Medicinal plants are rich source of phytochemical constitutes and can be used to treat many human diseases. Infectious diseases have always been a major source of concern. Globally, the medicinal plant Achillea wilhelmsii locally known as Bohe Madran is extensively dispersed and widely used as traditional medicine. The aim of this present work is to investigate phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of the whole plant ethanolic extract of Achillea santolinoides subsp. wilhelmsii (WEEAW) from Balochistan region. The total phenolic content was 14.81 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g of the extract whereas the total flavonoid content was 12.27 ± 0.12 mg QE/g of the extract. The antioxidant ability of the extract was analyzed by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) scavenging assay and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assay in terms of concentration having 50% inhibition (IC50). Results showed that IC50 value for DPPH% inhibition was 0.367 ± 0.82 mg/mL while FRAP assay represented with IC50 value of 0.485 ± 1.26 mg/mL. In antileishmanial bioassay, the extract was analyzed against Leishmania major and showed good activity with IC50 value of 7.02 ± 0.83 mg/mL. Antibacterial assay revealed that Staphylococcus aureus was highly sensitive with the diameter of inhibition zone ( 21.61 ± 1.09 mm) followed by Salmonella typhi ( 17.32 ± 0.15 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( 16.41 ± 0.63 mm), and Escherichia coli ( 15.30 ± 1.17 mm) while Klebsiella pneumoniae showed minimum inhibition ( 14.13 ± 0.49 mm). Antifungal activity was tested against Aspergillus flavus with 89% of inhibition zone and 77% against Mucor mucedo and Aspergillus niger with 74% of inhibition zone. The anti-inflammatory assay was carried out by inhibiting protein denaturation, proteinase inhibitory activity, and heat-induced hemolysis. The IC50 value for protein denaturation was 6.67 ± 1.25 mg/mL, proteinase inhibitory with IC50 value of 4.12 ± 0.69 mg/mL, and heat-induced hemolysis assay with IC50 value 4.53 ± 0.82 mg/mL by comparing to the standard drug aspirin having IC50 value 1.85 ± 0.54 mg/mL. Results of the current work showed that whole plant ethanolic extract of Achillea wilhelmsii exhibited substantial anti-inflammatory action, thus can be utilized as a traditional treatment. Furthermore, overall finding of this research suggested that the antioxidant potential of the plant aids to prevent free radical damage and reduce the incidence of chronic disease. More research is needed to find out more active compounds present in the extract that are responsible for their pharmacological effects.
This study presents first-hand information on the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the ambient air and surface soil along the Indus flood-plain, Pakistan. The sampling campaign was conducted at 15 site locations during 2014-15, along the Indus River (approximately 1300 km). Composite surface soil samples (N = 15) and passive air samples (N = 15) were collected for the estimation of gaseous POPs as well as air-soil exchange to evaluate the POP emission and distribution or dispersion patterns, source tracking, and contribution of the local and regional sources towards POP accumulation in the Indus River system. Among the studied POPs, levels of DDTs and PCBs were noticeably higher in ambient air (50-560 and 10-1100 pg m-3) and in soil (0.20-350 and 1.40-20 ng g-1), respectively. Regarding the spatial patterns, higher DDT concentrations (ng g-1) were detected in the air and soil samples collected from the wet mountain zone (WMZ) (p < 0.05), followed by the alluvial riverine zone (ARZ), low-lying mountain zone (LLZ), and frozen mountain zone (FMZ). The PCB data did not exhibit significant differences (p > 0.05) for the air samples, while PCB concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in soil from the LLZ, which may be associated with rapid urbanization and industrial activities in this area. The air-soil exchange of DDTs and PCBs showed net volatilization at most of the studied sites except for a few samples from the FMZ and WMZ. Results of this study about air-soil exchange gradients indicate the long range regional atmospheric transport (LRAT) of POPs to the colder areas (FMZ) of Pakistan, where these act as a secondary source of POPs in these areas.
Schiff bases (S1–S8) were prepared by the reaction of 4-aminophenylacetic acid/5-aminoisophthalic acid with benzaldehyde/acetophenone/benzophenone/anthraquinone in ethanol. The sodium salts (NaS1–NaS8) of the Schiff bases were reacted further with triphenyltin(IV) chloride in methanol for 4 h to produce the organotin derivatives (C1–C8). The structures of the synthesized products (S1–S8 and C1–C8) were verified by elemental analysis, FT-IR analysis, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry. Elemental analysis (CHN) data agreed well with the chemical composition of compounds. FT-IR spectroscopy demonstrated the isobidentate coordination mode of the carboxylate moiety and a trigonal bipyramidal geometry of Sn(IV) in the solid state of complexes. Proton NMR spectra displayed the signals of the Schiff base skeleton as well as the triphenyltin(IV) moieties in the complexes C1–C8 in their anticipated regions. The thermogravimetric analysis has shown a good agreement between the observed percentages of the evolved contents and residues and the theoretically calculated values. The Schiff bases have shown higher thermal stabilities as compared to their organotin(IV) derivatives, owing to stronger hydrogen bonding in the former case. The complexes exhibited higher antibacterial potential as compared to their free ligand precursors against the tested bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli). The biological activities were dependent upon the structures of investigated products, nature of incorporated ligand and type (gram-positive or gram-negative) of the bacterial strains. The compounds were also tested for their in vitro hemolytic effects on human red blood cells while using PBS as a negative control (0% lysis) and triton X-100 as a positive control (100% lysis). Cytotoxicity values lie in the range of 1.5–7.9%, which is an acceptable range and renders the safe medicinal uses of all the synthesized products.
Development of efficient and green methods for extracting bioactive phytochemicals has great industrial value. Increasing environmental sensitivity at the global level has tremendously enhanced the demand for such methods. Azadirachta indica is a well-known medicinal tree. As glycerol has emerged as a green and safe extraction solvent for bioactive phytochemicals, this study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a glycerol–water solvent system to extract bioactive compounds from A. indica leaves. Modelling and optimisation were carried out by using response surface methodology (RSM) as per the Box–Behnken design with three variables, namely, solvent concentration, time and temperature. The responses were total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity (MCA). The optimum conditions found by numerical optimisation were a solvent concentration of 69.713%, a time period of 38.328 min and a temperature of 32.114 °C with the predicted values of TPC, TFC, %DPPH and %MCA as 5.27 mg gallic acid equivalents · g−1 DW (dry weight), 9.869 mg rutin equivalents · g−1 DW, 73.8% and 54.366%, respectively. The validation experiments showed almost the same results for each response with very low% errors (5.431–7.661). Increasing glycerol concentration in the extracting medium favoured the extraction of TPC, TFC and antioxidant phytochemicals, but for MCA, the trend was the opposite. In conclusion, 70% aqueous glycerol is an effective medium for the extraction of polyphenolic and antioxidant phytochemicals from A. indica leaves. Extraction models suggested by RSM have high prospects to be used on a large industrial scale.
Two series of new 2,1-benzothiazine derivatives have been synthesized by condensation of 4-hydrazono-1-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-benzo[c][1,2]thiazine 2,2-dioxide (5) with 2-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehydes and acetylthiophenes to acquire new heteroaryl ethylidenes 7(a-f) and 9(a-k) in excellent yields. After characterization by FTIR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and elemental analyses, the newly synthesized analogues were investigated against monoamine oxidase enzymes (MAO A and MAO B). The titled compounds exhibited activity in the lower micromolar range among which 9e was the most potent compound against MAO A with IC 50 of 1.04 ± 0.01 mM whereas 9h proved to be the most potent derivative against MAO B with an IC 50 value of 1.03 ± 0.17 mM. Furthermore, in vitro results were further endorsed by molecular docking studies to determine the interaction between the potent compounds and the enzyme active site. These newly synthesized compounds represent promising hits for the development of safer and potent lead molecules for therapeutic use against depression and other neurological diseases.
Zika virus (ZIKV) pandemic and its implication in congenital malformations and severe neurological disorders had created serious threats to global health. ZIKV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus which spread rapidly and infect a large number of people in a shorter time-span. Due to the lack of effective therapeutics, this had become paramount urgency to discover effective drug molecules to encounter the viral infection. Various anti-ZIKV drug discovery efforts during the past several years had been unsuccessful to develop an effective cure. The NS2B-NS3 protein was reported as an attractive therapeutic target for inhibiting viral proliferation, due to its central role in viral replication and maturation of non-structural viral proteins. Therefore, the current in silico drug exploration aimed to identify the novel inhibitors of Zika NS2B-NS3 protease by implementing an e-pharmacophore-based high-throughput virtual screening. A 3D e-pharmacophore model was generated based on the five-featured (ADPRR) pharmacophore hypothesis. Subsequently, the predicted model is further subjected to the high-throughput virtual screening to reveal top hit molecules from the various small molecule databases. Initial hits were examined in terms of binding free energies and ADME properties to identify the candidate hit exhibiting a favourable pharmacokinetic profile. Eventually, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations studies were conducted to evaluate the binding stability of the hit molecule inside the receptor cavity. The findings of the in silico analysis manifested affirmative evidence for three hit molecules with −64.28, −55.15 and −50.16 kcal/mol binding free energies, as potent inhibitors of Zika NS2B-NS3 protease. Hence, these molecules holds the promising potential to serve as a prospective candidates to design effective drugs against ZIKV and related viral infections.
The polluted air factor is strong with the passage of time and its impact can easily be assessed by observing the related data. This research is designed to understand to what extent air pollution will contribute to deaths and DALYs in SARRC countries. Death and DALYs rates in SARRC countries due to air pollution are positively perceived. This study used time series and machine learning methods for forecasting deaths and DALYs caused by air pollution using machine learning techniques such as ARIMA, Exponential Smoothing, and Neural Network. Overall analysis shows that Ambient Particulate Matter Pollution (Ambient PM Pollution) and Ambient Ozone Pollution have an upward and Household Air Pollution (HAP) has a downward trend. The upward trend is an alarming factor for all the stakeholders. On the other, the downward trend means it is losing its intensity due to better behavior of people.
Objective The objective of this study was to deliver an intervention to improve health awareness for infection prevention, hygiene, and sanitation to assess its impact. Furthermore, it aimed to identify the risk of multimorbidity in women of reproductive years from low socio-economic background. Methods A randomized control trial was conducted in Pakistan among women aged 15–45 years. Overall, 820 women participated in the baseline survey; 388 women were part of the control group and 360 of the intervention group. A digital health literacy intervention was delivered by 91 trained community health workers. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Results About 35.9% of women suffered from multimorbidity. The intervention group showed higher odds of confidence in managing health with respect to skill and technique acquisition (AOR = 2.21; 95% CI 1.01–4.84), self-monitoring and insight (AOR = 2.97; 95% CI 1.29–6.80) as well as sanitation and hygiene (AOR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.07–1.93). Two primary outcomes related to hand hygiene and protective behavior against infection did not show any significant improvement. The secondary outcomes of the study related to impact on overall health-related quality of life, social integration and support, and emotional well-being also did not show any significant improvement. Conclusions Digital health literacy interventions and multimorbidity management for women of reproductive years at the primary level are a way forward to alleviate communicable and non-communicable disease burden in developing countries like Pakistan. These efforts are also critical to improve maternal and child health in developing regions.
Background: Ensuring safety and wellbeing of all the minority populations of Pakistan is essential for collective national growth. The Pakistani Hazara Shias are a marginalized non-combative migrant population who face targeted violence in Pakistan, and suffer from great challenges which compromise their life satisfaction and mental health. In this study, we aim to identify the determinants of life satisfaction and mental health disorders in Hazara Shias and ascertain which socio-demographic characteristics are associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods: We used a cross-sectional quantitative survey, utilizing internationally standardized instruments; with an additional qualitative item. Seven constructs were measured, including household stability; job satisfaction; financial security; community support; life satisfaction; PTSD; and mental health. Factor analysis was performed showing satisfactory Cronbach alpha results. A total of 251 Hazara Shias from Quetta were sampled at community centers through convenience method based on their willingness to participate. Results: Comparison of mean scores shows significantly higher PTSD in women and unemployed participants. Regression results reveal that people who have low community support, especially from national and ethnic community, religious community, and other community groups, had higher risk of mental health disorders. Structural equation modeling identified that four study variables contribute to greater life satisfaction, including: household satisfaction (β = 0.25, p < 0.001); community satisfaction (β = 0.26, p < 0.001); financial security (β = 0.11, p < 0.05); and job satisfaction (β = 0.13, p < 0.05). Qualitative findings revealed three broad areas which create barriers to life satisfaction, including: fears of assault and discrimination; employment and education problems; and financial and food security issues. Conclusions: The Hazara Shias need immediate assistance from state and society to improve safety, life opportunities, and mental health. Interventions for poverty alleviation, mental health, and fair education and employment opportunities need to be planned in partnership with the primary security issue.
Zoomorphism is the literary Greek language term used for animal characteristics in people, divine creatures, and lifeless things that are not animals but act like animals. This research paper deeply analyzes the text of "Moth Smoke" which is written by Mohsin Hamid. The present research aims to explore how Zoomorphistic interpretations are created in literary content. The study uncovered the secret nature which is hidden in the habits, manners, and attitudes of the characters which whom they work in the story. The complete text of Mohsin Hamid's novel, "Moth Smoke" (MS), is the primary data analysis source. The researchers investigated the flying little bird Moth's attributes which exist in the various characters of the novel as applied to "humanized" animals. The present study presumes that the zoomorphism strategy can work as an analytical tool in the linguistics analysis of literary text which also can work as a useful systematic analytical tool for the consideration of a scholarly text of the novel's characters in Moth Smoke with the instinct of Moth.
Background Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) (AM) 's remarkable anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities make it a targeted plant to be explored for its immunomodulatory properties. Traditional practitioners have employed various components of AM to cure a variety of ailments, including cancer, diabetes, and inflammation. Objective The present study evaluated the immunosuppressive effects of 80% ethanol extract of of AM leaves in male Wistar rats on different parameters of humoral and cellular immune responses. Methods AM leaf extract (AMLE) was analyzed using UHPLC-MS/MS to profile its secondary metabolites. AMLE was rich in polyphenols which include (epi)catechin-(epi)catechin-(epi)catechin, caffeic acid, coumaroylquinic acid, hyperin, kaempferol, quinic acid and rutin. The rats were administered 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw of the extract daily for 14 days. The effects of AMLE on innate immune responses were determined by evaluating phagocytosis, neutrophils migration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) release, CD11b/CD18 integrin expression, and ceruloplasmin, lysozyme and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels. The adaptive immune parameters were evaluated by immunizing the rats with sheep red blood cells (sRBC) on day 0 and administered orally with AMLE for 14 days. Results AMLE established significant immunosuppressive effects on the innate immune parameters by inhibiting the neutrophil migration, ROS production, phagocytic activity and expression of CD11b/CD18 integrin in a dose-dependent pattern. AMLE also suppressed ceruloplasmin, MPO and lysozyme expressions in the rat plasma dose-dependently. AMLE dose-dependently inhibited T and B lymphocytes proliferation, Th1 and Th2 cytokine production, CD4+ and CD8+ co-expression in splenocytes, immunoglobulins (IgM and IgG) expression and the sRBC-induced swelling rate of rat paw in delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH).
A synthesized investigation, employing graphical and analytical approach, has been conducted to examine inadequacy of electronic education and limitations posed by transformative mode of learning from students’ perspective. Moreover, the breadth of subject understanding through digital mode and students’ preference for physical or electronic mode of learning in the future were examined. A descriptive analysis was executed through R programming for the obtained numeric-characteristic statistics. For computational analysis of the data to determine proportion of deteriorating virtual-assessment performance attributed to conditioned subject-command, a machine learning approach of interaction-regression is adopted. It is implied through the obtained results that a majority of students felt discontented at not being able to achieve optimized learning outcomes post-virtual-attendance of study programs. It is also concluded that blended influence of online learning and partial subject-command resulted in insufficient assessment performance. Additionally, the current study highlights the importance of need-based adaptations to facilitate automated mode of learning and virtual platforms’ uniform access to students.
Phosphorous (P) is one of the primary nutrients to cause the eutrophication of water bodies. This process leads to algal blooms and anoxic conditions which have consequences in the form of mortality of aquatic animals, and impaired water quality. Aquatic macrophytes could be the promising candidates that can filter P from water contaminated with high levels of nutrients. In the present microcosm research, two types of floating macrophytes, i.e., salvinia floater (Salvinia natans) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) were deployed to compare their P-removal rates and efficiency under different incubation times (72, 168, and 264 h intervals). Plants were exposed to different treatments, i.e., (1) P-fed plants, (2) P-starved plants, (3) control treatments, and (4) synthetic wastewater treatment. Both plant species showed substantial P-removal efficiency from P-eutrophicated solutions and removed P-amounts were significantly correlated (R2 ≅ 1 at p ≤ 0.05) with P-accumulated in plant biomass. Plants in the P-starved state showed significantly higher P-removal rates and removal efficiency compared to plants without P-starvation. When Salvinia natans was exposed to 10 mg L−1 of P for 264 h of incubation, 21 g of fresh biomass was recorded during the P-starved phase, more than P. stratiotes (14 g) under similar conditions. The P. stratiotes removed 86.04% of P from 5 mg L−1 P solution, 53.76% from 10 mg L−1 P solution and 66.84% from SWW in the P-starved phase whereas, removal efficiency without the P-starvation phase was 33.03% from 5 mg L−1 P solution, 39.66% from 10 mg L−1 P solution, and 31.64% from SWW after 264 h interval. Compared to S. natans, P. stratiotes removed 86.0% P from a 5 mg L−1 P solution, whereas S. natans removed 56.6% when exposed to the same P solution (5 mg L−1 P solution). Bioconcentration factor (BCF) values were higher in Salvinia natans 10.5 (0.5 mg L−1 P solutions) and 1.5 (5 mg L−1 P solutions) compared to 9.9 and 1.3 of Pistia stratiotes under P-starved conditions. The present work highlighted that these aquatic plants can be a potential green sustainable solution for purifying water with excessive nutrients (N and P), especially waters of wetlands, lagoons, and ponds.
Cancer remains strongly associated with morbidity and lethality posing a massive challenge to public health from decades. Thus, new interventions, effective and meaningful therapeutic approaches towards the treatment of cancer are urgently required. In this regard, nanotechnology offers an efficacious pharmacological application towards anticancer therapy. Therefore, the current study was aimed to develop Berberis aristata aqueous extract loaded gelatin lipid‐nanocarriers to explore their in vitro and in vivo antitumor properties. The extract loaded gelatin lipid nanoparticles were formulated by using double emulsion solvent evaporation method and physical characterization was performed using various techniques. Hydrodynamic diameter, zeta potential and polydispersity index (PDI) of GLN‐BA were observed as 322±7 nm, −31.49±4.85 mV and 0.397±0.102 mV, respectively. The extract was efficiently entrapped within the GLN (EE=79±11 %) and follow the diffusion type release mechanism. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated the spherical shaped smooth morphology of nanospheres. In vitro anticancer activity of GLN‐BA was performed by SRB assay and shown to demonstrate effective cytotoxicity (IC50=4.73±2.95 μg/mL) against MCF‐7 which was further quantitatively and qualitatively verified by flow cytometry, genotoxicity and DAPI staining. Induction of apoptotic bodies provides the evidence for apoptosis mediated cytotoxicity. Further, in vivo analysis on female mice was carried out to corroborate anticancer activity and was comparable to cisplatin. At 10th day, the GLN‐BA (10 mg/kg) prominently reduced the tumor volume to 35±11 % in consistent with cisplatin (3 mg/kg) which exhibited 41±5 % reduction. Moreover, molecular modeling analysis substantiates the stable nanoformulation encapsulating the BA bioactive constituent. Taken together, current findings supported the therapeutic effectiveness of BA encapsulated gelatin lipid nanoparticles towards breast cancer suggesting the use of medicinal plant as a prototype to treat tumor. The Figure depicts results of pharmacological testing (both in vitro and in vivo). In vitro SRB assay represents cell viability (%) and cell death (%) against human breast cancer cells (MCF‐7) representing the IC50 values for pure extract and GLN‐BA treated cells (left). In vivo antitumor assessment in an animal model (right)
Lime treatment is an important technique for softening of drinking water, treating the municipal-based wastewaters, and treating wastewater discharged from industries and inorganic-based hazardous wastes liquid in nature. Lime treatment is also considered a most applicable technology in terms of economics and efficiency for treating effluents of acidic mine drainage compared to different advanced physical and biological treatment methods. These acidic waste effluents are rich in toxic metals, metalloids, and hazardous/toxic wastes and contaminants (Cu, Cd, Pb, Mn, Zn, Fe, As, Si, SO4²⁻, etc.) due to oxidation and dissolution of pyrite, pyrrhotite, and other sulphidic materials and must undergo suitable eco-friendly treatment(s) before disposing in a landfill or into the impoundment along with tailings. Neutralization is the perquisite for the elimination of these toxic metals and contaminants from wastewater of acidic nature followed by the precipitation and co-precipitation reactions. Lime treatment of acidic wastewaters brings a change in pH (alkalization) resulting in the insolubility of these toxic metals that leads to the formation of minuscule particles due to precipitation reactions. These precipitates are then separated to achieve clear effluents by forming a low-density sludge (LDS) or a high-density sludge (HDS) depending upon the separation methods. The HDS had an advantage over LDS in terms of handling and disposability due to high density, less volume, and better particulate characteristics. The produced sludge as a result of solid/liquid separation should be disposed of by eco-friendly approaches/strategies or recycled or reused for other industrial or manufacturing processes. Nevertheless, diverse lime materials like calcite-enriched powdered oyster shell might have the potential for reducing concentrations of toxicants within permissible limits; however, these are expensive and less efficient for defluoridation from hemihydrated gypsum (CaSO4·0.5H2O) produced from recyclable dihydrated gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) by heating at 130–180 °C. Therefore, more cost-effective strategies such as deployment of resultant sludge need to be tested for the defluoridation and stabilization of CaSO4·0.5H2O. The present manuscript reviews the science of lime treatment of acidic waste water effluents and defluoridation techniques.
Rumex hastatus (RH) is an edible wild herb abundantly distributed in many parts of the world. With the increasing realization of the environmental threats corresponding to the use of conventional organic solvents, the realization to explore efficient green solvents for extraction of valuable natural products from plants is increasing. The present project, therefore, aimed to discover an optimized efficient and green process for obtaining antioxidant phytochemicals from R. hastatus using aqueous glycerol as a green and low-cost extraction medium. For modelling and optimization according to RSM (response surface methodology), the independent factors were glycerol concentration, temperature and time, and the responses included TPC (total phenolic content), TFC (total flavonoid content), and anti-radical activity (ARA) and iron chelating activity (ICA). The predicted optimum conditions were 52.155% glycerol concentration, 41.303 min extraction time and 50 °C extraction temperature with the predicted values for TPC, TFC, ARA and ICA as 21.65 mg GA/g DW, 95.78 mg RE/g DW, 84.93% and 46.47%, respectively. For responses, well fitted quadratic models were suggested. Thus, aqueous glycerol is an efficient, green, and cost-effective solvent and its around 50% solution can effectively be used as an extracting medium for antioxidants from R. hastatus. The discovered model should be viable for large scale extraction of bioactive compounds from this plant.
This study mainly focuses on the synthesis of two allotropes of graphene, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), by the modified Hummers' method and chemical reduction method, respectively. Sm2O3/GO and Sm2O3/rGO nanocomposites were further synthesized in the presence of the cationic surfactant CTAB via the sol–gel method followed by the reflux method. Synthesized nanocomposites were subjected to characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X‐ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and UV–Visible spectroscopy to explore structural, thermal, optical, and photocatalytic properties. Characteristic FTIR peaks were observed in nanocomposites, and the bond length of the Sm‐O bond was calculated. The Coats‐Redfern method was employed to calculate the kinetics and thermodynamic parameters. Hexagonal crystallite shapes of Sm2O3/GO and Sm2O3/rGO nanocomposites with 11.8 and 13.13 nm crystallite sizes and 3.9 and 2.5 eV optical band gaps were observed. The photocatalytic efficiency of Sm2O3/GO and Sm2O3/rGO nanocomposites was assessed against the degradation of methylene blue in the presence of sunlight, and its degradation was confirmed through FTIR. The antimicrobial activities were also performed against the bacterial strains Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. This study mainly focuses on the synthesis of two allotropes of graphene, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), by the modified Hummers' method and chemical reduction method, respectively. Sm2O3/GO and Sm2O3/rGO nanocomposites were further synthesized in the presence of the cationic surfactant CTAB via the sol–gel method followed by the reflux method. The chemical and biological activities of the nanocomposites were studied.
Transfersomes (TFS) are the promising carriers for transdermal delivery of various low and high molecular weight drugs, owing to their self-regulating and self-optimizing nature. Herein, we report synthesis and characterization of TFS loaded with meloxicam (MLX), an NSAID, and dexamethasone (DEX), a steroid, for simultaneous transdermal delivery. The different formulations of TFS containing varying amounts of lecithin, Span 80, and Tween 80 (TFS-1 to TFS-6) were successfully prepared by thin-film hydration method. The size of ranged between 248 and 273 nm, zeta potential values covering from –62.6 to –69.5 mV, polydispersity index (PDI) values in between 0.329 and 0.526, and entrapment efficiency of MLX and DEX ranged between 63-96% and 48-81%, respectively. Release experiments at pH 7.4 demonstrated higher cumulative drug release attained with Tween 80 compared to Span 80-based TFS. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of selected formulations -1 and TFS-3 revealed spherical shape of vesicles. Furthermore, three optimized transfersomal formulations (based on entrapment efficiency, TFS-1, TFS-3, and TFS-5) were incorporated into carbopol-940 gels coded as TF-G1, TF-G3, and TF-G5. These transfersomal gels were subjected to pH, spreadability, viscosity, homogeneity, skin irritation, in vitro drug release, and ex vivo skin permeation studies, and the results were compared with plain (nontransfersomal) gel having MLX and DEX. TFS released 71.72% to 81.87% MLX in 12 h; whereas, DEX release was quantified as 74.72% to 83.72% in same time. Nevertheless, TF-based gels showed slower drug release; 51.54% to 59.60% for MLX and 48.98% to 61.23% for DEX. The TF-G systems showed 85.87% permeation of MLX (TF-G1), 68.15% (TF-G3), and 68.94% (TF-G5); whereas, 78.59%, 70.54%, and 75.97% of DEX was permeated by TF-G1, TF-G3, and TF-G5, respectively. Kinetic modeling of release and permeation data indicated to follow Korsmeyer-Peppas model showing diffusion diffusion-based drug moment. Conversely, plain gel influx was found mere 26.18% and 22.94% for MLX and DEX, respectively. These results suggest that TF-G loaded with MLX and DEX can be proposed as an alternate drug carriers for improved transdermal flux that will certainly increase therapeutic outcomes.
Glycyrrhizin is an important bioactive compound of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) having many pharmaceutical properties. The present study explored the extraction of glycyrrhizin from licorice in two glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents glycerol-ammonium acetate (GAA) and glycerol-choline chloride (GCC) and by two different techniques heat-assisted extraction (HAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). For optimization, response surface methodology (RSM) as per CCD (central composite design) was applied. Quantification of the compound was done by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). In GAA-HAE, the highest yield 36.96 mg/g was at 80 °C temperature, 25 min time, and 50% DES concentration and in GCC-HAE, the highest yield was 35.26 mg/g that was at temperature 80 °C, time 65 min and 50% DES concentration. In GAA-UAE, the highest yield 35.41 mg/g was at temperature 60 °C, time 79 min and 70% DES concentration, and in GCC-UAE, the highest yield 31.37 mg/g was at temperature 80 °C, time 25 min and 50% DES concentration. UAE-methanol gave the highest yield 31.36 mg/g that was at temperature 60 °C, time 45 min and 70% methanol. The predicted models had high fitness each having a significant p-value (<0.05) and a nonsignificant lack of fit p-value. The R2 values were about 94%, 98%, 93%, 95% and 95% for GAA-UAE, GCC-UAE, GAA-HAE, GCC-HAE and methanol-UAE models, respectively, which also indicated high adequacy of the models. In terms of yield, HAE and UAE were comparable but UAE has the advantage of being more environmentally friendly, and GAA was more powerful than GCC as extracting medium. As a result, GAA-UAE should be a viable option for extracting glycyrrhizin from licorice as an efficient and environmentally friendly method.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.