Online Travel Agents (OTAs) play an important intermediary role in the two-sided travel distribution market. A critical factor that enhances a firm's competitive advantage is innovation. Yet, the analysis of innovation in the OTA context is scarce. The main objective of this article is to fill this gap and examine the effect of OTA innovations on firm performance. We analyze the effect of two-sided market specific innovations (same-side and cross-side) on performance and contribute to the literature by expanding the theoretical understanding of innovations. We find that producer-to-consumer innovations have a greater effect on OTA performance than producer-to-producer and consumer-to-consumer innovations. A fundamental managerial implication is that exchange management is an area to be enhanced when innovating in travel market distribution.
The general methods, techniques, and principles used to obtain objective recordings of different physiologic parameters during sleep with Polysomnography in infants and children are the same as adult Polysomnography. There are however some physiological differences and neurodevelopmental distinctions that yield differences in indications and interpretation.
Supply chain partners are increasingly relying on interorganizational information systems (IIS) to improve efficiency in their business activities. While such efforts are expected to create value for each supply chain member and the entire supply chain, the literature reports contradictory results on how the value created by IIS is distributed across supply chain members. Addressing this gap, this study investigates how a supply chain member’s degree of involvement in the IIS development process is linked to the resulting value distribution using data collected from 184 supply chain managers. The results suggest that if a single supply chain partner leads the supply chain system development process, this leader receives the stronger performance benefit from IIS competency, creating a potential ethical hazard as this benefit is unlikely to be announced openly. Similarly, firms that adopt industry standards for IIS, benefit more from IIS competency than those who build the systems together with a partner.
We derive entropy conserving and entropy dissipative overlapping domain formulations for systems of nonlinear hyperbolic equations in conservation form, such as would be approximated by overset mesh methods. The entropy conserving formulation imposes a two-way coupling at the artificial interface boundaries through nonlinear penalty functions that vanish when the solutions coincide. The penalty functions are expressed in terms of entropy conserving fluxes originally introduced for finite volume schemes. In addition to the interface coupling, which is required, entropy dissipation and coupling can optionally be added through the use of linear penalties within the overlap region.
Due to the Somali Civil War of 1991, more than 10,000 Somali refugees resettled in Kebribeyah, a town in the Somali region of Ethiopia. For nearly three decades, the local and resettled refugee communities shared the resources the region had to offer, adopted a new common cultural norm, and fostered some levels of social cohesions. It is the education sector, however, that caused social conflicts and hatred between resettled Somalis and the native Somali-Ethiopians. Currently, the education of Somali refugee children is funded by various international organizations, such as the United Nations. On the contrary, the local Somali-Ethiopian children pay their way to schools which leads to poor educational experiences. Using autoethnography as the research method, this article examines the formation of educational gaps between the local and refugee children. Findings suggest that educational inequality can exist between refugee and host communities, if not properly managed, and can ultimately impact social cohesion and stability in the refugee-hosting regions.
Background: Participants' study satisfaction is important for both compliance with study protocols and retention, but research on parent study satisfaction is rare. This study sought to identify factors associated with parent study satisfaction in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study, a longitudinal, multinational (US, Finland, Germany, Sweden) study of children at risk for type 1 diabetes. The role of staff consistency to parent study satisfaction was a particular focus. Methods: Parent study satisfaction was measured by questionnaire at child-age 15 months (5579 mothers, 4942 fathers) and child-age four years (4010 mothers, 3411 fathers). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify sociodemographic factors, parental characteristics, and study variables associated with parent study satisfaction at both time points. Results: Parent study satisfaction was highest in Sweden and the US, compared to Finland. Parents who had an accurate perception of their child's type 1 diabetes risk and those who believed they can do something to prevent type 1 diabetes were more satisfied. More educated parents and those with higher depression scores had lower study satisfaction scores. After adjusting for these factors, greater study staff change frequency was associated with lower study satisfaction in European parents (mothers at child-age 15 months: - 0.30,95% Cl - 0.36, - 0.24, p < 0.001; mothers at child-age four years: -0.41, 95% Cl - 0.53, - 0.29, p < 0.001; fathers at child-age 15 months: -0.28, 95% Cl - 0.34, - 0.21, p < 0.001; fathers at child-age four years: -0.35, 95% Cl - 0.48, - 0.21, p < 0.001). Staff consistency was not associated with parent study satisfaction in the US. However, the number of staff changes was markedly higher in the US compared to Europe. Conclusions: Sociodemographic factors, parental characteristics, and study-related variables were all related to parent study satisfaction. Those that are potentially modifiable are of particular interest as possible targets of future efforts to improve parent study satisfaction. Three such factors were identified: parent accuracy about the child's type 1 diabetes risk, parent beliefs that something can be done to reduce the child's risk, and study staff consistency. However, staff consistency was important only for European parents. Trial registration: NCT00279318 .
Male colour patterns of the Trinidadian guppy ( Poecilia reticulata ) are typified by extreme variation governed by both natural and sexual selection. Since guppy colour patterns are often inherited faithfully from fathers to sons, it has been hypothesised that many of the colour trait genes must be physically linked to sex determining loci as a ‘supergene’ on the sex chromosome. Here, we phenotype and genotype four guppy ‘Iso-Y lines’, where colour was inherited along the patriline for 40 generations. Using an unbiased phenotyping method, we confirm the breeding design was successful in creating four distinct colour patterns. We find that genetic differentiation among the Iso-Y lines is repeatedly associated with a diverse haplotype on an autosome (LG1), not the sex chromosome (LG12). Moreover, the LG1 haplotype exhibits elevated linkage disequilibrium and evidence of sex-specific diversity in the natural source population. We hypothesise that colour pattern polymorphism is driven by Y-autosome epistasis.
The search for quantum spin liquids—topological magnets with fractionalized excitations—has been a central theme in condensed matter and materials physics. Despite numerous theoretical proposals, connecting experiment with detailed theory exhibiting a robust quantum spin liquid has remained a central challenge. Here, focusing on the strongly spin-orbit coupled effective S = 1/2 pyrochlore magnet Ce 2 Zr 2 O 7 , we analyze recent thermodynamic and neutron-scattering experiments, to identify a microscopic effective Hamiltonian through a combination of finite temperature Lanczos, Monte Carlo, and analytical spin dynamics calculations. Its parameter values suggest the existence of an exotic phase, a π -flux U(1) quantum spin liquid. Intriguingly, the octupolar nature of the moments makes them less prone to be affected by magnetic disorder, while also hiding some otherwise characteristic signatures from neutrons, making this spin liquid arguably more stable than its more conventional counterparts.
The tourism industry is extremely important to the world economy; yet, the industry falls short when it comes to economic, social, and environmental issues. Blockchain as an information technology can be utilized to help solve these issues and establish sustainable tourism globally. However, the challenges to blockchain adoption in the tourism industry have not yet been examined systematically. The goal of this study, therefore, is three-fold: we first identify the challenges to blockchain using literature review and expert opinions. Then, we examine them using the proposed rough Interpretive Structural Modeling - Cross-Impact Matrix Multiplication based on expert judgments. Finally, we link these challenges to diffusion of innovation theory. The results suggest that “lack of technical maturity” and “lack of interoperability” are the most important challenges of blockchain in the tourism industry. The findings of the study support macro- and micro-level decision-making in tourism industry's prospective applications of blockchain.
We analyze continuous data assimilation by nudging for the 3D Ladyzhenskaya equations. The analysis provides conditions on the spatial resolution of the observed data that guarantee synchronization to the reference solution associated with the observed, spatially coarse data. This synchronization holds even though it is not known whether the reference solution, with initial data in L2, is unique; any particular reference solution is determined by the observed, coarse data. The efficacy of the algorithm in both 2D and 3D is demonstrated by numerical computations.
A key advantage of conceptual models is that their quality can be evaluated and validated before beginning the costlier stages of information system development. Few research studies investigate the validation process for such models, particularly regarding multiplicities, even though multiplicity mistakes can be very costly. We investigated the validation of conceptual model multiplicities, varying how closely natural language statements of business rules match the models that purport to represent those rules. Participants in an eye tracking experiment completed validation tasks in which they viewed a statement and an accompanying UML class diagram in which a specified multiplicity was consistent with the statement (valid) or inconsistent with the statement (invalid). We varied whether the focal multiplicity was a minimum or a maximum and varied the class diagram’s semantics and order compared to that of the statement. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between accuracy and the experimental manipulations and controls. The results show that the odds of accuracy in validating class diagrams that used synonyms instead of the exact statement terminology were only 0.46 times the odds of accuracy when the class diagram and statement words matched, showing a costly effect of synonymy. Interestingly, independent of the three levels of relative semantics, the odds of accuracy were 0.48 times when class diagrams were consistent with business rules as they were when class diagrams were inconsistent with business rules. To gain insight into cognition under correct task performance, we conducted additional linear regression analysis on various eye tracking metrics for only the accurate responses. Again, synonymy was observed to be costly, with a cognitive burden of increased integrative transitions between statement and model in the range of 39 to 66%.
There is a widespread view that the process of adaptation in complex systems is made difficult due to an evolutionary cost of complexity that is reflected in lower evolvability. This line of reasoning suggests that organisms must have special properties to overcome this cost, such as integration, modularity, and robustness, and that the reduction in the rate of evolution and variational constraints could help explain why organisms might not respond to selection. Here, we discuss the issues that arise from this conviction and highlight an alternative view where complexity represents an opportunity by increasing the evolutionary potential of a population. We highlight the lack of evidence supporting the influence of complexity on evolvability. Empirical data on the patterns of contemporary selection are critical for understanding this relationship. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Volume 53 is November 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
The Enterprise Zone (EZ) policy model emerged in the 1980s and has constantly mutated. It has been repeatedly portrayed and promoted as a solution for reducing social and spatial inequalities by channeling investments and incentives to places falling behind. Nevertheless, academics and policy experts have persistently questioned the redistributive impacts of EZs. We suggest that a systematic examination of the details of policy design and implementing regulations can reveal why EZs might not have been set up for success and extract lessons from the US's 30 years of EZ experience. We propose an “EZ Equity Framework” that can be used by governments worldwide to strengthen the social impacts of EZ policies.
The error‐related negativity (ERN) is sensitive to individual differences relating to anxiety and is modulated by manipulations that increase the threat‐value of committing errors. In adults, the ERN magnitude is enhanced when errors are followed by punishment, especially among anxious individuals. Punitive parenting is related to an elevated ERN in children; however, the effects of task‐based punishment on the ERN in children have yet to be understood. Furthermore, there is a need to assess developmental periods wherein the ERN might be especially prone to modulation by punishment. We examined the impact of punishment on the ERN in a sample of children and assessed whether the impact of punishment on the ERN was moderated by age and anxiety. Punishment potentiated the ERN in children, especially among higher trait‐anxious individuals; the punishment potentiation of the ERN was also associated with older age. The interaction between child age and anxiety symptoms did not significantly predict the punishment potentiation of the ERN; however, both child age and anxiety symptoms uniquely predicted the punishment potentiation of the ∆ERN. Anxious children may be especially prone to punishment‐related alterations in error monitoring, and the impact of punishment on the ERN may become more pronounced as children age.
This paper develops a model for describing a stochastic age-dependent population system (SADPS) with Lévy noise in a polluted environment. As the model includes a nonlinear drift term and Lévy noise, it is difficult, if not impossible, to derive an analytical solution of the model. This study thus aims at developing a numerical algorithm that is based on a modified truncated Euler-Maruyama (EM) method and positivity preserving. We first study global positivity for the solution of the SADPS model in a polluted environment. Subsequently, we present a semi-discrete Galerkin finite element method in an age variable, and construct a full-discrete numerical approximation using modified truncated EM scheme on time to preserve positivity. Under certain suitable regularity conditions, estimates of convergence error of the full-discrete and a semi-discrete scheme are presented. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the theoretical results.
In the context of the critical need to support children’s early language development, teacher knowledge may enhance children’s opportunities to build linguistic skills. In this study we explored how early childhood teachers’ (n = 86) pedagogical content knowledge for language and vocabulary, and their book-reading implementation across the school year independently and jointly predicted children’s (n = 582; mean age = 49.76 months, SD = 7.06) growth and spring status on five standardized measures of vocabulary and syntax. Results indicated modest book-reading durations, on average, but also variability across teachers. Whereas there were limited or no main effects for book reading or teacher knowledge there were significant moderation effects in 6 of 10 models when predicting spring status and in 5 of 10 models when predicting growth. Findings suggest that longer fall book readings may be especially beneficial when teachers have low pedagogical knowledge, but that this pattern does not apply later in the school year. We discuss implications for future research, for understanding the constructs of knowledge and their role in authentic classroom practices, and for professional development.
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