Background Exposure to cadmium is implicated in the etiology of some neurodegenerative diseases. Compounds isolated from Ipomoea cairica extract are neuroprotective. However, there is no reported neuroprotective activity of the crude extract of I. cairica (ICE). We investigated the neuroprotective activity of I. cairica extract against cadmium-induced biochemical changes in the brain of male Wistar rats. Thirty-six animals were divided into four groups of 9 animals per group: group I (Control); group II (3.5 mg/kg CdCl 2 ); group III (100 mg/kg ICE + CdCl 2 ); and group IV (250 mg/kg ICE + CdCl 2 ). Animals were pretreated with 100 and 250 mg/kg ICE before co-administration with cadmium chloride. Results CdCl 2 treatment caused a significant increase in acetylcholineesterase activity, lipid peroxidation, beta-amyloid aggregation, caspase 3 and 9, p53, and glutamate concentration. In addition, CdCl 2 caused a significant decrease in catalase activity, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, Na+/K+ ATPase, and glutamate dehydrogenase. ICE was able to reduce the neuronal damaging effect of CdCl 2 by acting as an antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anticholinesterase, and antiexcitotoxicity. Conclusions Our findings show that Ipomoea cairica leaf can be developed and included in the natural product in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.
The current work investigated the chemical profile, antimalarial potential and capacity of hydroethanolic Senna alata extract (SAE) to reverse hematological and biochemical pertubation in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Results of the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, steroids and cardiac glycosides. Total phe-nolic and flavonoid content was estimated to be 45.29 ± 2.34 mg GAE/g and 25.22 ± 2.26 mg QE/g respectively. In vitro analysis of the extract also confirmed its antioxidant property. Results of the test for prophylaxis of P. berghei indicated that SAE suppressed parasitemia significantly in treated groups in a dose dependent manner when compared with negative control group. Similarly, SAE improved the mean survival time (MST) and packed cell volume (PCV) of infected mice. The test for curative effect showed that SAE significantly suppressed parasitemia to 4.50 ± 1.05% compared to untreated group 29.83 ± 3.49%. Results of liver and kidney functions indices of treated animals indicated that whereas infection with P. berghei caused increase in the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, urea and creatinine, treatment with SAE significantly reversed the perturbation. Similarly, infected mice were dyslipi-demic with concomitant increased activity of HMG CoA reductase and decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes with increase in lipid peroxides levels. However, these alterations were significantly reversed by administration of SAE. Results of this study shows that Senna alata possess antimalarial activity and therefore justify the traditional use of plant for the treatment of malaria.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the development of institutional repositories in university libraries in Africa. An online questionnaire and institutional repository site investigation methods were used to collect data from 134 university libraries in English-speaking countries in Africa. The study finds that there is an increasing wave of development of institutional repositories in English-speaking countries in Africa. The majority of the institutional repositories contain high numbers of theses and dissertations, followed by journal articles and conference and workshop papers. The challenges that are identified include inadequate facilities, unstable Internet connectivity, a lack of funds, an irregular power supply, collecting material for institutional repositories, a lack of skilled information and communications technology personnel, copyright issues and an absence of institutional repository policies. The results from the study provide important data and insight into the development of institutional repositories in university libraries in the context of developing countries, and offer suggestions for university librarians and management teams.
Within the last decade alone different distribution platforms have emerged in the Nigerian movie industry. One of the most notable and potent among these is Netflix. Employing Disruptive Innovation Theory ( dit ) as notional scaffolding, this article uses key informant interviews ( kii ) and focus group discussions ( fgd ) to examine what Netflix’s engagement in Nollywood means in terms of the viability of other distribution outlets. It investigates the ‘good, the bad and the ugly’ sides of the Nollywood-Netflix relationship from the Nigerian audience perspective to give an understanding that can contribute to Nollywood’s healthy expansion. The study argues that the emergence of Netflix leaves many Nollywood content creators ( ncc s) begging for acceptance when their content is adjudged inconsequential. This must be creatively challenged and negotiated through ncc s and distributors using available technologies to improve production values, set up and collaboratively operate multiple online distribution platforms for the Nigerian audience’s satisfaction.
The study synthesized biodiesel from non-edible seed oils using a base catalyst derived from agricultural wastes. Oil extraction was carried out using continuous extraction process, and the physicochemical properties of the oil were determined prior to mixing using API gravity to determined the blend ratio. The base catalyst was developed from the powdered waste peels, and were analysed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET adsorption analysis, and Hammett indicator. Process optimization was carried out by considering varaibles such as: reaction time (60–80 min), catalyst amount (2–4 g), reaction temperature (60–80 °C), and methanol/oil molar (5–7 vol/vol) ratio using response surface methodology (RSM). The strength of the recycled calcined mixed powder (CMP) developed was tested via catalyst reusability test. Results showed oil mixed ratio of 29:50:21, the major element was K2O = 75.65% as found in CMP. Process optimization predicted a biodiesel yield of 96.63 (% wt.) at a reaction time of 80 min, CMP amount of 3.53 (g), reaction temperature of 90 °C, and CH3OH/OMR of 9:1 (ml/ml), at the desirability of 95.10% with p-value<0.0001. This value was validated in triplicate, an average mean value of 96.50 (% wt.) was obtained. The coefficient of determination (R-square) was 99.94%, and predicted coefficient of determination (R-square adjusted) was 99.99%. The strength of the recycled catalyst showed the catalyst is reuseable, and the produced biodiesel properties conform to the biodiesel recommended standard. The study concluded that the CMP successfully converted mixed oil to biodiesel, and the biodiesel can replaced conventional diesel when blend.
Immunization against infectious diseases is a lifelong engagement requiring proper record management. In recent times, following the outbreak of COVID-19, it has become imperative that immunization records done locally should be accessible as substantial accessible proof internationally, anywhere, anytime and for future use. Apart from the Electronic Management of Immunization Data (EMID), an initiative of the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) in response to the outbreak of COVID-19, that schedules and captures individual’s data for COVID-19 vaccination, the management of other Routine Immunization records in Nigeria is presently done manually with each immunized individual given an immunization card as proof of immunization, and for follow up on other doses of the vaccine. This method is not without its plethora of challenges. Leveraging mobile health solutions, especially one that places the individual at the centre will benefit the management of the immunization process in Nigeria. There have been a few mobile solution initiatives in Nigeria to address issues associated with managing the immunization process, but they have been fragmentary and have suffered setbacks. This study takes a holistic approach to the management of immunization and proposes a mobile healthcare technology framework using USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data), Short Message Service (SMS) and Mobile Application (Mobile App) towards the implementation of a versatile Mobile Health Solution for the management of immunization in Nigeria. Existing works of literature were reviewed, and interviews conducted amongst health workers and mobile developers. This framework serves as a launchpad for future mobile system Implementation that will continuously enforce scheduled vaccines, provide accurate population immunization coverage data, and combat vaccine hesitancy through effective communication and community engagement approaches.
The purpose of this study is to derive CaO-base catalysts from Theobroma cacao pod husks, apply them to synthesize fatty acid ethyl ester: FAEE using the blend of beef tallow-waste in the presence of ethanol. Process optimization of the production step (transesterification reaction) was carried out using a hybrid design so as determine optimum FAEE yield. Furthermore, the efficiencies of the catalyst were tested via the refining and reusability test. The produced catalysts (burnt, submerged and calcined) were analysed and characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET adsorption analysis, and Hammett indicator. The oil blends were carried out in the ratio of 5:95 (BTO5), 10:90 (BTO10),15:85 (BTO15), 20:80 (BTO20), 95:5 (BTO95), respectively, to produce low viscous oil to enhanced biodiesel production (FAEE). The productions of FAEEs were carried out by transterification in a single three-batch-necked reactor due to low acid value. Optimum biodiesels yield were determine using statistical analysis, while catalysts strength were tested by recycling, refining and reusability test. Results revealed the oil blends ratio of BTO60: WUO40 was sufficient to produced low viscous oil. Catalysts characterization revealed that the three catalysts produced high CaO-base of 68.20, 81.46, and 87.65 (wt.%). Based on process optimization and validation, the statistical model predicted a FAEE1 yield of 93.4998 (%wt.), FAEE2 yield of 95.2411 (%wt.), and FAEE3 yield of 99.8081 (%wt.) at the following variables conditions: reaction time of 78.58 min, catalyst amount of 3.37 (wt.%), reaction temperature of 79.23 °C, and EtOH/OMR of 1:6.66 (vol/vol), respectively. These values were validated in triplicate and an average optimum values of FAEEs obtained were: 92.8100 (%wt.) for FAEE1, 93.0200 (%wt.) for FAEE2, and 99.6400 (%wt.) for FAEE3, respectively. The qualities of the FAEEs are within the standard specification and the produced catalysts can serve as feedstocks for industrial applications.
Corrosion inhibition ability of synthesized Schiff base namely, N-(5-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzylidene) isonicotinohydrazide (NMHI) on copper in 3.5% NaCl solution was studied via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization (PP) and gravimetric study. Results showed NMHI to inhibit copper corrosion in chloride solution. The inhibition efficiency of NMHI was enhanced with an increase in the concentration but decreases with rising temperature. Maximum value of 97.7% inhibition efficiency was obtained with weight loss measurement at 303 K for the highest NMHI concentration (1 Â 10-3 M) used. Polarization studies indicated that NMHI acted as mixed kind of inhibitor. The Nyquist plot revealed that double-layer capacitance (C dl) declined and charge-transfer resistance (R ct) was enhanced with increase in NMHI concentrations, involving increased inhibition efficiency. NMHI adsorption onto the surface of copper obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Scanning electron micro-scopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology of uninhibited and inhibited copper surfaces. Ó 2022 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
On 20 October 2020, the military and police force opened fatal shootings at peaceful unarmed #EndSARS protesters. This article examines the political and socio-economic undercurrents of #EndSARS protest. It argues that the predatory state–society relations where the state is the predator and citizens are the preys nurtured the increasing distrust between the state and its citizens, and ultimately, resulted in the deepening mutual mistrust between the police and people. The article concludes that the #EndSARS protest created opportunity for the Nigerian state to accelerate and accumulate its bourgeoning repressive character instead of reducing it. It recommends symbiotic state–society relations.
The quest to suppress complications associated with diabetes mellitus is ever increasing, while food additives and preservatives are currently being considered to play additional roles besides their uses in food enhancement and preservation. In the present study, the protective prowess of a common food preservative (citric acid, CA) against advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) formation and its binding interaction mechanism with α-amylase (AMY), an enzyme linked with hyperglycemia management, were examined. Enzyme inhibition kinetics, intrinsic fluorescence, synchronous and 3D fluorescence spectroscopies, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermodynamics, and molecular docking analyses were employed. Results obtained showed that citric acid decreased α-amylase activity via mixed inhibition (IC50 = 5.01 ± 0.87 mM, Kic = 2.42 mM, Kiu = 160.34 mM) and suppressed AGEs formation (IC50 = 0.795 ± 0.001 mM). The intrinsic fluorescence of free α-amylase was quenched via static mechanism with high bimolecular quenching constant (Kq) and binding constant (Ka) values. Analysis of thermodynamic properties revealed that AMY-CA complex was spontaneously formed (ΔG<0), entropy driven (TΔS>ΔH), with involvement of electrostatic forces. UV-Vis, FT-IR and 3D fluorescence spectroscopies affirmed alterations in α-amylase native conformation due to CA binding interaction. CA interacted with His-101, Asp-197, His-299, and Glu-233 within AMY active site. Our findings indicated that CA could impair formation of AGEs and interact with α-amylase to slow down starch hydrolysis; vital properties in management of type 2 diabetes complications.
Lead exposure has been linked to health challenges involving multiple organ failure. More than fifty percent of lead present in the human body is accumulated in the liver causing hepatic injury. A major mechanism of lead toxicity is oxidative stress. TrévoTM is a nutritional supplement with numerous bioactive natural products with detoxifying and antioxidant properties. This study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of TrévoTM dietary supplements against lead-hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Thirty-five healthy animals were divided into five groups of seven each as follows: Group I=control; II=15 mg/kg of lead acetate (PbA); III= 2 mL/kg of TrévoTM + PbA; IV= 5 mL/kg of TrévoTM + PbA;V=5 mL/kg of TrévoTM . Animals were orally treated with TrévoTM for two days before co-administration with PbA intraperitoneally for 12 consecutive days. Animals were sacrificed 24 h after the last administration and blood were collected via cardiac puncture and processed for hematological parameters and assessment of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and albumin (ALB). The liver was excised and processed for markers of oxidative stress and histopathological examination. Intraperitoneal administration of 15 mg/kg of PbA caused a significant increase in serum concentration of AST, ALT, while the concentration of ALB was significantly decreased (P<0.001). PbA caused a significant reduction in packed cell volume, hemoglobin while the total white blood cell count, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils were increased. Oxidative stress was significantly pronounced in the liver of rats exposed to PbA as observed in the high concentration of malonedialdehyde, decreased concentration of glutathione, the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione-S-transferase. Pretreatment with TrévoTM was able to significantly prevent the anemic, oxidative damage, and hepatic injury initiated by PbA. Histological examination also corroborated the biochemical results. In conclusion, the study reveals that TrévoTM is effective in attenuating PbA-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats.
This study compared the effect of Using Puzzles and Probability Kits on Students' Achievement on Probability in Nigeria. A quasi-experimental research design was adopted for the study. The population consisted of all senior secondary school two (SS2) students with a total number of 25,672 students. The sample consisted of 109 students, from two schools in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. A group of students were taught probability using crossword puzzle games while the other group was taught probability using probability kit. The instruments used for data collection were Probability Interest Scale (PIS) and Probability Achievement Test (PAT) with reliability coefficient of 0.87 and 0.76 respectively. The scores obtained were analysed using mean, standard deviation and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) at .05 level of significance. The results revealed that the mean interest and achievement scores of students taught probability using crossword puzzle is higher than that of those taught using probability kits. However, there was no significant mean difference in the interest and achievement of students taught probability using crossword puzzle games and those taught probability using probability kit. Based on the findings of the study, therefore, it was recommended that teachers should use both crossword puzzle games and probability kits in teaching probability in order to enhance interest and achievement of students.
A new Schiff base, N-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene) isonicotinohydrazide (NBHI), has been synthesized and studied as an inhibitor of X70 carbon steel (CS) corrosion in aggressive 1 M HCl environment using gravimetric, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests, potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increase in NBHI concentration but decreased with rise in temperature. Inhibition efficiencies up to 96.7%, 97.0% and 94.2% were obtained respectively for weight loss, EIS and polarization measurements at 1.00 mM and 303 K. Polarization studies indicate that NBHI essentially behaved as a mixed-type inhibitor controlling both anodic and cathodic reactions. EIS results indicated that charge transfer resistance (R ct) increased while double layer capacitance (C dl) decreased with increasing NBHI concentration. The adsorption of NBHI onto the X70 CS surface obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. SEM analysis supported the protective film formation of NBHI on the steel surface. Quantum chemical calculations were used to study NBHI reactivity and the results complimented well with the experimental data.
This study emphasizes the use of Clarias gariepinus-Nicotiana tabacum-Elaeis guineensis oil blend for the synthesis of biodiesel using a CaO-based catalyst derived from waste cow horn and shells powder as a heterogeneous catalyst. Modelling capabilities of Response surface methodology was assessed in the production of biodiesel. A Hybrid Design was applied using reaction time (50–80 min), reaction temperature (50–80 °C), catalyst amount (2.0–5.0 %wt.), and CH3OH/OMR (1:4–1:7 v/v) as independent variables and biodiesel yield as the response. The derived catalyst was calcined at 900 °C for 3 h and was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. Statistical performance indicators showed the ratio of 2.3:1:2 of the blended oil obtained through American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity estimate produced low viscous and highly volatile blended oil. Catalyst characterization revealed 99.92% CaO-base were found in calcined derived catalyst (CDC) with high density basic site of 200 (μmole.m⁻²). The maximum experimental biodiesel yield of 99.20 (% wt.) at runs 11 was obtained, but the statistical optimization predicted a maximum biodiesel yield of 99.33 (wt. %) at the reaction time of 79.79 min, the reaction temperature of 79.68 °C, the catalyst amount of 5.0 (wt. %), and the CH3OH/OMR of 4.15:1, respectively. This result was validated in triplicate, and an average optimum biodiesel yield of 99.19 (%wt.) was obtained. The ANOVA analysis showed the variable factors were remarkably significant with p-value<0.05 and high R² of 99.99%. The produced biodiesel met the European (DIN EN 14214) and American (ASTM D6751) standard specifications.
In this study, the concentration, distribution, ecological and health risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water and sediment samples from Udu River, Niger Delta Nigeria, was assessed. Water and sediment samples were collected at five different points along the course of the River, which were in proximity to human population. Water samples were liquid-liquid extracted using a mixture of n-hexane and dichloromethane, while sediment samples were soxhlet extracted using acetone/dichloromethane/ n- hexane mixture. Extracted PCB congeners were quantified using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The results revealed that only PCB-167 was detected in water samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.02–1.86 mg L − 1 . For sediment samples, the concentration of Ʃ 29 PCBs ranged from 5.34 to 16.1 ng g − 1 . The determined PCB concentrations in both water and sediment samples were within regulatory limits. The concentration of dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) ranged from 1.07–5.36 ng g − 1 . The toxic equivalence values for dl-PCBs varied between 0.0065–0.018, which were within the sediment quality guideline value of 0.0215 ng g − 1 . The calculated health risk assessment values were below the respective risk values for non-cancer and cancer risk evaluations. The results suggest minimal ecological and potential risk linked with exposure to PCBs in water and sediments from Udu River.
Background Exposure to lead has been linked to biochemical changes similar to those patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. Trévo is a phytonutrient-rich product with antiaging and antioxidant properties. Purpose To investigate the neuroprotective activity of trévo against lead-induced biochemical changes in male Wistar rats. Methods The study involves 35 animals that were randomly divided into five groups of seven rats each. Group I (Control): Orally administered distilled water; Group II (Induced): Administered 15 mg/kg of lead acetate (PbA) intraperitoneally; Group III (Treatment group): Orally administered 2 mL/kg of trévo for two days before co-administration with PbA for 12 consecutive days; Group IV (Treatment group): Orally administered 5 mL/kg of trévo for two days prior to coadministration with PbA for 12 consecutive days; Group V: Orally administered 5 mL/kg of trévo for 14 consecutive days. Animals were anesthetized with diether and the brain excised and processed for the following biochemical assays: Malonedialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), beta-amyloid, glutamate, Na+/K+ ATPase, and glutamate dehydrogenase (GD). Results PbA caused significant oxidative stress (increased MDA concentration, decreased GSH concentration, suppressed the activity of CAT, SOD), decreased GT activity, increased activity of AChE, increased the concentration of beta-amyloid, and caused glutamate excitotoxicity (increased concentration of glutamate, decreased activity of Na+/K+ ATPase, and GD) in rat brains. Treatment with trévo at the two different doses significantly prevented oxidative damage, beta-amyloid aggregation, glutamate excitotoxicity, and acetylcholine breakdown induced by lead acetate. Conclusion Our findings added to the reported pharmacological activity of trévo and supported the antiaging potential of trévo.
This paper presents the design, modelling, and fabrication procedures for the chassis of a prototype car with the aim of achieving the objectives: rigid and high strength chassis, reduced vehicle weight, driver safety, and an energy efficient vehicle. The novelty of this work is that it demonstrates how aluminium alloy could be used to construct non-integrated chassis for super mileage vehicles through a load-stress calculation model. Furthermore, a method of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was presented which achieves the same result as the analytical calculation. The work also presents a method of fabricating aluminium square tube for the chassis by joining two angle bars. The results show that the FEA approach agrees with the analytical design model thereby reducing the time consumed in conceptual design process. The fabricated chassis was found to show no cracks and it was able to resist bending and shear from the loads acting on the vehicle in line with the design data. The energy efficiency recorded from the first test-run of the vehicle was 250 km/L of gasoline. The methods presented could be characterized as accurate and reliable for manufacturers of super mileage racing cars for Shell Eco-marathon events.
The 1979 Economic Community of West African States ( ECOWAS ) Protocol, or Article 59 of the 1993 ECOWAS Revised Treaty, encapsulates the terms and conditions for a visa-free and borderless economic community. It is geared towards decolonising the colonial borders and encouraging economic activity. But despite the ratification of the Protocol, documented and undocumented migrants continue to be expelled, blocked at borders and prevented from doing business, and suffer other xenophobic mistreatment, within the sub-region. The member states of ECOWAS have implemented anti-immigrant policies, from which Community citizens are rarely exempted. The article argues that the political class in the various states in the sub-region has nurtured and exploited a xenophobic consciousness, which has prevented the growth of class consciousness and protects their power base. The xenophobic policies of West African states have also created the necessary conditions to impede the implementation of the ECOWAS Protocol.
The investigation of ethanol extract of Carica papaya (EECP) as an inhibitor for the corrosion of aluminum in solutions of HCl was facilitated through gravimetric, gasometric, potentiodynamic polarization and quantum chemical methods. The ccorrosion rate for the blank systems was 1.66 x 10⁻⁴ mpy but in the presence of various concentrations (0.1 to 0.5 g/dm³) of EECP, it reduces from 1.32 x 10⁻⁴ mpy to 0.96 x 10⁻⁴ mpy respectively while the inhibition efficiencies ranged from 20.93 to 42.04 % respectively. However, a synergistic combination of various concentrations of the inhibitor with 0.6 M of KBr, KI and KCl enhanced the inhibition efficiency to the following ranges: 75.44 to 87.41 %, 50.20 to 71.89 % and 77.44 to 88.73 % respectively. Potentiodynamic polarization and gasometric results were in good agreement but revealed that ethanol extract of Carica papaya peel acted as cathodic type inhibitor. Calculated activation energies indicated increasing retardation strength with an increase in inhibitor concentration and supported physisorption mechanism. The adsorption of the extract on the aluminum surface was exothermic, spontaneous, and occurred with an increasing degree of orderliness. Freundlich and Temkin's isotherms were most suitable in explaining the adsorption behaviour of the extract. Molecular structures that actively participated in the corrosion inhibition (papain, riboflavin, retinol, niacin and alpha-tocopherol) have been modeled through the calculations of global and local reactivity indices. Molecular simulation studies were also conducted to estimate the interaction between the inhibitor and the metal surface and the results indicated strong involvement of heteroatoms and aromatic rings in the adsorption process. The study concluded, that although the inhibition efficiency of EECP is low, enhancement with potassium halides can give an excellent score towards the management of waste through resource recovery.
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