Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
  • Seattle, Washington, United States
Recent publications
Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common breast cancer susceptibility variants. Many of these variants have differential associations by estrogen receptor (ER) status, but how these variants relate with other tumor features and intrinsic molecular subtypes is unclear. Methods Among 106,571 invasive breast cancer cases and 95,762 controls of European ancestry with data on 173 breast cancer variants identified in previous GWAS, we used novel two-stage polytomous logistic regression models to evaluate variants in relation to multiple tumor features (ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and grade) adjusting for each other, and to intrinsic-like subtypes. Results Eighty-five of 173 variants were associated with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 5%), most commonly ER and grade, followed by PR and HER2. Models for intrinsic-like subtypes found nearly all of these variants (83 of 85) associated at p < 0.05 with risk for at least one luminal-like subtype, and approximately half (41 of 85) of the variants were associated with risk of at least one non-luminal subtype, including 32 variants associated with triple-negative (TN) disease. Ten variants were associated with risk of all subtypes in different magnitude. Five variants were associated with risk of luminal A-like and TN subtypes in opposite directions. Conclusion This report demonstrates a high level of complexity in the etiology heterogeneity of breast cancer susceptibility variants and can inform investigations of subtype-specific risk prediction.
“Race” and “ethnicity” are socially constructed terms, not based on biology - in contrast to biologic ancestry and genetic admixture - and are flexible, contested, and unstable concepts, often driven by power. Although individuals may self-identify with a given race and ethnic group, as multidimensional beings exposed to differential life influencing factors that contribute to disease risk, additional social determinants of health (SDOH) should be explored to understand the relationship of race or ethnicity to health. Potential health effects of structural racism, defined as “the structures, policies, practices, and norms resulting in differential access to goods, services, and opportunities of society by “race,” have been largely ignored in medical research. The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) was expected to enroll a racially and ethnically diverse cohort of older women at 40 U.S. clinical centers between 1993 and 1998; yet, key information on the racial and ethnic make-up of the WHI cohort of 161,808 women was limited until a 2020–2021 Task Force was charged by the WHI Steering Committee to better characterize the WHI cohort and develop recommendations for WHI investigators who want to include “race” and/or “ethnicity” in papers and presentations. As the lessons learned are of relevance to most cohorts, the essence of the WHI Race and Ethnicity Language and Data Interpretation Guide is presented in this paper. Recommendations from the WHI Race and Ethnicity Language and Data Interpretation Guide include: Studies should be designed to include all populations and researchers should actively, purposefully and with cultural-relevance, commit to recruiting a diverse sample; Researchers should collect robust data on race, ethnicity and SDOH variables that may intersect with participant identities, such as immigration status, country of origin, acculturation, current residence and neighborhood, religion; Authors should use appropriate terminology, based on a participant’s self-identified “race” and “ethnicity”, and provide clear rationale, including a conceptual framework, for including race and ethnicity in the analytic plan; Researchers should employ appropriate analytical methods, including mixed-methods, to study the relationship of these sociocultural variables to health; Authors should address how representative study participants are of the population to which results might apply, such as by age, race and ethnicity.
Identifying preimmunization biological characteristics that promote an effective vaccine response offers opportunities for illuminating the critical immunological mechanisms that confer vaccine-induced protection, for developing adjuvant strategies, and for tailoring vaccination regimens to individuals or groups. In the context of malaria vaccine research, studying preimmunization correlates of protection can help address the need for a widely effective malaria vaccine, which remains elusive. In this study, common preimmunization correlates of protection were identified using transcriptomic data from four independent, heterogeneous malaria vaccine trials in adults. Systems-based analyses showed that a moderately elevated inflammatory state prior to immunization was associated with protection against malaria challenge. Functional profiling of protection-associated genes revealed the importance of several inflammatory pathways, including TLR signaling. These findings, which echo previous studies that associated enhanced preimmunization inflammation with protection, illuminate common baseline characteristics that set the stage for an effective vaccine response across diverse malaria vaccine strategies in adults.
Background DNA methylation alterations have emerged as hallmarks of cancer and have been proposed as screening, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers. Traditional approaches for methylation analysis have relied on bisulfite conversion of DNA, which can damage DNA and is not suitable for targeted gene analysis in low-input samples. Here, we have adapted methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2)-based DNA enrichment for use on a semi-automated exclusion-based sample preparation (ESP) platform for robust and scalable enrichment of methylated DNA from low-input samples, called SEEMLIS. Results We show that combining methylation-sensitive enzyme digestion with ESP-based MBD2 enrichment allows for single gene analysis with high sensitivity for GSTP1 in highly impure, heterogenous samples. We also show that ESP-based MBD2 enrichment coupled with targeted pre-amplification allows for analysis of multiple genes with sensitivities approaching the single cell level in pure samples for GSTP1 and RASSF1 and sensitivity down to 14 cells for these genes in highly impure samples. Finally, we demonstrate the potential clinical utility of SEEMLIS by successful detection of methylated gene signatures in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from patients with prostate cancer with varying CTC number and sample purity. Conclusions SEEMLIS is a robust assay for targeted DNA methylation analysis in low-input samples, with flexibility at multiple steps. We demonstrate the feasibility of this assay to analyze DNA methylation in prostate cancer cells using CTCs from patients with prostate cancer as a real-world example of a low-input analyte of clinical importance. In summary, this novel assay provides a platform for determining methylation signatures in rare cell populations with broad implications for research as well as clinical applications.
Background There are no head-to-head clinical studies comparing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies for the treatment of relapsed or refractory aggressive large B-cell lymphomas. Naive, indirect comparisons may be inappropriate, as the study designs and patient populations could differ substantially. Matching-adjusted indirect comparisons (MAIC) can reduce many biases associated with indirect comparisons between studies. To determine the comparative efficacy and safety of lisocabtagene maraleucel (liso-cel) to tisagenlecleucel, we describe an unanchored MAIC of the pivotal studies TRANSCEND NHL 001 (TRANSCEND; NCT02631044; liso-cel) and JULIET (NCT02445248; tisagenlecleucel). Methods Individual patient data (IPD) from TRANSCEND were available to the authors; for the JULIET pivotal study, summary-level data from the published study were used. To balance the populations between two studies, IPD from TRANSCEND were adjusted to match the marginal distribution (e.g., mean, variance) of clinical factors among patients from JULIET. Results Results from the primary MAIC showed liso-cel had statistically significant greater efficacy than tisagenlecleucel (objective response rate: odds ratio [OR] = 2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63‒4.74; complete response rate: OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22‒3.30; progression-free survival: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.47‒0.91; overall survival: HR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.47‒0.95). MAIC of safety outcomes showed lower ORs for all-grade and grade ≥ 3 cytokine release syndrome, and grade ≥ 3 prolonged cytopenia for liso-cel when compared with tisagenlecleucel; there were no statistically significant differences detected for other safety outcomes. Conclusions Overall, this MAIC of two CAR T-cell therapies indicates liso-cel had favorable efficacy and a comparable or better safety profile relative to tisagenlecleucel. Clinical trial registration : identifiers: NCT02631044 and NCT02445248.
Background The screening biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is lacking. The aim is to identify epigenetic silenced genes and clarify its roles and underlying mechanism in CRC. We conducted integrative analyses of epigenome-wide Human Methylation 450 K arrays and transcriptome to screen out candidate epigenetic driver genes with transcription silencing. Methylated silencing HAND2 were identified and verified in large CRC cohort. The mechanism of HAND2 expression by promoter inhibition were clarified both in vitro and vivo assays. Cell biofunctional roles of HAND2 methylation was investigated in CRC cells. HAND2 reconstitution were constructed by lentivirus plasmid and tumor xenograft model of HAND2 were built subcutaneously. Genomic mRNA analysis by RNA-sequencing and subsequent GSEA analysis were performed to identify potential target of HAND2 and qPCR/WB was conducted to identify the results. Results We firstly reported high frequency of HAND2 methylation in promoter in CRC and hypermethylation was negatively correlated with expression silencing and leaded to poor survival in several CRC cohort patients. 5-Aza treatment to demethylated HAND2 could revert its expression in CRC cells. Functionally, HAND2 reconstitution can inhibit cell proliferation, invasion and migration in vitro. In tumor xenograft, HAND2 reconstruction significantly repressed tumor growth when compared to control vector. Thousands of aberrant expressed genes were observed in the heatmap of RNA-sequencing data. HAND2 reconstitution could bind to ERK and reduce its phosphorylation by CoIP assay. These above results showed HAND2 reconstitution perturbed the activation of MAPK/ERK signaling by reduction of ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions HAND2 is one tumor suppressor by targeting ERK signaling and one potential epigenetic driver gene in CRC.
Adjuvants can alter the magnitude, characteristics, and persistence of the humoral response to protein vaccination. HIV vaccination might benefit from tailored adjuvant choice as raising a durable and protective response to vaccination has been exceptionally challenging. Analysis of trials of partially effective HIV vaccines have identified features of the immune response that correlate with decreased risk, including high titers of V1V2-binding IgG and IgG3 responses with low titers of V1V2-binding IgA responses and enhanced Fc effector functions, notably antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). However, there has been limited opportunity to compare the effect of different adjuvants on these activities in humans. Here, samples from the AVEG015 study, a phase 1 trial in which participants ( n = 112) were immunized with gp120 SF-2 and one of six different adjuvants or combinations thereof were assessed for antibody titer, biophysical features, and diverse effector functions. Three adjuvants, MF59 + MTP-PE, SAF/2, and SAF/2 + MDP, increased the peak magnitude and durability of antigen-specific IgG3, IgA, FcγR-binding responses and ADCP activity, as compared to alum. While multiple adjuvants increased the titer of IgG, IgG3, and IgA responses, none consistently altered the balance of IgG to IgA or IgG3 to IgA. Linear regression analysis identified biophysical features including gp120-specific IgG and FcγR-binding responses that could predict functional activity, and network analysis identified coordinated aspects of the humoral response. These analyses reveal the ability of adjuvants to drive the character and function of the humoral response despite limitations of small sample size and immune variability in this human clinical trial.
Background The circulation of respiratory viruses poses a significant health risk among those residing in congregate settings. Data are limited on seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections in homeless shelter settings. Methods We analysed data from a clinical trial and SARS-CoV-2 surveillance study at 23 homeless shelter sites in King County, Washington between October 2019-May 2021. Eligible participants were shelter residents aged ≥3 months with acute respiratory illness. We collected enrolment data and nasal samples for respiratory virus testing using multiplex RT-PCR platform including HCoV. Beginning April 1, 2020, eligibility expanded to shelter residents and staff regardless of symptoms. HCoV species was determined by RT-PCR with species-specific primers, OpenArray assay or genomic sequencing for samples with an OpenArray relative cycle threshold <22. Findings Of the 14,464 samples from 3281 participants between October 2019-May 2021, 107 were positive for HCoV from 90 participants (median age 40 years, range: 0·9-81 years, 38% female). HCoV-HKU1 was the most common species identified before and after community-wide mitigation. No HCoV-positive samples were identified between May 2020-December 2020. Adults aged ≥50 years had the highest detection of HCoV (11%) among virus-positive samples among all age-groups. Species and sequence data showed diversity between and within HCoV species over the study period. Interpretation HCoV infections occurred in all congregate homeless shelter site age-groups with the greatest proportion among those aged ≥50 years. Species and sequencing data highlight the complexity of HCoV epidemiology within and between shelters sites. Funding Gates Ventures, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Health.
Objectives Non-stenotic plaques have been observed in intracranial arteries but are less understood compared to those in coronary and carotid arteries. We sought to compare plaque distribution and morphology between stenotic and non-stenotic intracranial plaques with MR vessel wall imaging (VWI) and quantitative image analysis. Materials and methods Twenty-four patients with intracranial arterial stenosis or luminal irregularity on clinical imaging were scanned with a multi-contrast VWI protocol. Plaques were detected as focal wall thickening on co-registered multiplanar reformats of multi-contrast VWI, with assessment of the location and morphology. TOF-MRA was independently reviewed for any appreciable stenosis using the WAISD criteria. Results Across 504 arterial segments, a total of 80 plaques were detected, including 23 (29%) with stenosis on TOF-MRA, 56 (70%) without, and 1 (1%) not covered by TOF-MRA. Plaques involving the ICA were more likely to be non-stenotic than those involving other segments (80% versus 55%, p = 0.030) whereas the basilar artery (40%) and PCA (33%) had the lowest proportions of non-stenotic plaques. Maximum wall thickness, indicative of plaque burden, correlated poorly with degree of stenosis (p = 0.10) and overlapped substantially between stenotic and non-stenotic plaques (1.9 [1.5, 2.4] versus 2.0 [1.5, 2.2] mm, p = 0.074). Conclusions Intracranial plaques without appreciable stenosis on TOF-MRA represent a large proportion of lesions throughout arterial segments but disproportionately affect the ICA. Morphological characterization of plaques with and without stenosis shows that luminal stenosis is a poor indicator of the underlying burden of intracranial atherosclerosis.
In mammals, trait variation is often reported to be greater among males than females. However, to date, mainly only morphological traits have been studied. Energy expenditure represents the metabolic costs of multiple physical, physiological, and behavioral traits. Energy expenditure could exhibit particularly high greater male variation through a cumulative effect if those traits mostly exhibit greater male variation, or a lack of greater male variation if many of them do not. Sex differences in energy expenditure variation have been little explored. We analyzed a large database on energy expenditure in adult humans (1494 males and 3108 females) to investigate whether humans have evolved sex differences in the degree of interindividual variation in energy expenditure. We found that, even when statistically comparing males and females of the same age, height, and body composition, there is much more variation in total, activity, and basal energy expenditure among males. However, with aging, variation in total energy expenditure decreases, and because this happens more rapidly in males, the magnitude of greater male variation, though still large, is attenuated in older age groups. Considerably greater male variation in both total and activity energy expenditure could be explained by greater male variation in levels of daily activity. The considerably greater male variation in basal energy expenditure is remarkable and may be explained, at least in part, by greater male variation in the size of energy-demanding organs. If energy expenditure is a trait that is of indirect interest to females when choosing a sexual partner, this would suggest that energy expenditure is under sexual selection. However, we present a novel energetics model demonstrating that it is also possible that females have been under stabilizing selection pressure for an intermediate basal energy expenditure to maximize energy available for reproduction.
Context: Up to 40% of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) will have relapsed/refractory (R/R) disease after first-line (1L) treatment with R-CHOP. Treatment options for autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT)-ineligible patients with R/R DLBCL include the chemo-free immunotherapy tafasitamab + lenalidomide, polatuzumab + bendamustine + rituximab, loncastuximab tesirine, selinexor, and CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies. Treatment sequencing and identifying the optimal choice for individual patients can be challenging for oncologists. Objective: realMIND (NCT04981795) will assess real-world treatment patterns, effectiveness measures, and patient-reported outcomes among patients in the United States (US) with R/R DLBCL not receiving ASCT. Design: A Phase IV, prospective, multicenter, observational study enrolling a diverse patient population with R/R DLBCL regarding age, ethnicity, and race. Expected enrollment is ~1000 patients with completion expected ~79 months after the first patient is enrolled. Setting: Actively recruiting in ~75 US community and academic centers. Patients: Eligible and aged ≥18 years with histologically confirmed R/R DLBCL after ≥1 systemic therapy, including ASCT. Interventions: Patients may enroll (a) after completing 1L therapy and before starting second-line (2L) therapy, (b) within 30 days after starting 2L therapy, or (c) after completing 2L and before receiving third-line therapy. Patient history data on therapies received before study enrollment will be collected from patient records; data generated from the time of enrollment onwards will be collected prospectively. Main Outcome Measures: Real-world effectiveness measures include complete and objective response rate, duration of response, event-free survival, and overall survival; safety endpoints include serious adverse events and adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation, interruption, or dose modification. Patient-reported outcomes include general and lymphoma-specific measures of health-related quality of life assessed by the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Lymphoma, and work productivity by the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire. Results: Not yet available. Conclusions: realMIND will characterize the R/R DLBCL patient journey with respect to treatment patterns, clinical and patient-reported outcomes. The study population will reflect a representative patient distribution within the US, facilitating the investigation of outcomes reflecting real-world clinical practice and producing data to support healthcare decision-making. Funding: MorphoSys AG
Context: Covalent BTK inhibitors (BTKi) have transformed the management of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), but most patients will require additional treatment. Pirtobrutinib is a highly selective, non-covalent (reversible) BTKi that inhibits both wild-type and C481-mutated BTK with equal low nM potency. Objective: To evaluate pirtobrutinib safety and efficacy in patients with MCL. Design: BRUIN is an ongoing multicenter phase 1/2 study (NCT03740529) of pirtobrutinib monotherapy. Setting: Global; community hospitals, academic medical centers. Patients: Patients with advanced B-cell malignancies. Interventions: Oral pirtobrutinib, phase 1 dose-escalated in a standard 3+3 design, phase 2 continuous therapy, 28-day cycles. Main Outcome Measures: The primary phase 1 objective was to determine the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) and the primary phase 2 objective was overall response rate (ORR); secondary objectives included duration of response, progression-free survival, overall survival, safety/tolerability, and pharmacokinetics. Results: As of 27 September 2020, 323 patients (170 CLL/SLL, 61 MCL, 26 WM, 26 DLBCL, 13 MZL, 12 FL, 9 RT, and 6 other NHL) were treated on 7 dose levels (25-300mg QD). No DLTs were reported and MTD was not reached (n=323). 200mg QD was selected as the RP2D. Fatigue (20%), diarrhea (17%) and contusion (13%) were the most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events regardless of attribution or grade seen in >10% of patients. The most common adverse event of grade ≥3 was neutropenia (10%). Five (1%) patients discontinued due to treatment-related adverse events. 52 prior BTKi treated MCL patients were efficacy evaluable with an ORR of 52% (95% CI 38-66; 13 CR [25%], 14 PR [27%], 9 SD [17%]), 11 PD [21%] and 5 [10%] discontinued prior to first response assessment). Median follow-up was 6 months (0.7-18.3+). Responses were observed in 9/14 patients (64%) with prior autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplant, and 2/2 with prior CAR-T cell therapy. Conclusions: Pirtobrutinib demonstrated promising efficacy in heavily pretreated, poor-prognosis MCL following multiple prior lines of therapy, including a covalent BTKi. Pirtobrutinib was well tolerated and exhibited a wide therapeutic index. Updated data, including approximately 60 new patients with MCL and an additional 10 months since the prior data-cut will be presented.
Context: Covalent BTK inhibitors (BTKi) have transformed the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), but many patients (pts) will require additional treatment. Pirtobrutinib is a highly selective, non-covalent (reversible) BTKi that inhibits both wild type and C481-mutated BTK with equal low nM potency. Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of pirtobrutinib in previously treated CLL/SLL. Design: BRUIN is a phase 1/2 multicenter study (NCT03740529) of oral pirtobrutinib monotherapy. Setting: Global; community hospitals, academic medical centers. Patients: Pts with advanced B-cell malignancies. Intervention: Oral pirtobrutinib, phase 1 dose escalated in a standard 3+3 design, phase 2 continuous monotherapy, 28-day cycles. Main Outcome Measures: The primary objective for phase 1 was to determine the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D). The primary objective of phase 2 was ORR. Secondary objectives included duration of response, progression-free survival, overall survival, safety and tolerability, and pharmacokinetics. Results: As of 27 September 2020, 323 previously treated pts with B-cell malignancies (170 CLL/SLL, 61 MCL, 26 WM, and 66 other) were treated on 7 dose levels (25-300mg QD). No dose limiting toxicities were reported and MTD was not reached (n=323). 200mg QD was selected as RP2D. Fatigue (20%), diarrhea (17%) and contusion (13%) were the most frequent TEAEs regardless of attribution or grade seen in >10% pts. Most common AE of grade ≥3 was neutropenia (10%). 139 CLL/SLL pts were efficacy-evaluable with a median follow up time of 6 months (0.16-17.8+). ORR was 63% (95%CI 55-71) with 69 PRs (50%), 19 PR-Ls (14%), 45 SDs (32%) and 1 PD (1%), and 5 (4%) discontinued prior to first response assessment. Among 121 BTKi pretreated pts, ORR was 62% (95%CI 53-71). Responses deepened over time with an ORR of 86% among pts with >10 months follow-up. ORR was similar in pts who discontinued prior BTKi due to progression (67%), or adverse events or other (52%). Of 88 responding pts, all except 5 remained on therapy. Conclusions: Pirtobrutinib demonstrated promising efficacy in heavily pretreated CLL/SLL pts. Pirtobrutinib was well tolerated and exhibited a wide therapeutic index. Updated data from 252 efficacy evaluable BTK pre-treated CLL/SLL patients with a data cutoff date of 16 July 2021 will be presented.
Context: Asparaginase remains an important component in many adult regimens for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In pediatric patients (<21 years), calaspargase pegol (Cal-PEG) provides sustained asparagine depletion as compared to pegaspargase, with similar rates of complete remission (CR), minimal residual disease (MRD), event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS), with a similar safety profile. Objective: To confirm the recommended dose of Cal-PEG in adults (age ≥22 years) and to establish safety and PK/PD analysis. Design: Multicenter, phase 2/3 study (NCT04817761) assessing safety and anti-leukemic activity of Cal-PEG. Part 1 enrollment commenced in Q3 2021 and will establish the safety of Cal-PEG in four groups: patients aged 22-39, 40-54, and ≥55, and patients with an elevated BMI >35 kg/m². A minimum of 4 (initial cohort) and ~8 patients will be enrolled per group. The study will be conducted in ≤25 investigational centers in the US. Part 2 will comprise expansion cohorts after verifying safety and PK/PD analysis. Patients: Newly diagnosed patients with Philadelphia-negative B- or T-cell ALL ≥22 years with ECOG performance status 0-2, no known history of pancreatitis, coagulopathy, CNS thrombosis, or severe hepatic impairment. Approximately 114-122 patients are expected to be enrolled in the study, including 16-32 patients in Part 1. Interventions: Starting doses of Cal-PEG will be based on the patients' age and BMI, with older patient groups assigned to lower doses. Patients aged≥22-39 and 40-<55 will receive Cal-PEG 2000 and 1500 U/m2, respectively. Patients with BMI >35 kg/m² and those aged ≥55 will receive 1000 U/m². A total of 6 Cal-PEG doses will be administered during the treatment period as part of a multiagent chemotherapy regimen based on CALGB 10403, with an end-of-treatment visit 1 year after the induction dose, and an additional 2 years of survival follow-up. Main Outcome Measures: The primary endpoints in part 1 are the safety of Cal-PEG, the incidence of pre-defined unacceptable toxicities within 30 days after the induction dose and achieving plasma asparaginase activity ≥0.1 U/mL 21 days after the consolidation day 43 dose. Secondary endpoints include immunogenicity, CR, end-of-induction and consolidation MRD, 1-, 2- and 3-year EFS, disease-free survival, and OS.
Context: The Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, zanubrutinib, was designed for high BTK specificity and minimal toxicity. SEQUOIA (NCT03336333) is a global, open-label, randomized phase 3 study in treatment-naïve patients with CLL/SLL without del(17p) who were unsuitable for fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/rituximab. Design: Patients were randomized to receive zanubrutinib (160 mg twice daily) or bendamustine (day 1-2: 90 mg/m²) and rituximab (cycle 1: 375 mg/m²; cycles 2-6: 500 mg/m²); stratification factors were age (<65 years vs ≥65 years), Binet Stage, IGHV mutation, and geographic region. Main Outcome Measures: Primary endpoint was an independent review committee (IRC)-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included investigator-assessed (INV) PFS, overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety. Results: From October 31, 2017, to July 22, 2019, 479 patients were enrolled (zanubrutinib=241; BR=238). Baseline characteristics (zanubrutinib vs BR): median age, 70.0 years versus 70.0 years; unmutated IGHV, 53.4% versus 52.4%; del(11q), 17.8% versus 19.3%. With median follow-up of 26.2 months, PFS was significantly prolonged with zanubrutinib by IRC (HR 0.42; 2-sided P<.0001) and INV (HR 0.42; 2-sided P=.0001). Zanubrutinib treatment benefit occurred across age, Binet stage, bulky disease, del(11q) status, and unmutated IGHV (HR 0.24; 2-sided P<.0001), but not mutated IGHV (HR 0.67; 2-sided P=.1858). For zanubrutinib versus BR, 24-month PFS-IRC=85.5% versus 69.5%; ORR-IRC=94.6% versus 85.3%; complete response rate=6.6% versus 15.1%; ORR-INV=97.5% versus 88.7%; and 24-month OS=94.3% versus 94.6%. Select adverse event (AE) rates (zanubrutinib vs BR): atrial fibrillation (3.3% vs 2.6%), bleeding (45.0% vs 11.0%), hypertension (14.2% vs 10.6%), infection (62.1% vs 55.9%), and neutropenia (15.8% vs 56.8%). Treatment discontinuation due to AEs (zanubrutinib vs BR)=20 patients (8.3%) versus 31 patients (13.7%); AEs leading to death=11 patients (4.6%) versus 11 patients (4.8%). No sudden deaths occurred. Conclusions: In summary, zanubrutinib significantly improved PFS-IRC versus BR and was well tolerated, supporting the potential utility of frontline zanubrutinib in treatment-naïve CLL/SLL.
Context: Pivekimab sunirine (PVEK, IMGN632) is a first-in-class ADC comprising a CD123 high-affinity antibody, a cleavable linker, and an IGN (indolinobenzodiazepine pseudodimer) payload. PVEK with azacitidine (AZA) and venetoclax (VEN) is a novel triplet that has demonstrated anti-leukemia activity in relapsed/refractory AML patients. Objective: Evaluate the anti-leukemia activity in genetic subgroups of AML and safety of the triplet. Intervention: Patients with relapsed/refractory AML received PVEK+AZA+VEN in a three-drug escalation over a 28-day cycle: PVEK 0.015 or 0.045 mg/kg day 7, AZA 50 or 75 mg/m² days 1–7, and VEN 400 mg for 8, 14, or 21 days. Results: Twenty-nine patients (median age 67 y, ELN adverse 62%, prior VEN 48%) were in higher-intensity cohorts (PVEK 0.045 mg/kg and/or VEN for 14 or 21 days). The overall response rate (ORR) was 59% (4 CR, 6 CRh, 1 CRp, 6 MLFS) and the composite complete remission rate (CCR, CR+CRh+CRp+CRi) was 38%. Higher rates are seen in patients with FLT3-ITD (n=9, ORR 89%, CCR 78%), IDH2 (n=4, ORR 75%, CCR 75%), and WT1 (n=7, ORR 57%, CCR 43%) mutations. Lower rates are seen in patients with monosomy 7/abn7q (n=6, ORR 17%, CCR 17%), TP53 (n=4, ORR 25%, CCR 25%), and ASXL1 (n=6, ORR 67%, CCR 17%) deletions or mutations. The safety profile for the PVEK triplet is similar to AZA+VEN. No VOD, TLS, or CRS was reported. IRRs were reported in 33% (n=17, one grade 4) of patients given 1 dose of dexamethasone (8 mg) as premedication (n=51); these IRRs were most frequently tachycardia and chills, with no anaphylactic reactions reported. Following the data cut-off, there was a second grade 4 IRR, and the prophylactic regimen was increased with two additional doses of dexamethasone on the day prior to the PVEK dose. The IRR rate has dropped to 8% (3 of 38), with no grade 3+; all were grades 1–2 that resolved with limited intervention (P<0.01). Conclusions: The PVEK triplet with AZA+VEN demonstrates anti-leukemic activity across multiple high-risk genetic subsets of relapsed/refractory AML. Prophylactic steroids added on day –1 have significantly reduced IRRs. Expansion cohorts are now enrolling for untreated and relapsed AML patients (NCT04086264).
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1,035 members
john paul mcnevin
  • Vaccine Infectious Diseases Division
Carmela Ganoza
  • HVTN/CoVPN Laboratory Center
Nobunao Wakabayashi
  • Division of Public Health Sciences
Robert Hackman
  • Division of Clinical Research
Seattle, Washington, United States