This retrospective study evaluated the impact of the clinical presentation of pyometra on the morbidity and mortality of the affected bitches. The medical records of 47 bitches surgically treated for pyometra between May and December 2017 were evaluated. The admission data were analyzed to classify the animals according to the clinical presentation of pyometra, presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and organic dysfunctions (cardiovascular, neurological, renal, and hemostatic). The outcomes were recorded for up to 14 days. The overall mortality rate was 13%. Open and closed pyometra were identified in 62% (n= 29) and 38% (n= 18) of the cases, respectively. The SIRS was present in 44 (94%) bitches, and 27 (57%) had at least one organ dysfunction. The most prevalent dysfunction was hemostatic, followed by neurological, cardiovascular, and renal dysfunction. The clinical presentation of pyometra and the presence of SIRS did not correlate with each other, or with the presence of organ dysfunction and mortality. However, cumulative organ dysfunction (r=0.532, P=<0.001) and the presence of neurological (r= -0.371; P=0.012) and renal dysfunction (r=0.303; P=0.041) were correlated with mortality. Thus, the identification of organ dysfunction through physical examination and routine laboratory analysis proved to be more effective in identifying and predicting the critically ill patients than the SIRS criteria or clinical presentation of the disease.
Objective To identify how patient-centered care has been addressed in tuberculosis studies with adolescents. Data source We searched for articles published in Portuguese, Spanish and English in the Virtual Health Library (LILACS), PubMed (MedLine), and Scopus (Elsevier) databases, from 2000 to 2020, using descriptors (DeCS, MeSH) in Portuguese and English. Data synthesis 1,322 studies were identified, of which 18 were selected. The main themes found were related to adherence to tuberculosis treatment, knowledge, attitudes and practices, health education, and public policies. Conclusions We observed that both the number of researchers dedicated to the topic and the presence of a truly person-centered view are still scarce elements in tuberculosis among adolescents research. Keywords: Tuberculosis; Adolescent; Patient-centered care; Integrative review
Dentre os fatores associados à dislipidemia, destacam-se os determinantes sociodemográficos, como escolaridade e renda e, nessa perspectiva, as populações menos favorecidas economicamente, como por exemplo as residentes em favelas, apresentam mais chances de serem acometidas pelas doenças crônicas não transmissíveis quando comparadas as de renda mais alta. Nesse sentido, considerando a escassez de estudos relacionados à prevalência de dislipidemia e seus fatores associados em habitantes de áreas faveladas, objetivou-se analisar os fatores associados à dislipidemia em adultos assistidos pela Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF), residentes em área de favela, em Recife, Pernambuco. Estudo transversal, de base secundária. Analisaram-se possíveis associações da dislipidemia (hipercolesterolemia isolada ou hipertrigliceridemia isolada) com variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, comportamentais, composição corporal e morbidades, por meio de Regressão de Poisson, considerando-se valor de p<0,05. Dos 491 adultos, 46,2% apresentaram dislipidemia, sendo maior nos homens em relação às mulheres (RP=1,70; IC95%:1,41-2,03), com aumento progressivo a partir dos 30 anos, estabilizando a partir da faixa dos 40 anos. A prevalência foi maior entre aqueles insuficientemente ativos (RP=1,21; IC95%:1,01-1,45), com circunferência de cintura muito aumentada (RP=1,78; IC95%:1,36-2,34) e com pressão arterial aumentada (RP=1,35; IC95%:1,11-1,63). É preciso reforçar atividades de promoção da saúde no âmbito da ESF para a população investigada, bem como incentivar a prática de atividade física nas academias da saúde, além de divulgar informações relativas ao combate dos fatores associados à dislipidemia.
This article presents how foreign naturalists described the burning of the fields, grasslands, and savannas (cerrado) of Central Brazil in the nineteenth century, in a dialogue between the history of science and environmental history. It discusses how they engaged with fire, which raged in the region at the end of the dry season, describing its effects on the flora, the fauna, and the landscape. In naturalists’ documents, fire appears in complex ways, both as an element of destruction and environmental degradation and of life creation and stimulation of the adaptation of living beings, being an important agent for the formation of the Brazilian savannas. KEYWORDS: Environmental history; History of science; Naturalist travelers; Central Brazil; Fire; Nineteenth Century
Yeast infections have gained significant attention in the field of marine biology in recent years. Among the broad diversity of marine organisms affected by these infections, elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) have emerged as highly susceptible, due to climate change effects, such as increasing water temperatures and pollution, which can alter the composition and abundance of fungal communities. Additionally, injuries, or compromised immune systems resulting from pollution or disease may increase the likelihood of fungal infections in elasmobranchs. Studies are, however, still lacking for this taxonomic group. In this context, this study aimed to screen yeast species in cell cultures obtained from the brain of artisanally captured Pseudobatos horkelii, a cartilaginous fish that, although endangered, is highly captured and consumed worldwide. Fungi were isolated during an attempt to establish primary cultures of elasmobranch neural cells. Culture flasks were swabbed and investigated using morphological, phenotypic, and molecular techniques. Two isolates of the emerging opportunistic pathogen Trichosporon japonicum were identified, with high scores (1.80 and 1.85, respectively) by the MALDI-ToF technique. This is the first report of the basidiomycetous yeast T. japonicum in Pseudobatos horkelii in Brazil. This finding highlights the need for further research to determine the potential impact on elasmobranch health, ecology, as well as on commercial fisheries.
Immunobiography describes the life-long effects of exogenous or endogenous stimuli on remodeling of immune cell biology, including the development of memory T and B-cells. The present study aimed at investigating the rhythms of changes in phenotypic features of memory T and B-cells along childhood and adolescence. A descriptive-observational investigation was conducted including 812 healthy volunteers, clustered into six consecutive age groups (9Mths–1Yr; 2Yrs; 3–4Yrs; 5–7Yrs; 8–10Yrs; 11–18Yrs). Immunophenotypic analysis of memory T-cell (CD4⁺ and CD8⁺) and B-cell subsets were performed by flow cytometry. The results pointed out that memory-related biomarkers of T and B-cells displayed a bimodal profile along healthy childhood and adolescence, regardless of sex. The first stage of changes occurs around 2Yrs, with predominance of naive cells, while the second and more prominent wave occurs around the age 8–10Yrs, with the prevalence of memory phenotypes. The neighborhood connectivity profile analysis demonstrated that the number of correlations reaches a peak at 11–18Yrs and lower values along the childhood. Males presented higher and conserved number of correlations when compared to females. Altogether, our results provide new insights into immunobiography and a better understanding of interactions among the cellular subsets studied here during childhood and adolescence.
Introduction Seasonal influenza A (H3N2) virus is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the last 50 years in population that is greater than the impact of H1N1. Data assessing immunogenicity and safety of this virus component in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) is lacking in the literature. Objective To evaluate short-term immunogenicity and safety of influenza A/Singapore (H3N2) vaccine in JSLE. Methods 24 consecutive JSLE patients and 29 healthy controls (HC) were vaccinated with influenza A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016(H3N2)-like virus. Influenza A (H3N2) seroprotection (SP), seroconversion (SC), geometric mean titers (GMT), factor increase in GMT (FI-GMT) titers were assessed before and 4 weeks post-vaccination. Disease activity, therapies and adverse events (AE) were also evaluated. Results JSLE patients and controls were comparable in current age [14.5 (10.1–18.3) vs. 14 (9–18.4) years, p = 0.448] and female sex [21 (87.5%) vs. 19 (65.5%), p = 0.108]. Before vaccination, JSLE and HC had comparable SP rates [22 (91.7%) vs. 25 (86.2%), p = 0.678] and GMT titers [102.3 (95% CI 75.0–139.4) vs. 109.6 (95% CI 68.2–176.2), p = 0.231]. At D30, JSLE and HC had similar immune response, since no differences were observed in SP [24 (100%) vs. 28 (96.6%), p = 1.000)], SC [4 (16.7%) vs. 9 (31.0%), p = 0.338), GMT [162.3 (132.9–198.3) vs. 208.1 (150.5–287.8), p = 0.143] and factor increase in GMT [1.6 (1.2–2.1) vs. 1.9 (1.4–2.5), p = 0.574]. SLEDAI-2K scores [2 (0–17) vs. 2 (0–17), p = 0.765] and therapies remained stable throughout the study. Further analysis of possible factors influencing vaccine immune response among JSLE patients demonstrated similar GMT between patients with SLEDAI < 4 compared to SLEDAI ≥ 4 ( p = 0.713), as well as between patients with and without current use of prednisone ( p = 0.420), azathioprine ( p = 1.0), mycophenolate mofetil ( p = 0.185), and methotrexate ( p = 0.095). No serious AE were reported in both groups and most of them were asymptomatic (58.3% vs. 44.8%, p = 0.958). Local and systemic AE were alike in both groups ( p > 0.05). Conclusion This is the first study that identified adequate immune protection against H3N2-influenza strain with additional vaccine-induced increment of immune response and an adequate safety profile in JSLE. ( www.clinicaltrials.gov , NCT03540823).
Rotavirus is the most common pathogen causing pediatric diarrhea and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. Previous evidence suggests that the introduction of rotavirus vaccines in national immunization schedules resulted in dramatic declines in disease burden but may also be changing the rotavirus genetic landscape and driving the emergence of new genotypes. We report genotype data of more than 16,000 rotavirus isolates from 40 countries participating in the Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network. Data from a convenience sample of children under five years of age hospitalized with acute watery diarrhea who tested positive for rotavirus were included. Country results were weighted by their estimated rotavirus disease burden to estimate regional genotype distributions. Globally, the most frequent genotypes identified after weighting were G1P (31%), G1P (8%) and G3P (8%). Genotypes varied across WHO Regions and between countries that had and had not introduced rotavirus vaccine. G1P was less frequent among African (36 vs 20%) and European (33 vs 8%) countries that had introduced rotavirus vaccines as compared to countries that had not introduced. Our results describe differences in the distribution of the most common rotavirus genotypes in children with diarrhea in low- and middle-income countries. G1P was less frequent in countries that had introduced the rotavirus vaccine while different strains are emerging or re-emerging in different regions.
Historically, all efforts against tuberculosis were focused on rapid diagnosis and effective treatment to break the chain of transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, in the last few years, more and more evidence has been found on the dramatic consequences of the condition defined as post-tuberculosis lung disease (PTLD). Approximately one third of patients surviving pulmonary tuberculosis face considerable ongoing morbidities, including respiratory impairment, psychosocial challenges, and reduced health-related quality of life after treatment completion. Given the important global and local burden of tuberculosis, as well as the estimated burden of PTLD, the development of a consensus document by a Brazilian scientific society-Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia (SBPT)-was considered urgent for the prevention and management of this condition in order to allocate resources to and within tuberculosis services appropriately and serve as a guide for health care professionals. A team of eleven pulmonologists and one methodologist was created by the SBPT to review the current evidence on PTLD and develop recommendations adapted to the Brazilian context. The expert panel selected the topics on the basis of current evidence and international guidelines. During the first phase, three panel members drafted the recommendations, which were divided into three sections: definition and prevalence of PTLD, assessment of PTLD, and management of PTLD. In the second phase, all panel members reviewed, discussed, and revised the recommendations until a consensus was reached. The document was formally approved by the SBPT in a special session organized during the 2023 SBPT Annual Conference.
The study of tooth morphology is fundamental for the taxonomic and evolutionary comprehension of mammals. However, dental abnormalities can lead to misidentifications and species invalidations. We present two distinctive dental anomalies observed in Myotis riparius: (i) hypodontia, characterized by the absence of the second upper premolar (P3) on both sides of the dental arch in an adult male from Panama, and (ii) polyodontia, characterized by the presence of three upper incisors on one side of the dental arch in an adult male from Brazil. We discuss the genetic and ecological bases of these anomalies and the importance of these case reports for understanding the evolutionary developmental biology of bats.
Purpose We aimed to rate the importance of outcomes from a systematic review about biosimilars in oncology from patients’ perspective. Methods This is a qualitative research with nominal group technique. Patients with cancer were selected by convenience sampling and invited for two mediated virtual meetings in 2022. Twelve outcomes from a systematic review on biosimilars for oncology developed following a protocol were explained in plain language to participants who classified them as critical, important, or not important according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. We employed Iramuteq software for lexical categorization of the meeting transcripts, and content analysis for interpretation. Results Five women participated (three had metastatic cancer, one non-metastatic, one recurrent). Six outcomes were classified as critical: duration of response, progression-free survival, pathological complete response, overall survival, severe adverse events, and quality of life; three as important: mortality, event-free survival, and objective response; and three as non-important: neutralizing anti-drug antibody, any adverse event, and non-neutralizing anti-drug antibody. Duration of response, pathological complete response, severe adverse events, and quality of life were considered secondary in the review protocol, but critical by the patients. The main themes influencing the importance classification were related to the disease (progression and control) and treatment (recognition and healthcare setting). Conclusion Patients rated most outcomes as critical or important, some of them previously regarded as secondary by the researchers, which reinforces the need to include stakeholders’ perspectives in oncology research. Aspects of the disease progression and treatment effects influenced participants’ judgment on outcomes’ relevance.
Objective We aimed to compare the prevalence and neonatal mortality associated with large for gestational age (LGA) and macrosomia among 115.6 million live births in 15 countries, between 2000 and 2020. Design Population‐based, multi‐country study. Setting National healthcare systems. Population Liveborn infants. Methods We used individual‐level data identified for the Vulnerable Newborn Measurement Collaboration. We calculated the prevalence and relative risk (RR) of neonatal mortality among live births born at term + LGA (>90th centile, and also >95th and >97th centiles when the data were available) versus term + appropriate for gestational age (AGA, 10th–90th centiles) and macrosomic (≥4000, ≥4500 and ≥5000 g, regardless of gestational age) versus 2500–3999 g. INTERGROWTH 21st served as the reference population. Main outcome measures Prevalence and neonatal mortality risks. Results Large for gestational age was common (median prevalence 18.2%; interquartile range, IQR, 13.5%–22.0%), and overall was associated with a lower neonatal mortality risk compared with AGA (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.77–0.89). Around one in ten babies were ≥4000 g (median prevalence 9.6% (IQR 6.4%–13.3%), with 1.2% (IQR 0.7%–2.0%) ≥4500 g and with 0.2% (IQR 0.1%–0.2%) ≥5000 g). Overall, macrosomia of ≥4000 g was not associated with increased neonatal mortality risk (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69–0.94); however, a higher risk was observed for birthweights of ≥4500 g (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.10–2.11) and ≥5000 g (RR 4.54, 95% CI 2.58–7.99), compared with birthweights of 2500–3999 g, with the highest risk observed in the first 7 days of life. Conclusions In this population, birthweight of ≥4500 g was the most useful marker for early mortality risk in big babies and could be used to guide clinical management decisions.
A Gram-stain-positive rod, psychrotolerant, aerobic and bioemulsifier-producing strain, denoted as Val9 T , was isolated from soil sampled at Vale Ulman, King George Island, Antarctica. The strain grew at up to 30 °C (optimum, 15 °C), at pH 6–9 (optimum, pH 8) and with up to 5 % w/v NaCl (optimum, 3 %). The strain was motile and positive for catalase, oxidase and H 2 S. It did not hydrolyse starch, casein or gelatin. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain Val9 T belonged to the genus Psychrobacillus and was closely related to Psychrobacillus psychrotolerans DSM 11706 T (99.9 % similarity), Psychrobacillus psychrodurans DSM 11713 T (99.8 %) and Psychrobacillus glaciei PB01 T (99.2 %). Digital DNA–DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values were lower than 37.3 and 85.5 %, respectively, with the closest phylogenetic neighbours. The DNA G+C content of strain Val9 T calculated from the complete genome sequence was 36.6 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C 15 : 0 , iso-C 15 : 0 and anteiso-C 17 : 1 ω11 c . Menaquinone-8 was the major respiratory quinone. The peptidoglycan type was A4β l -Orn- d -glu. The novel strain contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol as predominant polar lipids. Based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic and multilocus sequence analyses ( recA , rpoB and gyrB ), as well as phylogenomic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic tests, we demonstrate that strain Val9 T represents a novel species of the genus Psychrobacillus , for which the name Psychrobacillus antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Val9 T (=DSM 115096 T =CCGB 1952 T =NRRL B-65674 T ).
Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis depends on drugs that potentially cause serious side effects and resistance. Thus, topical therapies are attractive alternatives to the drugs currently used. 3β, 6β, 16β-trihydroxylup-20 (29)-ene is a lupane triterpene isolated from Combretum leprosum Mart. leaves (CLF-1), with reports of in vitro antileishmanial effect against L . amazonensis and to promote lesion healing in animal model. Herein, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial and healing effects of CLF-1 against L . braziliensis . CLF-1 treatment showed low toxicity in macrophages and significantly reduced parasite load in vitro . CLF-1 induced higher IL-12 and TNF-α production and more discrete IL-4 and IL-10 production. For in vivo evaluation, a CLF-1 cream formulation was prepared to treat hamsters infected with L . braziliensis . CLF-1 treatment was able to reduce parasite load of the infected skin and lymph node more efficiently than the conventional treatment. Histopathological analysis indicated a strong inflammatory response accompanied by an important healing response. Data from this study indicate that topical CLF-1 treatment was effective and non-toxic in L . braziliensis infected hamsters suggesting its potential for further development as a future therapeutic intervention.
Resumo O artigo teve por finalidade apresentar um panorama dos inquéritos nacionais de saúde, técnicas de amostragem e componentes da análise estatística de dados coletados por desenhos complexos de amostragem. Foram descritos, brevemente, os inquéritos dirigidos à avaliação do estado nutricional dos brasileiros e da atenção à saúde materno-infantil. Inquéritos voltados à investigação do acesso, utilização dos serviços e financiamento da saúde, aqueles dedicados à vigilância das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e comportamentos associados e os focados nas práticas de risco às infecções sexualmente transmissíveis foram também abordados. As pesquisas de saúde por redes sociais, incluindo as virtuais, mereceram atenção específica. Conclui-se que o desenvolvimento de inquéritos de saúde no Brasil, em diferentes áreas e por distintas metodologias de amostragem, contribuiu enormemente para o avanço do conhecimento e a formulação de políticas públicas dirigidas à saúde e bem-estar da população brasileira.
This article aimed to present an overview of national health surveys, sampling techniques, and components of statistical analysis of data collected using complex sampling designs. Briefly, surveys aimed at assessing the nutritional status of Brazilians and maternal and child health care were described. Surveys aimed at investigating access to and use of health services and funding, those aimed at surveillance of chronic noncommunicable diseases and associated behaviors, and those focused on risk practices regarding sexually transmitted infections were also addressed. Health surveys through social networks, including online networks, deserved specific attention in the study. The conclusion is that the development of health surveys in Brazil, in different areas and using different sampling methodologies, has contributed enormously to the advancement of knowledge and to the formulation of public policies aimed at the health and well-being of the Brazilian population.
Few studies showed that neurofilament light chain (NfL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), total tubulin-associated unit (TAU), and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) may be related to neurological manifestations and severity during and after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The objective of this work was to investigate the relationship among nervous system biomarkers (NfL, TAU, GFAP, and UCH-L1), biochemical parameters, and viral loads with heterogeneous outcomes in a cohort of severe COVID-19 patients admitted in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a university hospital. For that, 108 subjects were recruited within the first 5 days at ICU. In parallel, 16 mild COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Severe COVID-19 group was divided between “deceased” and “survivor.” All subjects were positive for SARS-CoV-2 detection. NfL, total TAU, GFAP, and UCH-L1 quantification in plasma was performed using SIMOA SR-X platform. Of 108 severe patients, 36 (33.33%) presented neurological manifestation and 41 (37.96%) died. All four biomarkers — GFAP, NfL, TAU, and UCH-L1 — were significantly higher among deceased patients in comparison to survivors ( p < 0.05). Analyzing biochemical biomarkers, higher Peak Serum Ferritin, D-Dimer Peak, Gamma-glutamyltransferase, and C-Reactive Protein levels were related to death ( p < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, GFAP, NfL, TAU, UCH-L1, and Peak Serum Ferritin levels were correlated to death. Regarding SARS-CoV-2 viral load, no statistical difference was observed for any group. Thus, Ferritin, NFL, GFAP, TAU, and UCH-L1 are early biomarkers of severity and lethality of SARS-COV-2 infection and may be important tools for therapeutic decision-making in the acute phase of disease.
Diclidurus species are rare in inventories due to the difficulty in capturing them using traditional methods. Here, we present the first record of the genus Diclidurus in the Atlantic Forest of Alagoas state, northeastern Brazil, documented by video and photographs by a local citizen. Although this new record does not extend the geographic distribution of this genus, it confirms its presence in this region, highlighting the relevance of this area for further studies on bats and the role of citizens in increasing biodiversity knowledge.
Evaluation of free-living mammal physiological responses to natural and anthropogenic stressors constitutes a valuable tool for conservation, especially when it comes to wild mammal species living in anthropized environments. However, studies addressing “normal” physiological parameters are still limited in Brazilian wildlife. In this sense, we accessed the hematology and serum biochemistry of South American coatis inhabiting urban forested fragments and observed the influence of intrinsic factors and sampling sites on these variables. We analyzed the hematological and biochemical variables of 103 Southern coatis sampled from March 2018 to April 2019 in a conservation unit and in a residential area. Generalized linear model analysis was performed to access the influence of intrinsic factors (sex, age, the presence of clinical findings, and body condition) and two sampling sites as variables. Mean, median, standard deviation, and range were calculated for the hematological and biochemical values that were or were not influenced by intrinsic factors and studied areas. Age influenced mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelet, creatinine, glucose, and cholesterol; sex influenced hemoglobin (Hb), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), total serum proteins (TSP), cholesterol, and glucose; clinical findings influenced red blood cell counts (RBC), Hb, MCV, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), albumin, globulins, and cholesterol; body condition only influenced LDH; sampling site influenced neutrophil, lymphocyte, creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, globulins, TSP, and triglycerides. Stress seems to be more accentuated in coatis from the residential area than from the conservation unit, and this may be attributed to their continuous exposure to the presence of humans and domestic animals.
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