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- SourceAvailable from: sciencedirect.com[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Rio +20 conference in 2012 confirmed not only the sustainability concept as the new development goal but also introduced the green economy as its implementation strategy and the life cycle assessment (LCA) as one of its analysis tools to reveal the current production and consumption patterns which affect human well-being.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemical kinetics of the reaction of thin films with reactive gases is investigated. The removal of thin films using thermally activated solid-gas to gas reactions is a method to in-situ control deposition inventory in vacuum and plasma vessels. Significant scatter of experimental deposit removal rates at apparently similar conditions was observed in the past, highlighting the need for understanding the underlying processes. A model based on the presence of reactive gas in the films bulk and chemical kinetics is presented. The model describes the diffusion of reactive gas into the film and its chemical interaction with film constituents in the bulk using a stationary reaction-diffusion equation. This yields the reactive gas concentration and reaction rates. Diffusion and reaction rate limitations are depicted in parameter studies. Comparison with literature data on tokamak co-deposit removal results in good agreement of removal rates as a function of pressure, film thickness and temperature.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surface morphology of ZnO layers with as-deposited thickness between 550 to 1050 nm was varied over wide range by changing etching time. The surface morphology of these ZnO layers was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and statistically analyzed in terms of root mean square roughness and the diameter and depth of the craters. The texture-etched ZnO covered with a Ag and ZnO layers were applied into n-i-p μc-Si:H solar cells as back reflectors. The effects of the back reflector morphologies on solar cell performances were investigated. The link between the morphology, the scattering properties of ZnO layers, and the solar cell performance is discussed.
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