in both cytoplasmic and nuclear cellular fractions. We can suggest that combined exposure to EDCs may cause serious toxicological outcomes and more mechanistic studies are needed to determine the combined toxic effects. Graphical abstract
PurposeTo assess changes in pharyngeal airway dimensions, head posture and hyoid position after maxillary expansion and face mask (FM) treatment compared to untreated class III patients.Methods This study examined 24 class III patients (10 girls, 14 boys, mean age: 10.97 ± 0.88 years) treated with expansion and a petit-type FM appliance and 24 untreated class III patients (16 girls, 8 boys, mean age: 10.50 ± 1.06 years). Pre- and posttreatment cephalometric radiographs were digitally analysed. Parametric data were analysed with paired and independent-samples t‑tests, nonparametric data were analysed with Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann–Whitney U tests. Spearman’s correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between dental/skeletal treatment changes and those of craniocervical postural position, pharyngeal airway dimension and hyoid position.ResultsWith respect to the hypopharyngeal airway dimension, the hypopharyngeal sagittal length (CV3’-LPW), velar angle (HRL/U-PNS) and velar length (U-PNS) significantly increased in the treatment group. All the parameters describing head posture and those describing the distances of the hyoid bone to the HRL changed significantly after treatment, but these changes were not significantly different from the control group. In the treatment group, there also occurred a significant increase in the sagittal growth of the maxilla (SNA, Co‑A, Na-Perp A, Wits), vertical growth of the maxillomandibular complex (SN-GoGN, N‑ANS, N‑Me), counterclockwise rotation of the maxilla (SN-PP) and overjet, while a clockwise rotation (y-axis) and a nonsignificant inhibition of the sagittal growth (Co-Gn) of the mandible were observed. The treatment induced increases of hypopharyngeal sagittal length (CV3’-LPW), soft palate thickness and anteroposterior movement of hyoid bone (H-CV3) demonstrated a positive correlation with changes of craniocervical angles (NSL/OPT, NSL/CVT) and a negative correlation with craniohorizontal angles (OPT/HOR, CVT/HOR). The change of the anteroposterior movement of hyoid bone (H-CV3) was also positively correlated with oropharyngeal sagittal length (CV2’-MPW), the hypopharyngeal sagittal length (CV3’-LPW) and the minimal dimension of the pharyngeal airway space (PASmin).Conclusion While expansion and FM treatment did not affect the head posture and hyoid bone position, positive effects were observed in the hypopharyngeal airway region.
The nominal rated wind speed is the most important parameter on the energy production of a wind turbine. However, when the literature studies are examined, there are no studies that have formulations directly related to nominal wind speed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the nominal wind speeds that will obtain the maximum power from wind turbines. Nominal wind speeds were determined by analyzing the capacity values that were calculated directly by using the energy pattern factor. Thus, new and practical charts were created for the selection of the wind turbines with the most appropriate nominal wind speed to achieve maximum annual energy production. In the case study, it was observed that the selection of turbines with values below the appropriate nominal wind speeds decreases the annual energy production by 30.1%. This shows how the selection of turbines with the correct and appropriate nominal wind speeds in the areas where the wind energy power plants are planned to be installed is important in a general energy production.
Background: Peroral endoscopic myotomy is associated with a low risk of adverse events. Mucosal injury is the most common intraprocedural adverse event of peroral endoscopic myotomy. Severe mucosal injury may cause serious consequences, such as esophageal leak and mediastinitis, which affect the outcome of the procedure and prolong hospital stay. The aim of the present study was to determine the characteristics, predictors, and management approaches for unintended mucosal injury during peroral endoscopic myotomy. Methods: A total of 211 patients who underwent peroral endoscopic myotomy between November 2014 and June 2019 were enrolled in this study. Mucosal injury was defined according to a previous study and maintained in the endoscopy database. Patient-related and procedure-related factors were compared between patients with and without mucosal injury. Multivariate analysis was performed after adjusting for confounding factors. Results: A total of 206 patients were eligible for study enrollment. Of these, 44 experienced mucosal injury, with an overall frequency of 21.4% (44/206). On multivariable analysis, mucosal injury was associated with submucosal fibrosis (odds ratio, 8.33; P = .024), intraprocedural bleeding (OR, 14.29; P < .001), endoscopic diameter of 9.9 mm (OR, 4.389; P = .006), and procedure duration over 60 minutes (OR, 1.016; P = .034). Conclusion: Mucosal injury is a significant event encountered during peroral endoscopic myotomy, affecting its short- and long-term outcomes. Intra-procedural bleeding, endoscopic submucosal fibrosis, and use of an endoscope with a large outer diameter have been found to be significant predictors of mucosal injury. Endoscopists should pay more attention to risk factors associated with mucosal injury to avoid adverse events.
Background Training both pre – and in-service teachers who are capable of planning and enacting engineering design–based science instruction are critical for integrating engineering into K-12 science curricula. Purpose This study investigates pre-service teachers’ efforts to integrate engineering into their lesson plans. Sample 13 pre-service chemistry teachers, enrolled in a 13-week engineering-infused integrated STEM course, were the participants of the study. Design and Method Considering the purpose of the study, qualitative design was deemed to be the best fit including qualitative data collected through lesson plans and reflection papers. To assist pre-service teachers’ learning, 13-week engineering-infused integrated STEM was started with the information about the engineering profession and how engineers work. Additionally, pre-service teachers engaged in six integrated STEM activities including engineering design cycle. After each activity, the participants were asked to write a reflection paper on what they learned about engineering, the engineering design process, and integrated STEM. Finally, the participants had three chances for analyzing strong and weak integrated STEM lesson plans and planning integrated STEM lesson planning experience with mentors. The pre-and post-course lesson plans (n=26) were analyzed using existing codes from the related literature, which is a deductive coding process. Later, an inductive approach was used to determine the categories of engineering integration into the lesson plans. Four categories (ranging from a complete engineering lesson to a science lesson with no engineering link) were formed. Reflection papers were used to support the findings. Result The results showed that none of the pre-plans included engineering. However, after participated in a 13-week integrated STEM course, all post-course lesson plans integrated engineering through the use of engineering design processes to some extent. Conclusion The training with different experiences seems promising for pre-service teachers to learn engineering integration into STEM lesson plans.
Background The literature comparing open and arthroscopic repair of subscapularis tendon (ST) tears is insufficient. Purpose To compare the clinical results of open versus arthroscopic repair of ST tears with or without concomitant supraspinatus tears. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 70 patients treated for isolated ST tears and ST tears with concomitant supraspinatus tendon tears at a single center between 2011 and 2019. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those who underwent open ST repairs (group O) and those with an arthroscopic ST repair (group A). Range of motion (ROM), liftoff and belly-press tests, and Constant-Murley (CM) scores were included in the pre- and postoperative functional evaluations. The minimal clinically important difference was calculated using the anchor-based method for changes in CM score. Tear size was evaluated according to the Lafosse classification. The categorical data were assessed using the Pearson chi-square, Fisher exact, and Fisher-Freeman-Halton tests. The parametric and nonparametric data were evaluated using the Student t test and Mann-Whitney U test, respectively. The dependent groups (for nonnormally distributed data) were evaluated using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results Group O included 34 patients, and group A included 36 patients. The mean age was 62.9 years, and the mean follow-up period was 66.7 months. Even though group O exhibited a significantly better preoperative CM score (53.7 ± 4.6 vs 48.9 ± 6.8 [mean ± SD]; P = .001), group A had a significantly better postoperative CM score (88.7 ± 4.7 vs 84.6 ± 2.9; P < .001). Our measurements revealed a minimal clinically important difference of 11.5 points for the CM score. Group A had significantly greater postoperative ROM in abduction (153° vs 143.9°; P = .005) and forward elevation (159.1° vs 149.7°; P = .005), as well as significantly greater postoperative improvement in positive belly-press test results ( P = .028). Complications occurred in 4 patients in group O and in 1 patient in group A. Conclusion The study findings indicated that arthroscopic ST repair was more advantageous than open repair in terms of ROM and functional outcomes.
To evaluate of hepatitis serology and reactivation frequency in patients with rheumatic disease receiving biologic agents. Our study included patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases from 23 centers, who were followed up with biological therapy. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, duration of drug use and hepatitis serology and the state of viral reactivation were analyzed. A total of 4060 patients, 2095 being males, were included in our study. Of the patients, 2463 had Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), 1154 had Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), 325 had Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA), and 118 had other inflammatory rheumatic diseases. When the viral serology of the patients was evaluated, 79 patients (2%) who were identified as HBs Ag positive, 486 (12%) patients who were HBs Ag negative and anti-HBc IgG positive and 20 patients (0.5%) who were anti-HCV positive. When evaluated on a disease-by-disease basis, the rate of HBsAg was found to be 2.5% in RA, 2% in AS and 0.9% in PsA. Viral reactivation was detected in 13 patients while receiving biologic agents. HBs Ag was positive in nine patients with reactivation and negative in four patients. Anti-HBc IgG, however, was positive. Six of these patients had AS, four had RA, and three had PsA. The development of hepatitis reactivation in 11.4% of HBs Ag positive patients and 0.82% of anti-HBc IgG positive patients due to the use of biologic agents is an important problem for this group of patients. Antiviral prophylaxis is recommended to be started especially in patients who are HBs Ag positive and who are using biologic agents due to viral reactivation. Therefore, it is important to carry out hepatitis screenings before biologic agent treatment and to carefully evaluate the vaccination and prophylaxis requirements.
The study was carried out to determine the effect of different fruit sizes on the quality and bioactive compounds of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cv. ‘0900 Ziraat’). The fruit was harvested on the basis of Centre Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Légumes (CTIFL) color category 5, mahogany. The fruit was separated for analysis according to the CTIFL scale: S21 (21 mm), S22 (22 mm), S24 (24 mm), S25 (25 mm), and S26 (26 mm). As the size of the fruit increased, the firmness decreased. The fruit color values varied depending on fruit size. It was determined that the increase in size of the fruit reduced the color values. The soluble solids content and vitamin C values occurred the differences with effect of fruit size. The increasing of fruit size occurred the decreasing in vitamin C content and the increase in the amount of soluble solids. The effect of fruit size on total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity was significant. While the highest value of total phenolic content was obtained in S25, the lowest value was determined in S26. In both DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays, the lowest antioxidant activity was obtained in S26-sized fruit. The individual phenol with the highest concentration in sweet cherry was catechin, and p-coumaric was the individual phenolic with the lowest concentration. There were differences in the concentrations of individual phenolics between fruit sizes. However, it cannot be stated that fruit size had an effect on individual phenolic concentration because this effect was inconsistent.
Background: Blastocystis has been associated with various symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of Blastocystis in children with celiac disease (CeD) or functional abdominal pain (FAP) and to evaluate its subtypes (STs) with respect to demographic, socioeconomic and epidemiological factors. Methods: Overall, 161 fecal samples were collected from healthy children and patients with FAP or CeD in Hitit University Erol Olçok Research and Training Hospital, Corum, Turkey between 2016-2018. Samples were examined using both native-Lugol (NL) and trichrome-stained (TS) smears, and further analyses by PCR and Sanger sequencing were performed. A standard questionnaire was applied to obtain demographic, socioeconomic, epidemiological data. Results: Blastocystis was found in 10.6% of the total study population. Neither bacteria nor any other parasites were found, except for one Giardia (0.6%) in the CeD group. The presence/absence of the parasite was not found to be associated with demographic, socioeconomic and epidemiological factors. Blastocysis was detected in 11.5% (6/52) of the CeD, 7.7% (4/52) of the FAP, and 12.3% (7/57) of the healthy group. Diagnostic methods were similar in terms of Blastocystis detection (P= 0.671), and there was fair agreement between the NL, TS and PCR (Fleiss' Kappa=0.847, P=0.001). ST2 (42.8%) and ST3 (35.7%) were the predominant STs followed by ST1 (21.4%). Conclusion: We observed no difference between study groups in terms of Blastocystis prevalence. ST1, ST2 and ST3 subtypes were detected. Blastocystis prevalence and STs were not related to any of the demographic, socioeconomic and epidemiological factors.
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