Exposure to media images portraying the thin ideal is associated with increased body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in women. Organizations and policymakers globally have proposed polices requiring warning or disclaimer labels on altered images. Research examining efficacy of disclaimer labels is growing but has largely overlooked adult women. This study extends current research by exploring novel disclaimer labels in a sample of adult women. Women (N = 872) recruited via Amazon’s MTurk were randomly assigned to view 20 fashion advertisements with one of five labels: 1) no label; 2) general-digital-alteration label; 3) health-warning label; 4) specific-weight label; or 5) facial features/cosmetic label. Results revealed a significant increase in body dissatisfaction after advertisement exposure, irrespective of label group. Women who viewed advertisements with labels and recalled the labels reported lower body satisfaction and intention to purchase products compared to those who viewed advertisements with no label. Age appears to play an important role in how disclaimer labels affect women. Younger women of color appear to be more negatively impacted by the facial features/cosmetic label than older women of color. Findings are consistent with previous studies indicating no protective effect of disclaimer labels suggesting the need for more effective preventive strategies.
NanoCluster Beacons (NCBs) are multicolor silver nanocluster probes whose fluorescence can be activated or tuned by a proximal DNA strand called the activator. While a single‐nucleotide difference in a pair of activators can lead to drastically different activation outcomes, termed the polar opposite twins (POTs), it is difficult to discover new POT‐NCBs using the conventional low‐throughput characterization approaches. Here we report a high‐throughput selection method that takes advantage of repurposed next‐generation‐sequencing (NGS) chips to screen the activation fluorescence of ∼40,000 activator sequences. We find the nucleobases at positions 7–12 of the 18‐nucleotide‐long activator are critical to creating bright NCBs and positions 4–6 and 2–4 are hotspots to generate yellow‐orange and red POTs, respectively. Based on these findings, we propose a “zipper bag model” that could explain how these hotspots lead to the creation of distinct silver cluster chromophores and alter the chromophore chemical yields. Combining high‐throughput screening with machine learning algorithms, we establish a pipeline to design bright and multicolor NCBs in silico. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
One frontier of public deliberation on religious freedom involves the clash of religious conscience with government rules against discrimination. As American courts consider issues pitting religious believers against other groups, especially LGBTQ citizens, the public is deeply divided. A paradigmatic case has been the Masterpiece Cakeshop litigation, testing whether a Christian baker could refuse to produce a wedding cake for a same-sex couple given his religious objections. As that case continues and similar confrontations proliferate, the First Amendment’s ‘free exercise’ clause produces new dilemmas. Although public attitudes seldom influence judicial decisions directly, in the long run American courts may well ‘follow the election returns’. This contribution considers public assessments of the importance of religious liberty and then examines attitudes on the Masterpiece controversy, using data from the Democracy Fund’s Voter Survey and the 2016 and 2020 American National Election Studies (ANES). We find that religious factors play a major role in determining citizen opinion, as the public reacts very much along ‘culture wars’ lines. But personal attitudes toward LGBTQ citizens also have a major direct impact on views about ‘conscience exemptions’.
This paper analyzes how aging parents’ health conditions affect household labor supply. I propose a time-use model with wage heterogeneity and assume that care responsibilities involve both time and budget constraints. When households can purchase care services, differences in secondary earners’ wages and care requirements lead to heterogeneity in household responses to a parental health shock. Primary earners and high-wage secondary earners work more. I confirm the model’s predictions by using panel data from the Health and Retirement Study to construct an exogenous shock from the change in parents’ health conditions and estimate its impact on labor supply.
Purpose Although significant racial and ethnic disparities exist in colorectal and lung cancer treatment and survival, racial differences in patient-reported experience of care are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in patient-reported ratings of colorectal and non-small-cell lung cancer care by race/ethnicity. Methods Medicare beneficiaries with AJCC stage I–IV colorectal and non-small-cell lung cancer (2003–2013) who completed a Medicare Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers (CAHPS) survey within 5 years of cancer diagnosis were identified in the linked SEER-CAHPS dataset. Scores were compared by race/ethnicity, defined as White, Black, or any other race/ethnicity. Results Of the 2,621 identified patients, 161 (6.1%) were Black, 2,279 (87.0%) White, and 181 (6.9%) any other race/ethnicity. Compared to White patients, Black patients were younger, had lower educational level, and had higher census tract poverty indicator (p < 0.001). Black patients rated their ability to get care quickly significantly lower than White patients (63.5 (SE 3.38) vs. 71.4 (SE 2.12), p < 0.01), as did patients of any other race/ethnicity (LS mean 66.2 (SE 2.89), p = 0.02). Patients of any other race/ethnicity reported their ability to get needed care significantly lower than White patients (LS mean 81.9 (SE 2.46) vs. 86.7 (SE 1.75), p = 0.02); however, there was no difference in ability to get needed care between Black and White patients. Conclusion Patient ratings for getting care quickly were lower in non-White patients, indicating racial disparities in perceived timeliness of care.
Social determinants of health (SDOHs) impacts on an individual's health outcomes have become more evident, and clinical providers are vital in helping patients address those needs. Providers are experiencing high-stress levels related to patient care, resulting in a diminished capacity to address these SDOHs. This study examines the impact of a medical-legal partnership (MLP) on the clinical capacity to assist providers with addressing SDOH needs and reducing clinician stress. A 16-question survey was emailed to 532 providers in a local health system. The survey assessed clinicians' perception of their role in addressing SDOH needs, the MLP's impact on their clinical capacity and the MLP's ability to remedy patient SDOH needs. Providers who have referred to the MLP indicated higher levels of agreement that SDOH screenings were part of their clinical responsibility and had higher levels of agreement regarding comfort levels for completing SDOH screenings. Geriatric providers reported higher levels of agreement that the MLP reduced clinician stress than paediatric providers. MLPs have the potential to reduce clinician stress and burnout by standing in the gap to assist providers in addressing their patient's SDOH needs.
In 1923 the fundamentalist theologian and polemicist J. Gresham Machen argued that orthodox and liberal variants of the Christian faith had become so different as to constitute distinct religions. In this thoughtful and well-written volume, Yancey and Qousigk reassert that claim about religious “conservatives” and “progressives” today. Although framed broadly about the “Christian tradition” and citing James Davison Hunter’s classic Culture Wars (1992), they really have a narrower focus: the developing fissures within American evangelicalism, creating a new strain of progressives, challenging conservative dominance of that tradition. To provide a national context, the authors use the 2012 American National Election Study (ANES) to demonstrate their basic contentions: that conservative Christians have an affinity for other Christians, but reject non-Christians; that progressives tend to accept non-Christian groups and political progressives, but reject both conservative Christians and political conservatives; and, perhaps surprisingly, that conservative Christians are not more supportive of political conservatives—at...
By addressing the defects in classical nucleation theory (CNT), we develop an approach for extracting the free energy of small water clusters from nucleation rate experiments without any assumptions about the form of the cluster free energy. For temperatures higher than ∼250 K, the extracted free energies from experimental data points indicate that their ratio to the free energies predicted by CNT exhibits nonmonotonic behavior as the cluster size changes. We show that this ratio increases from almost zero for monomers and passes through (at least) one maximum before approaching one for large clusters. For temperatures lower than ∼250 K, the behavior of the ratio between extracted energies and CNT's prediction changes; it increases with cluster size, but it remains below one for almost all of the experimental data points. We also applied a state-of-the-art quantum mechanics model to calculate free energies of water clusters (2-14 molecules); the results support the observed change in behavior based on temperature, albeit for temperatures above and below ∼298 K. We compared two different model chemistries, DLPNO-CCSD(T)/CBS//ωB97xD/6-31++G** and G3, against each other and the experimental value for formation of the water dimer.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.