Federal University of Technology, Akure
  • Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
Recent publications
The concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Pb and Ni) in topsoil samples around Obajana Cement Plc was determined to assess the impact of cement dust emitted from the factory environment. The analysis was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Samples of the topsoil were collected from the factory at various distance points. The control was collected from a sparsely populated area which is 15 km away from the factory. The pH of the soils ranges from 6.18 to 8.43 against a controlled pH of 6.11. The EC level decreases with increasing distances from the factory. The soils of all the studied sites have very low silt content and a high sand content. There was significant decrease in Cr, Cu and Cd with an increase in the distance from the cement factory. The concentrations of the metals at each point were below the WHO standard of the individual metal in the soil.
Background Soil-Transmitted Helminths are a group of parasites that cause gastrointestinal infections in humans and require the soil to develop into their infective forms. Ecological factors such as soil temperature, soil pH and rainfall patterns are, however, important determinants for the successful transmission of soil helminths as they play a major role in their abundance and survival in the soil. The study investigated the ecological factors influencing the transmission of soil-transmitted helminths in Ifedore district, Southwest Nigeria. Results Out of the one hundred and ninety-two (192) soil samples from the study area, one hundred and fifty-two 152 (79.2%) were positive for the presence of soil helminths’ larvae and ova. Higher occurrence of soil helminths was recorded during the rainy months ( n = 416) than during the months with no records of rainfall ( n = 290). Sandy soil had the highest number of soil helminths 285 (40.4%), while clay soil recorded the least 88 (12.5%). Soil temperature showed negative correlations with the occurrence of Ancylostoma duodenale ( r = − 0.53) and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae ( r = − 0.36), while soil conductivity showed positive correlations with the occurrence of Ascaris lumbricoides ( r = 0.28) and A. duodenale ( r = 0.34). Conclusion It is evident from the study that ecological factors played a significant role in the occurrence and abundance of soil-transmitted helminths. This research is important for predicting and monitoring soil-transmitted helminthiasis in endemic countries, and to devise effective control measures.
Background Green synthesis of nanoparticles with medicinal plants has inherent potential in the management of diabetes mellitus. This study synthesized Momordica charantia nanoparticles using silver nitrate to investigate the antidiabetic properties of this extract and the synthesized nanoparticles in vivo . Results The M. charantia nanoparticles used were synthesized biologically under ambient conditions from methanolic leaf extract of M. charantia using 1 mM concentration of aqueous silver nitrate and characterized using spectroscopic methods, FTIR and scanning electron microscopy . In vivo, the antidiabetic activity of M. charantia nanoparticle was assessed in streptozotocin-induced (65 mg/kg) rats. Rats were treated with M. charantia nanoparticle (50 mg/kg), aqueous leaf extract (100 mg/kg) metformin (100 mg/kg) and silver nitrate nanoparticle (10 mg/kg) for 21 days. Following treatment, rats were killed for biochemical analysis. Also, reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction analyses of Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5, glucagon-like peptide-1, Insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase and Nuclear factor-erythroid factor 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) - were carried out in the pancreas. A significant reduction in blood sugar levels was noted in rats treated with M. charantia nanoparticles. A reduction ( p < 0.05) of pancreas alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase was observed when compared with diabetic untreated rats. M. charantia nanoparticles significantly increase the antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats when compared with diabetic untreated rats. The decrease in the level of triglyceride, cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein was observed when compared with diabetic control rats and also a significant increase in the expression of Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5, glucagon-like peptide-1, insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase and NFE2-related factor 2 genes was observed when compared with diabetic untreated rats. Conclusions Momordica charantia nanoparticles exhibited potential antidiabetic activity in the rat model of diabetes and thus may serve as a therapeutic agent that could be developed for medical applications in the future.
Background Food hygiene and safety is of utmost importance for public health, as it helps to protect the health of consumers from foodborne illnesses. Although, hundreds of plant species have been screened and tested for antimicrobial properties, the vast majority of these plants have not been adequately screened and evaluated. Considering the vast potentiality of plants as sources for antimicrobial drugs, the present research aimed to evaluate antioxidant, phytochemicals and determine the antibacterial activity of M. charantia (Linn) on pathogenic organism from Ready-to-eat food sold in Akure metropolis. Results Bacteria isolated from RTE food studied belong to the following genera; Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Citrobacter, Pectobacterium, Klebsiella, Bacillus, Kocuria, Kluyveria, Serratia, Pantoea, Enterobacter and Salmonella . The antibiotic susceptibility pattern revealed that the Gram negative organisms were more susceptible to Gentamycin (30 µg) while Streptomycin (30 µg) was found to be more potent on Gram positive organisms. Water and ethanol extracts showed significant to moderate antibacterial activity toward all tested isolates except; Escherichia vulneris and Kluyveria intermedia which are both resistant to the aqueous extracts of M. charantia and the latter which was resistant to the ethanoic extract. The highest inhibitory activity was observed for Bacillus cereus with zone of inhibition of diameters 28 ± 0.29 l (mm), followed by Escherichia vulneris 25 ± 0.29 l (mm). DDPH% Inhibition has higher value in the water extract (69.21 ± 0.882 a ) while lower value was recorded in the ethanol extract (67.89 ± 0.155 b ). % Iron chelation has higher value in the ethanol extract (121.87 ± 0.882 a ) while lower value was recorded in the water extract (97.28 ± 0.155 b ). In all the concentration, vitamin C was higher in the ethanol extract than in the water extract. Conclusions The study revealed that all the Ready-to-eat food had a total bacterial count that are below potentially hazardous count although the presence of some microorganisms that are of health significance were observed. The study also confirmed that M. charantia (Linn) extracts had antibacterial effect against tested isolates from Ready-to-eat food sold in Akure metropolis. Based on the findings of this great research work, Mormordica charantia (Linn) possesses antioxidant activity that could prevent oxidative stress and degenerative diseases.
Abstract Background Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (CN) and Oreochromis niloticus (ON) health status were investigated in Asejire Reservoir (AR) and Lagos Lagoon (LL), South-west Nigeria. Fish samples collected were separated into sexes. Growth pattern {length (cm); weight (g), Isometric index, condition factor (K)} were measured. Heavy metals (lead (Pb), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and chromium (Cr) in ppm concentrations were determined in Lagos Lagoon and Asejire reservoir. Results Fish samples ranged at one male to one or two females. No significant difference in length and weight of O. niloticus between locations. Significant difference in weight occurred in C. nigrodigitatus between locations; highest condition factor was recorded in Asejire Reservoir O. niloticus, (ARON); lowest condition factor was observed in Asejire Reservoir C. nigrodigitatus (ARCN) as this indicated a negative allometric value, normal in Bagridae species. Male species possessed higher condition (K)—factor than female species within locations, between locations, between species, and within species, female C. nigrodigitatus having higher condition factor than male ARCN. Highest isometric value occurred in ARON and lowest in Lagos Lagoon C. nigrodigitatus (LLCN). Male ARON had highest isometric value, and O. niloticus species had higher isometric value (b ≤ 3) and positive allometric (b > 3); and C. nigrodigitatus has negative allometric (b
Background Odonata (dragonfly and damselfly) are particularly good indicators of freshwater ecosystem health. The constant disturbance of freshwater habitats can result in the reduction of Odonata species diversity. Changes in Odonata biodiversity are influenced by several human activities, such as agriculture, urbanization, input of pollutants in water and construction. This study was carried out to assess the abundance and diversity of Odonata, evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of water, and compare the community structure of Odonata at three selected sites along River Aponmu in Ipogun. Adult odonates were sampled and identified for 11 months using a sweep net, water samples were collected and some parameters were determined during the study period. Results A total of 906 specimens representing sixty-four (64) species and sixteen (16) genera in seven (7) families (Coenagrionidae, Lestidae, Platycnemididae, Chlorocyphidae, Calopterygidae, Libellulidae, and Gomphidae) were collected and identified. Of the 906 specimens, Libellulidae had the highest percentage composition (44%) with 395 individuals out of which Trithemis arteriosa (a pollution tolerant species) had the highest number of individuals (225) and Gomphidae had the lowest percentage composition (0.03%) with 1 individual. Most of the species collected are known for their tolerance to disturbed environments. They include Pseudagrion melanicterum , Paragomphus genei, and Orthetrum Julia . Aponmu area had the highest species diversity ( H ′ = 2.312) while Idi area had the least species diversity ( H ′ = 2.021). Alaasin area had the highest Simpson_ d value (0.8557) and the best taxa distribution (Evenness = 0.524; Equitability_ J = 0.7764) which makes the area more pristine than other sites while Aponmu area had the least distribution (Evenness = 0.3365; Equitability_ J = 0.6798). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) result of physicochemical parameters revealed that temperature (°C), pH, Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L), turbidity (NTU), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (mg/L), NO 3 (mg/L), and PO 4 (mg/L) did not show significant difference at the three sites while EC (µS/cm) and TDS (mg/L) which have moderately high mean values indicated significant difference at Aponmu area ( p < 0.05). T. arteriosa exhibited a weak negative correlation to both temperature and DO. Conclusions This study has provided information on Odonata assemblage at River Aponmu and infers based on the assemblage that the river may be somewhat polluted at the period the research was carried out. It is therefore recommended that efforts should therefore be taken to discourage water pollution in order to preserve the diversity of these insects and the water quality.
Background Honey is consumed for the derived benefits as sweetener, for healing wounds, skin burns, regulating blood sugar level, treatments of some ailments, etc. In Nigeria, adulteration of honey is a serious concern, and these adulterated or fake honeys have health implications. This research aims to compare and contrast the physicochemical qualities, functional health and medicinal values of honey samples from local honey parkers, supermarkets and beekeepers’ sales outlets in Southwest Nigeria. Results The darkness of the honey from the three sources was significantly different. The honey samples from the beekeepers have ash contents values of 0.25–1.0 in line with CAC and IHC, whereas 7(46.66%) and 2(13.33%) of honey samples from the supermarkets and local handlers/parkers, respectively, deviated from this standard values. The wound healing development after 8 days of topical treatment of incision wounds with honey from beekeepers shows a good development. 93.3% of the honeys sourced from the beekeepers, 58.06 and 66.05% of the honeys sourced from the supermarkets, and the local honey markets were found to be original. Conclusion The originality of honey for consumers’ satisfaction is dependent on the complimentary factors of physicochemical properties, functional health and medicinal values. These findings provide information for consumers’ awareness on categorization of honey as original/pure, adulterated and fake and the health implications.
Background Indiscriminate disposal of polyethylene materials has become a regular practice among developing nations of Africa, especially in Nigeria. This has resulted in environmental pollution; hence, this study investigates the microbial degradation of polyethylene obtained from a polyethylene dumpsite in South West, Nigeria, under static in vitro condition. Soil samples were analysed for mineral composition and physicochemical characteristics. The fungal isolates were screened for polyethylene degradation using minimal salt medium containing polyethylene as sole source of carbon and nitrogen for their ability to degrade polyethylene. Gravimetric analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to monitor the biodegradation of the polyethylene. Results Aspergillus flavus , A. nidulans , Penicillium chrysogenum , Mucor mucedo , Eurotium repens , A. fumigatus and Rhizopus stolonifer were enumerated. Mean microbial count ranged from 1.37 × 10 ⁷ to 8.2 × 10 ⁸ SFU/g. Individual weight loss was observed in the polyethylene strip cultured with P. chrysogenum (1%), E. repens (1%) and A. nidulans (2%). The changes observed in the FTIR spectra especially the polyethylene sample inoculated with A. nidulans confirm the significant role of fungi in polyethylene degradation. Hence, its usage in the treatment of polyethylene in the environment is a cheap eco-friendly alternative. Conclusion Aspergillus nidulans , E. repens and P. notatum play significant roles in the biodegradation of polyethylene which necessitates incorporating in polyethylene products waste management to foster a cleaner environment.
Background A lot of factors contribute to the breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes, especially vectors of malaria parasites. This indirectly contributes to the transmission of these parasites. The physicochemical parameters associated with the population of Anopheles larvae were studied for the period of twelve months in five selected communities in Akure North Local Government area of Ondo State. This study was carried out to understand the relationship between selected physicochemical parameters and the population of Anopheles larvae in the study area. Results Electrical conductivity was significantly correlated with the abundance of An. gambiae and An. funestus in the area ( r = 0.840 and 0.843, respectively). Abundance of Anopheles larvae follows a positive linear regression with electrical conductivity ( R ² = 0.691). The pH was not significantly different in all the communities ( P > 0.05); pH was negatively correlated with the abundance of An. gambiae and An. funestus larvae, r = − 0.530 and − 0.470, respectively. Anopheles larvae population decreases as pH increases ( R ² = 0.292). Total dissolved solid was positively correlated with the abundance of Anopheles larvae, though the correlation was weak ( r = 0.21). There was slightly increase in Anopheles larvae population as total dissolved solid increases ( R ² = 0.048). The abundance of Anopheles larvae increases as the dissolved oxygen, R ² = 0.552. Dissolved oxygen was not significantly correlated with Anopheles larvae population ( r = − 0.734 and − 0.789 , respectively), there was no significant difference across the study area ( P > 0.05). Temperature was significantly correlated with the abundance of Anopheles larvae ( r = 0.74). Anopheles larvae increase as the temperature increases ( R ² = 0.582). Conclusions The study revealed the important physicochemical parameters that influence the abundance of Anopheles larvae in the study area. Manipulation of these important parameters could help in reducing the population of the immature stages of this vector.
Hot working processes are notable processes for transforming as-cast or wrought metallic materials, including shape memory alloys (SMAs), into semi-finished or finished products for various industrial applications. It is expected that this processing aimed at improving the workability of the SMAs, should preserve their mechanical strength and functional characteristics – in particular, their shape memory characteristics. In conventional alloys, material properties have been tailored through careful control of the hot deformation process parameters. In the case of SMAs, analyses of information on hot deformation processing and the impact on flow behaviour, mechanical and shape memory features, has not been comprehensively covered in review literatures. This review attempts to fill this gap through a systematical analyses of hot deformation behaviour of NiTi, Cu-based and Fe-based SMAs. The observations indicated that plastic flow progressed by work hardening, softening and steady-state flow mechanisms, and dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization, dominated as deformation mechanisms. Their prevalence was largely shape memory alloy (SMA) type, composition, strain rate and deformation temperature, dependent. The strength, hardness and ductility of the SMAs generally improved after hot deformation processing; however, the transformation temperatures and shape memory properties, were found to decrease in most cases (albeit, the Cu based SMAs exhibited improved superelasticity).
The consumption of imported dairy products is high especially in developing countries including Nigeria where little or no milk is produced locally which makes the products expensive, out of reach to common consumers and also inconvenient for lactose intolerance and vegans. Soymilk, as plant-based milk was substituted for cow’s milk in parts and in whole for the production of yoghurt and the effect of substitution was evaluated on the minerals, vitamins, microbial, and sensory properties of the products using the established methods. Significant differences ( p < 0.05) exits among the yoghurt samples in the micronutrient contents. The soymilk substitution produced yoghurts with trace/macro mineral contents’ range of 0.14–28.50 mg/100 g and vitamin contents (ranged 0.02–0.43 mg/100 g) that were of comparable range of values with the yoghurt made with 100% cow’s milk (0.21–29.60 mg/100 g minerals and 0.05–0.58 mg/100 g vitamins). Generally, no significant difference ( p < 0.05) was observed in most of the sensory attributes evaluated (range 8.00–8.01) in the entire samples (except in the 100% soymilk yoghurt). The microbial analysis proved the safety of the entire products for consumption. These showed the positive effect of substituting soymilk for cow’s milk at all the levels used, thus, the lactose intolerance and vegans can find alternative to dairy yoghurt in the 100% soymilk substitution and enjoy the functional health benefits of yoghurt. Also, the total dependence on importation of dairy milk and cost of production of composited milk yoghurt could be reduced to improve the nation’s economy and make the product economically accessible to common man. Graphical abstract
The synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films materials was carried out in three electrode configurations on electrically conductive fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The materials were synthesized due to their wide range of applications in photovoltaic devices. Despite the potentials of the materials in heterojunction-based devices, little efforts have been made to place the materials side by side to be able to suggest the most environmentally friendly with good potentials for solar cell applications. In this paper, we synthesized and characterized the materials using electrodeposition (ED) technique for materials’ synthesis, X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) for structural properties, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for morphological properties, Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) with X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) for elemental composition and Ultraviolet Visible spectrophotometer (UV–vis) for optical properties. The XRD results show an increase in the crystallite sizes of the materials with increasing cathodic voltages from 10.30 to 15.20 nm; the SEM results show evenly distributed and adherent materials on the substrate; the EDX and XRF results show the qualitative and quantitative elements present; and the UV-vis results show a decrease in the energy band gap with increasing cathodic voltage of both CdS and ZnS thin films from 2.53 to 2.29 eV and 3.78–3.56 eV, respectively.
In this article, the peristaltic flow of blood-based nanofluid is examined numerically by employing the generalized differential quadrature method. The Casson constitutive model is adopted to depict the flow characteristics in a uniform wavy tube. Besides, the non-Newtonian nature and heat transfer feature of the nanofluidic medium are also scrutinized properly in the presence of platelet magnetite nanoparticles Fe3O4. After deriving the governing conservation equations, the resulting flow model is modeled successfully under the realistic assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. Also, the experimentally tested correlations related to the thermophysical properties of nanofluids are incorporated in the conservation equations to explore the effect of adding magnetite nanoparticles in the biofluidic medium. Mathematically, the obtained partial differential equations are transformed into the dimensionless form by utilizing feasible transformations. Furthermore, the impacts of sundry physical parameters on the trapping phenomena, pressure gradient, velocity, wall shear stress, and temperature are discussed thoroughly for the present MHD non-Newtonian nanofluid flow model via various displays.
Environmental sustainability is a huge challenge in Africa as the region is currently struggling to provide sustainable systems to support daily human activities. Such activities in many African organisations include paper-based information storage and communication which are not ecofriendly and place a huge burden on forest resources. This study therefore focused on the implication of overusing paper in an African university. Fifty offices in the university were surveyed and 59 questionnaires administered. The questionnaires were transcribed and analysed using both textual qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results showed that 6888 reams of paper (costing about 8 million Naira) are consumed annually by the university, translating to about 413 trees, which are enough to occupy a standard-sized football pitch. It was also found that administrative staff members were generally Information Communication Technology (ICT) certified; however, many of them are still not well-informed on the environmental implication of overconsuming paper even though they are largely aware of the benefits of paperless systems. Recommendations were offered on how to reduce the demand for paper by the university. This study is expected to create more awareness on the urgent need for African organisations to take environmental sustainability issues more seriously.
Africa is particularly affected by climate change due to its exposure to climate hazards, high vulnerability, and low adaptive capacity. Yet, Africa is also a continent rich in Indigenous and Local Knowledge (ILK) that has a long history of informing responses to climatic variability and change. This paper explores the extent to which ILK has been used in climate change adaptation in Africa. It deploys a bibliometric analysis to describe the connections between ILK and climatic change adaptation in Africa, complemented by an analysis of ILK literature and case studies. We consider four key dimensions of ILK, 1) type, 2) contexts of application, 3) value for adaptation, and 4) outcomes and effects in responses to climate change in Africa. Examples drawn from 19 countries across Africa highlight ILK systems are closely connected with biocultural relationships associated with observed patterns of climate change and where adaptation can be more effective when informed by ILK. This body of knowledge is critical to the delivery of climate change adaptation in Africa. The paper suggests some measures through which ILK may be more widely leveraged, both for improved adaptation outcomes, as well as enhancing the biocultural heritage value of ILK systems across Africa. The study commends the remarkable value of ILK in Africa for climate change adaptation and its value for supplementing climate services, particularly in areas with limited access to modern climate and weather forecasts as well as the encouragement of Indigenous communities to develop senses of ownership and active contribution to the sustainability of the future interventions.
Management of heat energy and control of temperature distribution are major problems in the industry. With emphasis on the heat and mass transfer when the volume of nanoparticles is small and large, nothing is known on forced convection flow of water at different temperatures conveying platelet aluminum nanoparticles, cylindrical magnesium oxide nanoparticles, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles due to dual stretching on wedge surfaces. The mathematical model for the problem mentioned above is presented in this report, transformed using similarity variables, and solved numerically using the approach of shooting technique together with fourth order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. The analysis of results, justification, and discussion of results was established after the positive outcome of the reliability and validity. It is worth concluding that as time goes on in all the four cases of water at different temperature as in the case of four ternary-hybrid nanofluid flows, the local skin friction coefficients increases at the rate of 0.07 when the volume of nanoparticles is small and at a most minimum rate of 0.008 when the volume of nanoparticles is large. At 80°C temperature of water-based ternary hybrid nanofluid, as time grows large, the heat transfer decreases at the optimal rate of −0.354681119 when the volume of nanoparticles is small but the same heat transfer increases at the minima rate of 0.159722534 when the volume of nanoparticles is large.
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3,088 members
Olurotimi Akintunde Dahunsi
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering
Olusegun V. Oyetayo
  • Department of Microbiology
Ajayi Vincent
  • Department of Meteorology and Climate Science
Adekunle Anthony Ogunjinmi
  • Department of Ecotourism and Wildlife Management
Ukwenya Okoliko Victor
  • Department of Human Anatomy
Ilesa-Owo Expressway, 340001, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
Head of institution
Prof. J. A. Fuwape
+234 803 333 0057