Fordham University
  • New York City, NY, United States
Recent publications
The ability to empathize with another person's inner experience is believed to be a central element of our social interactions. Previous research has focused on cognitive (e.g., theory of mind) and emotional (e.g., emotional contagion) empathy, and less on behavioral factors (i.e., the ability to respond empathically). Recent studies suggest that the Default Mode Network (DMN) mediates individual variability in distinct empathy-related behaviors. However, little is known about DMN activity during actual empathic responses, understood in this study as the ability to communicate our understanding of the others’ experience back to them. This study used an empathy response paradigm with 28 participants (22-37 years old) to analyze the relationship between the quality of empathic responses to 14 empathy-eliciting vignettes and patterns of attenuation in the DMN. Overall, the results suggest that high levels of empathic response, are associated with sustained activation of the DMN when compared with lower levels of empathy. Our results demonstrate that the DMN becomes increasingly involved in empathy-related behavior, as our level of commitment to the other's experience increases. This study represents a first attempt to understand the relation between the capacity for responding in a supportive way to others’ needs and the intra-individual variability of the pattern of the DMN attenuation. Here we underline the critical role that the DMN plays in high-level social cognitive processes and corroborate the DMN role in different psychiatric disorders associated with a lack of empathy.
Background Extensive health disparities exist for American Indian groups throughout the United States. Although insurance status is linked to important healthcare outcomes, this topic has infrequently been explored for American Indian tribes. For state-recognized tribes, who do not receive healthcare services through the Indian Health Service, this topic has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study is to explore how having limited access to health insurance (being uninsured or under-insured) impact American Indian women's healthcare experiences?. Methods In partnership with a community advisory board, this study used a qualitative description approach to conduct thirty-one semi-structured life-course interviews with American Indian women who are members of a state-recognized tribe in the Gulf Coast (United States) to explore their Western healthcare experiences. Interview were conducted at community centers, participant homes, and other locations identified by participants. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and findings were analyzed in NVivo using conventional content analysis. Findings were presented at tribal council meetings and to participants for member checking. Results Themes identified by participants included: (a) lack of insurance as a barrier to healthcare; (b) pre-paying for childbirth when uninsured; and (c) access to public health insurance coverage. Twenty-four women mentioned the role or importance of insurance in discussing their healthcare experiences, which was referenced a total of 59 times. Conclusion These findings begin to fill an important gap in the literature about the health insurance experiences of American Indian tribal members. Not having insurance was an important concern for participants, particularly for elderly and pregnant tribal members. Not having insurance also kept tribal members from seeking healthcare services, and from getting needed prescriptions. In addition to promoting knowledge about, and expanding insurance options and enrollment, increased sovereignty and resources for state-recognized tribes is needed to address the health disparities experienced by American Indian groups.
Microplastic transfer between horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) and migratory shorebirds through consumption of crab eggs was examined in Jamaica Bay, New York. Fertilized and unfertilized crab eggs, shorebird fecal pellets, beach sand, and bay water were processed with a hydrogen peroxide solution to remove organic material, then stained with a Nile Red to identify microplastics using fluorescence microscopy. Microplastics were present in all samples and ranged from approximately26–1300 μm. Unfertilized and fertilized eggs contained significantly higher numbers of microplastic particles per gram than shorebird fecal pellets, beach sand, and bay water. The presence of microplastics in unfertilized egg samples indicates that microplastics undergo maternal transfer during oogenesis. We estimated that 1 g of horseshoe crab eggs could contain approximately 426 to 840 microplastic particles, suggesting that shorebirds feeding on this resource could be ingesting a substantial burden of microplastics during their migratory stopover, much of which appears to be retained by shorebirds, rather than being eliminated in their fecal pellets.
This review represents a dialogic experiment developing the comparative analytical category of religious orthodoxies. To explore the category, we profile scholarship on Jewish and Christian orthodoxies, neither of which fits into the Protestant ideas of religion, secularism, and modernity that still implicitly undergird the anthropology of religion. For religious orthodoxies, the heart of religious experience is correctness and continuity, rather than personal transformation and reform. Furthermore, the imbrication of the political with the theological that is definitive of religious orthodoxies holds promise for new understandings of politics and religion's potential for social action. By including different relationships of scale in a range of social formations and institutional dynamics, religious orthodoxies provide insight into the mutually constitutive relationship between practice and belief; the taken-for-grantedness of material mediation of presence in orthodox traditions; the ethical dimension of practice; and the entanglements of orthodoxies, heterodoxies, and heresies. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Anthropology Volume 51 is October 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
The current study surveyed 166 young adults (ages 20–35) with a history of adolescent psychiatric hospitalization to identify profiles of psychological strengths (self-determination, identity commitment, and low mental health self-stigma) and to examine their association with symptom distress, recovery, and quality of life in young adulthood. Over half of all participants (51%) reported a high quality of life, and over one-third (40%) were not experiencing clinically-significant psychiatric symptoms. k-means cluster analysis identified three distinct profiles: low psychological strengths, mixed, and high strengths. Multiple regression analyses indicated the high strengths profile was significantly associated with lower symptom distress, higher recovery, and higher quality of life after controlling for demographics, psychiatric history, treatment experience, and psychiatric interference in school and relationships during adolescence. Findings have implications for targeted support and services based on psychological profile, including family support, interventions to support medication management such as shared decision-making, and peer support.
Megaherbivores are keystone species whose removal from landscapes can cause cascading ecosystem changes, yet the consequences of Late Quaternary megaherbivore extinctions remain uncertain. This paper tests the Megaherbivory Release Hypothesis (MRH), which posits that the decline and extinction of megaherbivores (body size >1000 kg) during the last deglaciation in eastern North America contributed to the expansion of more palatable hardwood tree taxa, the development of vegetation assemblages with no modern analogue, and increased fuel load and fire activity. Coprophilous fungal spores in lake sediment records are used as proxies for megaherbivore abundance and are essential to testing the MRH through analyses of lead/lag relationships among vegetation composition, megaherbivore abundance, fire, and climate. Although some prior analyses of coprophilous fungal spores from individual sites have supported the MRH, these interpretations have been complicated by 1) discrepancies in the timing of coprophilous spore declines versus megaherbivore extinction timing based on dated vertebrate remains, 2) reliance on a single fungal taxon (Sporormiella) rather than a full suite of coprophilous fungi taxa, and 3) uncertainties in the taphonomic processes that influence fungal spore abundances. To examine the spatiotemporal relationships among megaherbivory, vegetation, and fire, we developed five new multi-taxon coprophilous fungal spore records for comparison with existing pollen, spore, and charcoal records from 14 sites across eastern North America. The MRH was well supported in the northeast and central US, with most sites showing a coprophilous spore decline by ∼14.6 ka followed by a rise of hardwood taxa (∼14.4 ka). However, changes in fire regime varied widely among northeast and central US sites and may have preceded spore declines. The MRH was not well supported in the southeastern US, where a smaller rise in hardwood taxa (∼16.1–13.1 ka) generally preceded the decline in coprophilous spores at individual sites (∼15.8–12.7 ka). These site-level and regional differences suggest spatial variations in the strength of couplings among late-Quaternary megaherbivore extinctions, vegetation composition and structure, and fire regime. Possible explanations for the differences between the northern and southeastern US include (1) differences in landscape heterogeneity of canopy openness and palatability, (2) net primary productivity and sensitivity to top-down trophic effects, (3) megaherbivore density, and (4) climate trends and seasonality at orbital to millennial timescales.
Gen Z, China’s rising consumer force, yet there is few research on influencer marketing and traditional advertising on Gen Z in mainland China. This work analyses the benefits between emerging influencer marketing and traditional counterparts and indicates that influencer marketing often costs less and has a better performance in reaching numerous consumer groups. Nevertheless, the mistakes of influencers’ choice will lead to the failure of marketing campaign. By contrast, traditional advertising can reach a larger number of consumer groups, and high-quality advertisements are more likely to help leave distinct brand images. Taken together, influencing marketing does better in persuading stage, whereas traditional advertising has more advantages in informing stage and reminding stage.KeywordsInfluencer marketingTraditional advertisingGeneration ZPersuading stage
The Asian longhorned tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann), native to East Asia, was first reported in the United States in 2017 and is now established in at least 17 states. Haemaphysalis longicornis feeds on birds in its range outside of the United States, and migratory birds disperse this tick and tick-borne pathogens. However, early studies in the United States did not find H. longicornis on migrating passerine birds. The transport of the parthenogenetic H. longicornis on birds has the potential to greatly expand its range. We report the first discovery of H. longicornis on migratory passerine birds in the Americas.
Investor and venture capital activity within food, agriculture and bio renewables (AgriTech) continues to accelerate. Investors recognize promise in AgriTech due to pressing demand to provide food and bio renewable materials for our growing population. Cellular agriculture, meat produced in vitro versus in vivo is one specific space where exceptional investor activity is occurring. This work captures investor and key informant perspectives primarily from North America about cellular agriculture by utilizing thematic analysis from qualitative interview data. Findings highlight the role and perspectives of strategic capital as a necessary mechanism to fund bringing cellular meat technologies to the marketplace. The data also indicated that cellular agriculture products would likely complement existing meat products like plant-based meats and that massive infrastructure is required to produce these products at scale. In addition, respondents posited that higher income, urban and politically liberal consumers would likely be early adopters of cellular meat products and that a significant challenge will be providing availability to the wider less affluent population.
Gentrification yields a variety of effects, yet the mechanisms linking gentrification to health are unclear. Although quantitative research has helped to identify some patterns, the processes whereby neighborhood dynamics impact health are layered and span multiple levels of health—individual, family, and community. According to research describing large-scale drivers of health, inequality (e.g., income and social) is a significant risk factor for worse health, morbidity, and mortality. Drawing from an inequality-health framework, this paper explores how inequality created by gentrification (e.g., segregated pockets of wealth alongside relative deprivation) harms health and well-being. The current study presents findings from lower-income African American women across 20 U.S. cities, and examines pathways by which gentrification increases inequality and stress for residents living in gentrifying areas. Results indicate that gentrification contributes to both direct (e.g., material scarcity) and indirect (e.g., displacement, distrust, lack of belonging) pathways that impact health, supporting mediation via four major pathways. Implications for further research, theorization, and policy are discussed.
This chapter introduces key aspects of social media monetization. From a network perspective, the value of social media relies on the number of social media users. The more users a social media platform has, the more attractive it is for advertisers, brands, and other business users. This explains why daily active users (DAUs) are so important for defining the popularity of social media. A significant number of users offer a solid base for a social media platform to profit and optimize monetization.
A staggering number of stores, around 9000, failed from Jan 2019 to Oct 2019, significantly higher than the 5844 stores that failed in the entire 2018 (Coresight Research, Weekly US and UK store openings and closures tracker 2019, week 43: Destination maternity files for chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. Retrieved from https://coresight.com/research/weekly-us-and-uk-store-openings-andclosures-tracker-2019-week-43/, 2019). Businesses know that sales are crucial for a firm’s survival in the current volatile, competitive business environment. With steady sales of products or services, a firm can monetize its resources, maintain its business operation, and be able to conduct risky, high-return activities such as market expansions, new product development, and digital innovations.
A monetization process encompasses six activities: market research, social media strategy formulation, social media listening and social media intelligence, influencer marketing, performance assessment and reporting, and community management and customer care. All activities serve the ultimate goal of increasing corporate profit via social media. The six activities are not arranged in a causal sequence. For example, social media listening could be performed earlier than market research. These activities can constitute the entire monetization process, but not all activities are necessary in different forms of social media monetization. This chapter offers an overview of the monetization process. The key activities will be discussed in further detail in later chapters.
Social media is mainly offered free of charge. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, LinkedIn, and many other applications are free to users. Hence, it is interesting to study how free-to-use social media achieves monetization. Previously, we have discussed the possibility of monetizing via social advertising. We will not reiterate this here but focus on an alternative approach to monetization of social media users: premium service or content.
The external environment of a social media company encompasses social, legal, and economic aspects that can significantly influence a firm’s strategy for monetization. For example, if a social media company breaches a user data protection law, it could incur a large fine or even be banned from offering social media service by user data protection organizations or legal institutions. A legitimate business model is of paramount importance for a social media company to achieve sustainable monetization. Business model design describes the pattern by which a company makes money. A business model includes three elements: content, structure, and governance.
Social media advertising is becoming a winning strategy for firms, brands, and retailers (He & Shao, Telematics and Informatics, 35(2), 504–516, 2018). Statistics demonstrated the staggering growth of the global social media advertising market: Marketers’ spend on social media advertising had grown to over $89 billion in 2019; it was estimated that this ad spend would produce a yearly growth rate of over 8% and likely reach over $100 billion in 2020 (Zote, 55 critical social media statistics to fuel your 2020 strategy. Retrieved from https://sproutsocial.com/insights/social-media-statistics/, 2020). In contrast to traditional media’s limited reach capability, promotional messages on social media can connect and reach over one billion customers (Shareef et al., 2019; Schulze et al., 2014). Social media also outperforms traditional print media because it incorporates more social, informative, and interactive elements in firm–customer communication (Alalwan, International Journal of Information Management, 42, 65–77, 2018; Barreda et al., Tourism Management, 57, 180–192, 2016; Lee & Hong, International Journal of Information Management, 36(3), 360––373, 2016; Mangold & Faulds, Business Horizons, 52(4), 357–365, 2009; Swani et al., Industrial Marketing Management, 62, 77–87, 2017; Wu, Journal of Business Research, 69(11), 5310–5316, 2016). Although social media ads cannot be directly converted into sales, the promotion of such ads can be a facilitator in building customers’ awareness toward brand or product, spread brand and product-related knowledge to customers influencing customers’ brand or product perceptions, and eventually nudging customers to make purchases (Alalwan et al., Telematics and Informatics, 34(7), 1177–1190, 2017; Duffett, Internet Research, 25(4), 498–526, 2015; Kapoor et al., Information Systems Frontiers, 20(3), 531–558, 2018; Shareef et al., Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 43, 258–268, 2018).
This article aims to highlight the difficulties encountered by the experimental psychology promoted by Ribot, at the end of the nineteenth century up until the beginning of the twentieth century, with regard to the question of free will as part of his analysis of voluntary attention. It also aims to shed some light on William James’s possible role in Ribot’s subtle change of opinion in regards to the power of attention, as a mental effort somehow revealing the possibility of a top-down voluntary activity. In most of Ribot’s work, at first glance, the will is understood as a determined product of our idiosyncratic character, of our affective and physiological tendencies—rather than as an autonomous faculty of self-determination. But what might look like Ribot's commitment to determinism calls for some nuance. Some uses of the term "voluntary" in his work, particularly to describe the phenomenon of attention, seem to refer to a form of free will looking a lot more like an autonomous faculty than like a mere illusion induced by an epiphenomenal conscious state. We end the paper with remarks about the current state of studies of consciousness and voluntary action in relation to Ribot and James’s accounts of attention and will.
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Subha Mani
  • Department of Economics
Petr V Shibaev
  • Department of Physics
Mathias Klang
  • Communication and Media Studies
Dean Mckay
  • Department of Psychology
James D Lewis
  • Department of Biological Sciences
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