Flinders University
  • Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
Recent publications
Stem cell transplantation has been proved a promising therapeutic instrument in intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). However, the elevation of oxidative stress in the degenerated region impairs the efficiency of mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation treatment via exaggeration of mitochondrial ROS and promotion of BMSCs apoptosis. Herein, we applied an emulsion-confined assembly method to encapsulate Coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10), a promising hydrophobic antioxidant which targets mitochondria ROS, into the lecithin micelles, which renders the insoluble Co-Q10 dispersible in water as stable colloids. These micelles are injectable, which displayed efficient ability to facilitate Co-Q10 to get into BMSCs in vitro, and exhibited prolonged release of Co-Q10 in intervertebral disc tissue of animal models. Compared to mere use of Co-Q10, the Co-Q10 loaded micelle possessed better bioactivities, which elevated the viability, restored mitochondrial structure as well as function, and enhanced production of ECM components in rat BMSCs. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the injection of this micelle with BMSCs retained disc height and alleviated IVDD in a rat needle puncture model. Therefore, these Co-Q10 loaded micelles play a protective role in cell survival and differentiation through antagonizing mitochondrial ROS, and might be a potential therapeutic agent for IVDD.
Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) has been gaining adoption within the mining industry for managing surplus water volumes and reducing the groundwater impacts of dewatering. This paper reviews MAR for mining and includes an inventory of twenty-seven mines using or considering MAR for current or future operations. Most mines using MAR are in arid or semi-arid regions and are implementing it through infiltration basins or bore injection to manage surplus water, preserve aquifers for environmental or human benefit, or adhere to licencing that requires zero surface discharge. Surplus water volumes, hydrogeological conditions and economics play a pivotal role in the feasibility of MAR for mining. Groundwater mounding, well clogging, and interaction between adjacent mines are common challenges. Mitigation strategies include predictive groundwater modelling, extensive monitoring programs, rotation of infiltration or injection facilities, physical and chemical treatments for clogging, and careful location for MAR facilities in relation to adjacent operations. Should water availability alternate between shortage and excess, injection bores may be used for supply, thus reducing costs and risks associated with drilling new wells. MAR, if applied strategically, also has the potential to accelerate groundwater recovery post- mine closure. The success of MAR for mining is emphasised by mines opting to increase MAR capacity alongside dewatering expansions, as well as prospective mines proposing MAR for future water requirements. Upfront planning is the key to maximising MAR benefits. Improved information sharing could help increase awareness and uptake of MAR as an effective and sustainable mine water management tool. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Objective: The scaphoid is proposed to be driven by the distal carpal row in scapholunate instability (SLI) as it is dissociated from the proximal row. The aim of this study was to describe the 6 degrees of freedom kinematics of the scaphoid using dynamic CT in the normal and SLI wrists. We hypothesised that the SLI scaphoid would demonstrate kinematic evidence conforming to distal row motion. Materials and methods: We studied dynamic CT scans of 17 SLI and 17 normal wrists during ulnar to radial deviation and extension to flexion. The radio-scaphoid angles in three anatomic planes were calculated in the wrist neutral position and during wrist motion. The centroid position was also calculated in the wrist neutral position and during wrist motion. The scapho-capitate motion index (SCI) was calculated as a ratio between the scaphoid and the capitate motion. Results: In the neutral position of the wrist, the SLI scaphoid was flexed, internally rotated, and radially translated compared to the normal scaphoid. During wrist motion, the SLI scaphoid had more 'in-plane' motion and less 'out-of-plane' motion with a higher SCI during wrist neutral to radial deviation and extension to neutral. Conclusion: We have described the malalignment of the SLI scaphoid in the neutral position of the wrist and 6 degrees of freedom kinematics during wrist motion of the SLI scaphoid compared to the normal. The SLI scaphoid conformed more to the distal row motion than the normal scaphoid. This information may help define the surgical reconstruction techniques for SLI.
Objective: The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to identify the characteristics of internet-based psychoeducational programs for caregivers of people living with dementia and to synthesise program effectiveness. Method: Five English databases and four Chinese databases were searched in June 2021 with no time limit applied. A narrative summary was performed to describe the characteristics of studies reviewed. Meta-analysis was applied to synthesise the pooled effects where data were available. Results: A total of 14352 articles were identified from the database search and 19 were included in the final review. Interventions comprised educational, psychological, and behavioural training relevant to dementia care. Program duration ranged from 3 weeks to 12 months. Meta-analysis of 13 RCTs showed that internet-based psychoeducational programs had a significant effect on reducing caregivers' depressive symptoms (SMD -0.19; 95% CI -0.03 - 0.35) and stress (SMD -0.29; 95% CI -0.03 -0.54). However, these programs did not show an effect on quality of life, anxiety, burden or self-efficacy in caregivers. Conclusion: Internet-based psychoeducational programs can improve some aspects of caregivers' mental health and emotional wellbeing. The effects of programs on self-efficacy, anxiety, burden and quality of life for caregivers remain inconclusive.
The visual and performing arts can be instrumental in exposing the complexity of the numerous forms violence against women and girls takes, and in exploring old and new forms of resistance. The articles in this special issue emerged from a three-year project of the Visual and Performance Studies Research Group funded by the Australasian Centre for Italian Studies (ACIS) to examine the representation of violence against women and their resistance to such violence in Italy and beyond and contribute to analysis and understanding of how gendered violence and resistance to it are represented in the arts. A key strand concerned the arts in contemporary Italy, but its scope was broad and encouraged comparison with other societies in order to share significant aspects of the Italian situation with a wider audience, highlight the global scale of the problem, and help identify opportunities for collective resistance. This scope is reflected in the four pieces here, which examine the possibilities that different forms of representation can offer either to reinforce or contest violence against women.
The idea that human beings have a distinct moral worth—a moral significance over and above any moral worth, such as that may be, possessed by other animals—has a long history and has traditionally been taken for granted by philosophers and theologians. However, in a variety of quarters in recent philosophy, this idea has come into disrepute, seeming to indicate a mere prejudice in favour of our own species. For example, Peter Singer has argued that such a position is mere speciesism, a prejudice of a kind with racism and sexism in that it involves making moral distinctions between our own and other species that cannot be morally justified. What on such views is needed to justify any such distinction is a difference in terms of the morally relevant properties possessed by our own species as compared with other species. I will call this view the moral property view. Insofar as other species share with us morally relevant properties, for example the capacity to suffer cognitive ability and so on, it is mere prejudice not to accept moral requirements with respect to them as we do with respect to our own species. While on the surface such a view may seem morally enlightened, it indicates what will seem to many problematic moral judgments with respect to severely disabled human beings. In this paper, I will respond to these concerns by suggesting a different basis for the idea of human moral distinctiveness, one that draws on recent work by Wittgensteinian moral philosophers and which denies what I called above the property view. According to this view, while our shared life with other animals involves the recognition of their moral significance, our shared life with other human beings involves recognising that human beings as human beings have a distinctive moral value.
Social networks and access to resources are important to refugee integration but there is limited research with people from refugee and asylum-seeking backgrounds. This mixed methods paper reports on the social capital of refugees and asylum seekers and relevance to settlement satisfaction and integration. Surveys were completed by 423 adult refugees and asylum seekers living in South Australia. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 65 participants, purposively sampled from the survey, and analysed thematically. The survey indicated that satisfaction with social networks (neighbourhood, ethnic/cultural and general) was associated with satisfaction with social support, which were in turn associated with a sense of belonging and overall happiness with life in Australia. The interviews illustrated how bonding and bridging ties facilitated access to resources by providing emotional support, a sense of belonging and hope, and safety and security through friendship and connection, and the provision of practical support. However, there were limited linking ties and differing access to social capital across characteristics such as region of origin, immigration status, financial situation, English skills, and time in Australia, which can contribute to inequities over time. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of facilitating access to social capital to assist with resettlement and integration.
Background Transdisciplinary research and knowledge translation are increasingly regarded as key concepts underpinning applied research across the health and social sciences, due to their presumed potential in addressing complex, “wicked” problems and improving the use of research in practice and policy, respectively. Despite sharing an impact mandate, the relationship between transdisciplinary research collaboration and knowledge translation remains unclear. In response, we examined the relationship between transdisciplinary collaboration and knowledge translation to generate these understandings with a view towards maximizing the impact of collaborative efforts. Methods We undertook a realist evaluation and longitudinal case study of a 5-year National Health and Medical Research Council-funded Centre of Research Excellence in Transdisciplinary Frailty Research. Data were collected between February 2017 and March 2020 over three rounds of theory development, refinement and testing using interviews, observation, document review and visual elicitation as data sources. The Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of Adelaide approved this study. Results Iterative analysis of narrative interviews and visual data led to the development of three overarching programme theories explicating the reciprocal relationship between KT understandings and transdisciplinary team process. These programme theories revolve around the concept of a network, which we define in alignment with extant theoretical literature on network mechanisms and complex networks as graphically representable networks of agents/people (nodes) joined by social relationships (links). Our findings demonstrate that under the right contextual conditions, transdisciplinary team members respond through an improved ability to (1) navigate the network, (2) negotiate the network and (3) mobilize the network. Conclusions This research demonstrates the reciprocity and mutually supportive relationship between transdisciplinary research and knowledge translation. Our findings suggest that embedding a collaborative knowledge translation framework and providing resources such as facilitation and distributed leadership within a transdisciplinary team can improve collaboration and support transdisciplinary research objectives.
Objective: The majority of eating disorder (ED) carer research has been conducted with parents of adult patients, using qualitative methodologies, focusing on carer burden and distress during treatment. This article aimed to use results from a large, national, quantitative survey of parents of child or adolescent patients as a springboard for encouraging a more comprehensive investigation of parent experiences. Methods: The online survey assessed treatment experiences and parent distress (DASS-21) but also less commonly investigated topics including symptom detection, experiences with primary care providers, and impacts on parent physical and psychological health, romantic relationship, finances, and employment. Results: Key findings included parents (N = 439; 91.6% female): were the first person to notice the ED symptoms in 81.8% of cases; had only a 14.7% chance of a helpful experience with both the first general practitioner and first therapist they saw; needed to see M = 3.55 therapists before finding one that could help; reported worse than normal psychological health (96.0%), physical health (70.5%), and romantic relationship (92.7%); required M = 70.06 days leave from work to care for their child (per household); and 91.8% accessed treatment in the private sector with median out-of-pocket expenses of AUD 10,0001-AUD 20,000. Discussion: Recommendations to address research and practice gaps include: increased focus on supporting initial symptom detection; improving primary care and treatment experiences; and, increasing the number of ED treatment providers. Urgently needed are solutions to the overwhelming demand for services and clearly, more support for parents. Such strategies are vital for reducing the overall burden of EDs. Public significance: Most eating disorder (ED) caregiver research has focused on experiences of supporting adult patients during treatment. This article used a large national survey to explore parent experiences of their child or adolescent's ED in less commonly investigated areas, such as detection, primary care, impact on parent physical and psychological health, romantic relationship, employment and finances. Findings suggested mixed experiences with health care providers and a very significant toll of the illness on the domains measured. Recommendations were provided for how these important areas can be addressed.
Introduction: The diagnosis of mesothelioma in situ (MIS) is now accepted by the WHO as a pre-invasive neoplastic mesothelial proliferation and considered a diagnosis based on histologic evaluation only. Although the definition of MIS includes recurrent effusions, little is known about the cytologic features of such effusions. Since mesothelioma is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis, early detection of a neoplastic mesothelial population in such effusions can potentially have a positive impact on the management of such a dire disease. Materials and methods: We reviewed a total of 18 pleural effusions from nine patients with recurrent effusions. Of these, five patients had follow-up biopsies diagnosed as MIS and the remaining four cases had negative radiology and malignant cytology proven by molecular markers (BAP1, MTAP or CDKN2A deletion) and at least 1 year follow-up with no overt mass identified by radiology. Results: Initial effusions may mimic reactive mesothelial hyperplasia or exhibit atypia. As effusions recur, the cellularity and atypia increase and the mesothelial proliferation becomes morphologically indistinguishable from mesothelioma. Molecular alterations diagnostic of mesothelioma can be detected in these effusions, even in the initial-benign/reactive appearing ones. The cellularity and atypia detected in such effusions surpassed those noted on the biopsies, raising questions regarding the cause of such discrepancy. Conclusion: The diagnosis of MIS can be suspected based on malignant effusion cytology supported by molecular alterations. We propose that the proliferation of neoplastic mesothelial clones represent a clinically silent "liquid phase MIS stage" corresponding to in situ stage in other organs.
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9,425 members
Judith Dwyer
  • Department of Health Care Management
Ganesh Naik
  • Adelaide Institute for Sleep Health
David Campbell
  • Centre for Remote Health (Alice Springs)
Gregory Ian Bain
  • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Trauma
Munish Puri
  • College of Medicine and Public Health
Sturt Road, 5042, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
Head of institution
Professor Colin Stirling
+61 8 8201 3911