A GaN thin film grown on sapphire substrate was implanted with ⁵⁷Fe and ⁵⁶Fe ions with energies of 60 keV, 160 keV and 370 keV and fluences selected to achieve a homogeneous concentration profile of approximately 2.6 at. % in the film. Implantation induced lattice damage was tracked with conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) after annealing the sample up to 900 °C. The spectral component due to Fe in lattice damage shows significant decrease on annealing above 700 °C, accompanied by a corresponding increase in the paramagnetic doublet component attributed to Fe substituting Ga in the wurtzite GaN lattice (FeGa). After annealing at 900 °C, FeGa accounts for 75% of the spectral area, in good agreement with the substitutional FeGa fraction (80%) observed in emission channeling measurements on Fe implanted into GaN at extremely dilute concentration.
We present imaging techniques in Mössbauer spectroscopy for an operando measurement of pattern formation in materials, i.e., (1) mapping by focused γ-ray and (2) direct imaging by a CMOS camera combining with the mapping system after converting γ-rays to visible light with a scintillator. From the viewpoint of image processing, mapping interval and Gaussian smoothing are discussed to obtain contour maps. We also present typical images of surface corrosion and magnetic domains of ⁵⁷Fe foil, comparing the resolution and the measuring time for both imaging techniques.
The UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee has called for evidence on the roles that different stakeholders play in reproducibility and research integrity. Of central priority are proposals for improving research integrity and quality, as well as guidance and support for researchers. In response to this, we argue that there is one important component of research integrity that is often absent from discussion: the pedagogical consequences of how we teach, mentor, and supervise students through open scholarship. We justify the need to integrate open scholarship principles into research training within higher education and argue that pedagogical communities play a key role in fostering an inclusive culture of open scholarship. We illustrate these benefits by presenting the Framework for Open and Reproducible Research Training (FORRT) , an international grassroots community whose goal is to provide support, resources, visibility, and advocacy for the adoption of principled, open teaching and mentoring practices, whilst generating conversations about the ethics and social impact of higher-education pedagogy. Representing a diverse group of early-career researchers and students across specialisms, we advocate for greater recognition of and support for pedagogical communities, and encourage all research stakeholders to engage with these communities to enable long-term, sustainable change.
Background Defacing has become mandatory for anonymization of brain MRI scans; however, concerns regarding data integrity were raised. Thus, we systematically evaluated the effect of different defacing procedures on automated brain atrophy estimation. Methods In total, 268 Alzheimer’s disease patients were included from ADNI, which included unaccelerated ( n = 154), within-session unaccelerated repeat ( n = 67) and accelerated 3D T1 imaging ( n = 114). Atrophy maps were computed using the open-source software veganbagel for every original, unmodified scan and after defacing using afni_refacer, fsl_deface, mri_deface, mri_reface, PyDeface or spm_deface, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) between z-scores was calculated. RMSE values derived from unaccelerated and unaccelerated repeat imaging served as a benchmark. Outliers were defined as RMSE > 75th percentile and by using Grubbs’s test. Results Benchmark RMSE was 0.28 ± 0.1 (range 0.12–0.58, 75th percentile 0.33). Outliers were found for unaccelerated and accelerated T1 imaging using the 75th percentile cutoff: afni_refacer (unaccelerated: 18, accelerated: 16), fsl_deface (unaccelerated: 4, accelerated: 18), mri_deface (unaccelerated: 0, accelerated: 15), mri_reface (unaccelerated: 0, accelerated: 2) and spm_deface (unaccelerated: 0, accelerated: 7). PyDeface performed best with no outliers (unaccelerated mean RMSE 0.08 ± 0.05, accelerated mean RMSE 0.07 ± 0.05). The following outliers were found according to Grubbs’s test: afni_refacer (unaccelerated: 16, accelerated: 13), fsl_deface (unaccelerated: 10, accelerated: 21), mri_deface (unaccelerated: 7, accelerated: 20), mri_reface (unaccelerated: 7, accelerated: 6), PyDeface (unaccelerated: 5, accelerated: 8) and spm_deface (unaccelerated: 10, accelerated: 12). Conclusion Most defacing approaches have an impact on atrophy estimation, especially in accelerated 3D T1 imaging. Only PyDeface showed good results with negligible impact on atrophy estimation.
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has the potential to reveal wonders about the fundamental theory of nature at play in the extreme gravity regime, where the gravitational interaction is both strong and dynamical. In this white paper, the Fundamental Physics Working Group of the LISA Consortium summarizes the current topics in fundamental physics where LISA observations of gravitational waves can be expected to provide key input. We provide the briefest of reviews to then delineate avenues for future research directions and to discuss connections between this working group, other working groups and the consortium work package teams. These connections must be developed for LISA to live up to its science potential in these areas.
Liver failure is a life-threatening complication of infections restricting the host's response to infection. The pivotal role of the liver in metabolic, synthetic, and immunological pathways enforces limits the host's ability to control the immune response appropriately, making it vulnerable to ineffective pathogen resistance and tissue damage. Deregulated networks of liver diseases are gradually uncovered by high-throughput, single-cell resolved OMICS technologies visualizing an astonishing diversity of cell types and regulatory interaction driving tolerogenic signaling in health and inflammation in disease. Therefore, this review elucidates the effects of the dysregulated host response on the liver, consequences for the immune response, and possible avenues for personalized therapeutics.
Research on the impact of auditory information on visual anticipation in tennis suggests that the intensity of racket-ball-contact sounds systematically biases estimates of the ball’s speed, thereby influencing anticipatory judgments. Here we examined whether the effect of auditory information on visual anticipation is dependent on the sport-specific context in two separate experiments. In Exp. 1, participants watched short videos of tennis rallies that were occluded at racket-ball-contact. Racket-ball-contact sounds of the final shot were either present or absent. Participants faced different tasks in two counterbalanced blocks: In one block they estimated the ball’s speed; in the other block they indicated the ball’s landing location. Results showed that participants estimated longer ball flight trajectories and higher ball speeds in the sound present condition than in the sound absent condition. To probe whether this effect is dependent on the sport-specific context, Exp. 2 introduced an abstract (i.e., context-free) version of the previous stimuli. Based on the ball locations in the original videos used in Exp. 1, we rendered new videos that displayed only a moving circle against a blank background. Sine tones replaced the original racket-ball contact sounds. Results showed no impact of sound presence on location anticipation judgments. However, similar to Exp. 1, object speeds were judged to be faster when the final sound was present. Together, these findings suggest that the impact of auditory information on anticipation does not seem to be driven by sound alone, but to be moderated by contextual information.
We introduce a class of subshifts governed by finitely many two-sided infinite words. We call these words leading sequences. We show that any locally constant cocycle over such a subshift is uniform. From this we obtain Cantor spectrum of Lebesgue measure zero for associated Jacobi operators if the subshift is aperiodic. Our class covers all simple Toeplitz subshifts as well as all Sturmian subshifts. We apply our results to the spectral theory of Schreier graphs for uncountable families of groups acting on rooted trees.
This paper is devoted to the mathematical modeling of a combined effect of directional and bulk crystallization in a phase transition layer with allowance for nucleation and evolution of newly born particles. We consider two models with and without fluctuations in crystal growth velocities, which are analytically solved using the saddle-point technique. The particle-size distribution function, solid-phase fraction in a supercooled two-phase layer, its thickness and permeability, solidification velocity, and desupercooling kinetics are defined. This solution enables us to characterize the mushy layer composition. We show that the region adjacent to the liquid phase is almost free of crystals and has a constant temperature gradient. Crystals undergo intense growth leading to fast mushy layer desupercooling in the middle of a two-phase region. The mushy region adjacent to the solid material is filled with the growing solid-phase structures and is almost desupercooled.
This article proposes an analytical model to understand the rod growth of eutectic in the bulk undercooled melt. Based on the previous derivations of the lamellar eutectic growth models, relaxing the assumptions of small Péclet numbers, the model is derived by considering melt kinetic and thermal undercoolings. The intent of this model is to predict the transitions in eutectic pattern for conditions of the low and high growth velocities. In addition to investigation of the transition between lamellar and rod eutectic patterns, mathematical simplifications of solving Bessel function are presented as well, which is the most important priority to model calculation.
This article considers the hydrodynamic problem of an oblique flow of a viscous incompressible fluid around the tip of a dendritic crystal. Approximate analytical solutions of Oseen's hydrodynamic equations are obtained in 2D and 3D cases using special curvilinear coordinates. It is shown that the projections of the fluid velocity change significantly with a change in the flow slope and Reynolds number. The theory developed in this work has a limiting transition to the previously known solutions for the rectilinear (without tilt) fluid flow around a dendrite.
A theory of stable dendrite growth in an undercooled binary melt is developed for the case of intense convection. Conductive heat and mass transfer boundary conditions are replaced by convective conditions, where the flux of heat (or solute) is proportional to the temperature or concentration difference between the surface of the dendrite and far from it. The marginal mode of perturbation wavelengths is calculated using the linear morphological stability analysis. Combining this analysis with the solvability theory, we have derived a selection criterion that represents the first condition to define a combination of dendrite tip velocity and tip diameter. The second condition—the undercooling balance—is derived for intense convection. The theory under consideration determines the dendrite tip velocity and tip diameter for low undercooling. This convective theory is combined with the classical theory of dendritic growth (conductive boundary conditions), which is valid for moderate and high undercooling. Thus, the entire range of melt undercooling is covered. Our results are in good agreement with experiments on Al–Ge crystallization.
This paper deals with an approximate analytical solution of an integro‐differential model describing nucleation and growth of particles. The model includes a thermal‐mass exchange with the environment and the removal of product crystals from a metastable medium. The method developed for solving model equations (kinetic equation for the particle‐size distribution function and balance equations for temperature/impurity concentration) is based on the saddle point technique for calculating the Laplace‐type integral. We show that the metastability degree decreases with time at a fixed mass (heat) flux. The crystal‐size distribution function is an irregular bell‐shaped curve increasing with the intensification of heat and mass exchange.
Improvements in technology for the production of microbial biomass from natural gas, which have been gaining importance in recent years, require the development and optimization of energy‐efficient bioreactor designs. The most advanced methods for developing and scaling up industrial biotechnological processes rely on detailed hydrodynamic modeling, in addition to classical approaches, as the main tool for analysis and large‐scale transfer of experimental information. This paper presents the results of a simulation of flows in a bioreactor circuit using the latest mathematical methods and numerical flow analysis tools for two‐phase bubble flows based on experimental data.
In this work we report the use of a water-in-salt (WiSE) electrolyte based on potassium formate (HCOOK). We showed that a solution of 14 M HCOOK in H2O displays promising transport properties and can be successfully utilized for the realization of electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) operating at 1.7 V, displaying high energy and power densities and extraordinary cycling stability (90% of capacitance retention after 1700 h of float at 1.7 V). Taking these results into account, and the fact that 14 M HCOOK in H2O is cheap, environmentally friendly and not toxic, this electrolyte can be certainly considered very promising for the realization of a novel generation of cheap and high performance aqueous EDLCs.
Polymer-based batteries represent a promising concept for next-generation energy storage due to their potentially higher power densities and smaller ecological footprint, compared to classical Li-ion batteries. Since the microstructure of electrodes is a key factor for the performance of battery cells, a detailed understanding of this microstructure is essential for the improvement of manufacturing processes. In the present contribution, the 3D microstructure of electrodes for polymer-based batteries is quantitatively characterized for the first time, where synchrotron X-ray tomography is combined with statistical image analysis. In particular, 3D imaging is performed for two porous electrodes, which both consist of the redox-active polymer PTMA as well as conductive additives, but differ regarding their binder materials. The focus is put on local heterogeneity of volume fractions of the constituents, surface area per unit volume of the polymer phase and the length of shortest transportation paths through both, polymer and binder-additive phase. It is shown that using different binder materials leads to significant differences regarding the 3D electrode microstructures. In this way, statistical analysis of image data helps to gain further insight into the influence of manufacturing processes on electrode microstructures and thus, on the performance of battery cells.
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