Federal University Lokoja
Recent publications
The preventive effect of Hyphaene thebaica fruit in colon carcinogenesis was evaluated in Wistar rats at 0, 2.5, 5 and 10% inclusion rates for twelve weeks with concomitant 72‐h intra‐rectal N‐methyl‐N‐nitrosourea (MNU) instillations. Indices of antioxidant status and carcinogenesis were analyzed using spectrophotometric, ELISA, histological and immunohistochemical techniques. The fruit protected against lipid peroxidation and level of early biomarkers of colon carcinogenesis, accompanied by decrease in some endogenous antioxidant enzymes functionality. It also prevented colon tissues against MNU‐induced severe inflammations and damage to the mutL‐homolog 1 (MLH1) gene. There was significant negative correlation between endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as well as lipid peroxidation, but relationship between total polyphenols and percentage expression of MLH1 proteins as well as endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities was positive. These results validate the folkloric use of H. thebaica fruit in the management of colorectal disorders. Practical applications Hyphaene thebaica fruit which is widely consumed in northern Nigeria and other countries of sub‐Saharan Africa is rich in fiber and antioxidant polyphenols. These two classes of compounds have demonstrated capacity to prevent colorectal cancer and cancer of other sites. Therefore, the validated protective Hyphaene thebaica fruit suggests that it can be processed for inclusion in beverages/diets as functional foods for prevention and management of colorectal disorders.
Biomass-promoting routes for the synthesis of activated carbon (AC) have recently received considerable attention due to the advantages of this method: it is simple, cost-effective, and ecofriendly. This method is also an alternative way to avoid the unsafe practice of waste incineration. We describe the preparation of activated carbon from palm kernel shell (PKS) – an abundant biomass that is available in Africa and Asia. We investigated the effect of process variables such as impregnation ratio (ratio of H3PO4 to PKS) and carbonisation temperature (500–700 °C) on yield, microstructure, morphology, pore structure, and adsorption properties to optimise these parameters. Nitrogen adsorption isotherm analysis indicated that the AC was predominantly microporous in nature. Under optimal conditions, an AC with the highest surface area of 1560 m2/g was obtained. The aqueous adsorption test showed that the AC had significant removal capacity for methylene blue and iodine. The higher iodine value is consistent with the structural properties of the adsorbent, while the lower methylene blue value is consistent with the limited mesopore width. Considering the chemical and surface properties and adsorption properties of the AC produced, PKS has been shown to be an excellent precursor material for AC, thus solving the disposal problems associated with this biomass. Significance: • AC significantly promotes adsorption and offers a low-cost and cleaner production method. • PKS could serve as a dependable precursor for the synthesis of porous AC. • This study provides useful information on how H3PO4-impregnated PKS influences the porosity of the resulting AC. • Differences in porosity, yield, and morphology and Brunauer–Emmet–Teller surface area are achievable using AC from PKS.
This study integrated machine learning and multi-linear regression modeling approaches in groundwater quality assessment around Obosi, SE Nigeria with the aim of predicting groundwater quality parameters. 42 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physical (Ec and pH) and heavy metals (As, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb) using standard methods. The result of physicochemical assessment revealed that Ec, pH, Cr, and Ni were within the recommended standard whereas Cd, Fe, Pb, and As were above with a heavy metal trend spread of Fe > Pb > As > Cd > Cr > Ni. The study area’s aquiferous materials are highly permeable and relatively shallow, hence the observed groundwater contamination. Contamination factor results showed that the entire samples were not contaminated, except which had majority of its samples having very high degree of contamination. Pollution load index (PLI) values revealed excellent groundwater quality. The Heavy Metal Evaluation Index (HEI), Potential ecological risk index (ERI) and modified degree of contamination (mCd) values reveal that majority of the entire groundwater sample has high contamination. Elemental Contamination Index and overall Metal Contamination Index (MCI) values in the entire sample were less than 5 which implies that they have very low contamination. Water quality index (WQI) and Pollution index of groundwater (PIG) values showed that the water quality is unsuitable for drinking and it requires treatment before usage. Correlation matrix result showed no correlation between the parameters. Principal component analysis results showed that there were loading between parameters. Eight (8) Artificial neural networks (ANN) and multi-linear regression (MLR) models were developed with very high R² values, showing that they are efficacious and reliable for the forecasting of the pollution indices. Based on the respective performances, ANN and MLR models should be considered for additional investigation since they showed a high viable inclination in the forecasting of PLI, Igeo, HEI, mCd, ERI, MCI, WQI and PIG.
Sedimentary facies, petrographic, textural, and mineral analyses of sections of conglomerates/pebbles and sandstone facies of the Lokoja and Patti Formations in southern Bida Basin, Ajali and Abeokuta Formations in the Anambra and Dahomey Basins in Nigeria respectively were carried out. These analyses aimed at deciphering the paleo-environment and reservoir potential of the formations. The study entailed field observations, petrographic, mineralogical (using X-ray diffractogram), granulometric, and pebbles morphological analyses. The fifteen lithofacies were identified and grouped into three main facies associations. The petrological results revealed that the dominant minerals are quartz, feldspar, and clay. The mineral analysis (XRD) also shows that quartz is predominant; the granulometric result shows that the formations are characterized by poor to well-sorted, strongly coarse to strongly fine skewed, and mesokurtic to leptokurtic sandstone grains. Pebble morphometric indices indicate fluvial to shallow marine fields. The integration of the sedimentary facies and textural analyses is suggestive of the shallow marine subtidal channel, subtidal wave, and estuarine mudflat environments with strong fluvial influences. Based on textural statistical and mineral analyses, the sandstones are moderately matured to immature, and the reservoir quality of sandstone facies is classified as good to very good in Lokoja, Ajali, and Abeokuta Formations and very poor to poor in Patti Formation. The areas that are potential and non-potential hydrocarbon reservoirs have been identified which will be beneficial to petroleum industries.
Recently, a lot of interest has been attributed to the Schiff base compound because of its wide range of biological activities which include: antibacterial, antifungal, antima larial, including; antiproliferative, antiviral, and antipyretic. In this research work, N-(2-furylmethylidene)-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole- 2-amine gotten from o-phenylenediamine and 5- methoxysalicaldehyde was produced and characterized using UV–Visible, FT-IR, ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, and GC-MS along with molecular modeling using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular docking approach. The results obtained indicated that the Schiff base exhibited antimicrobial action against all the tested microbes except Candidaalbicans isolate, which exhibited zero diameter zone of inhibition. The theoretical investigations of the synthesized compounds were computed applying density functional theory at the B3LYP/6–31++G (d, p) level of theory and in silico molecular docking simulation. In comparing binding affinity energies and binding poses of the studied compound and the standard drug (ampicillin), the deduction that the molecular docking analysis results are in good agreement with in vitro analysis of the synthesized compounds can be made.
West Africa has not experienced as much devastation from COVID-19Covid-19 as was initially expected, but the pandemicPandemic is a significant problem nonetheless. Using official statistics, this paper examines the spatialSpatialand temporalTemporal patterns of COVID-19 in the sub-region, with a special attention on its epicenter, Nigeria. As expected, the disease burden varies from country to country and the variation was found to be a function of variations in population size, GDPGross domestic product and international air passenger traffic. These variables are the main determinants of the geography of COVID-19Covid-19 in West Africa and Nigeria. The temporalTemporal pattern approximates an S-shaped curve, which is typical of spatialSpatialdiffusionDiffusionprocesses. WavesWaves are also discernible in the spread of the virus. MisconceptionsMisconceptions fueled by misinformation and disinformation have led to vaccine hesitancyVaccine hesitancy and hamper efforts to combat the disease.
Plant-based strategies could provide a key gateway to restoring heavy metal-polluted environments. The present study was aimed to investigate the phytoremediation potential of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek in the heavy metal contaminated regions by oil industries at West Karun River, Iran. After soil sampling, the plants were grown in pots outdoors and irrigated by distilled water (0 mg/L Cd), Karun River water (0.04 mg/L Cd), and also by 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L of cadmium chloride solutions. Plants were harvested at the seedling and ripening stages and their Cadmium (Cd) content was determined. According to the results, the efficiency of V. radiata for bioaccumulation of Cd was very high at low concentrations of Cd in Karun River treatments (57% and 21% for shoot and roots, respectively), the highest Transfer Coefficient (TC) was (2.80 ± 0.5), Translocation Factor (TF) (2.78 ± 0.7), and Bioaccumulation Factor (BF) (3.83 ± 0.4). Although our findings shows that V. radiata does not possess a high potential of Cd phytoremediation at high concentrations (2.47% and 4.21% in shoot and roots at 50–100 mg/L Cd, respectively), it can provide a safe alternative based at minimum level of Cd concentration. Comparison of heavy metal contents in mung bean plants and soil, shows that there is an antagonistic relationship in Cd uptake and other accessible heavy metals such as Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), and Copper (Cu) from the soil at the study area. Thus the V. radiata could be considered as a potent candidate for bioremediation and growing food in Cd-polluted environments.
Graph theory is one of the neglected branches of mathematics in Nigeria but with the most applications in other fields of research. This article shows the paucity, importance, and necessity of graph theory in the development of Nigeria. The adjacency matrix and dual graph of the Nigeria map were presented. The graph spectrum and energies (graph energy and Laplacian energy) of the dual graph were computed. Then the chromatic number, maximum degree, minimum spanning tree, graph radius, and diameter, the Eulerian circuit and Hamiltonian paths from the dual graph were obtained and discussed.
Non-carcinogenic health risk assessment and predicting of organic and heavy metal pollution of groundwater around Osisioma, Nigeria, using Artificial Neural Networks and Multi-Linear Modeling Principles has been done. 30 groundwater samples were collected systematically and analyzed for organic and heavy metal pollutants. The results of the analysis showed that the heavy metals and organic pollutants within the study area contributed to the pollution of groundwater resources in the locality. However, copper, ethylbenzene, xylene and toluene were within the recommended standard, whereas arsenic, iron, chromium, lead, and benzene were above the recommended standard for drinking water. Correlation matrix and principal component analysis assessment indicated weak correlation and that organic pollutants were major contributors to the loadings. The Contamination factor, Pollution load index, Metal pollution index, Geoaccumulation index, Potential ecological risk index, Elemental Contamination Index, and overall Metal Contamination Index showed no significant pollution, whereas the Heavy Metal Evaluation Index, Pollution Index of Groundwater results showed worrisome impact of the anthropogenic activities on the groundwater quality. Health risk assessment showed that children are more at risk than adults as it related to taking polluted water. MLR models performed better than the ANN. Seven (7) mathematical models were generated for the prediction of pollution indices. Based on the results, this study recommends regular monitoring of groundwater resources and the integration of ANN and MLR modeling approaches for the prediction of pollution indices.
A shadowed set S interprets and makes decision with a fuzzy set F from its approximation regions and a tri-valued mapping μS:F⟶{0,0.5,1} on fuzzy membership grades. The original idea of shadowed sets is to balance the uncertainty of F in S by a principle of uncertainty relocation. This paper proposes a principle of making a trade-off between uncertainty for certainty to minimize the amount of unclassified data and maximize the number of items for which crisp decisions are made. We provide detailed derivations for determining the optimum partition threshold for a trade-off three-region shadowed set and generalized it to five-region model S5. We investigate the existence and uniqueness of the optimum partition threshold of S5. Also, we outline some application examples where five-region shadowed sets can be reasonably exploited, including fuzzy clustering, decision-making, etc. To deliver guidance on how to construct S5, several detailed numeric examples are also provided.
We study the thermodynamic properties of 10 species from 5 isomeric groups with 3 atoms by providing a comprehensive data set for the molecules of astrophysical importance. Following the initial computation of the partition function q by using the GAUSSIAN 09 suite of programs (Etim and Arunan, 2017), the thermodynamics properties such as the entropy S, internal energy U, free energy F, heat capacity H etc. were derived. We showed that the relation between these properties and temperature at several ranges obeys the laws of thermodynamics despite their independent reactions at different stages of temperature ranging from 0K to 2×106K. The results showed that there exists a good thermodynamic description for the Interstellar region of the universe.
The General Linear Group of degree two over a field of Integer modulo 3, GL2(Z3) and Special Linear Group of degree two over a field of Integer modulo 3, SL2(Z3) are generated. The order of GL2(Z3), SL2(Z3) and the order of each of the elements of GL2(Z3) are determined. The inverse of each of the elements of the General Linear Group of degree two over a field of Integer modulo 3, GL2(Z3) is investigated. General linear group is important for representation.
Interactions via social media platforms have made it possible for anyone, irrespective of physical location, to gain access to quick information on events taking place all over the globe. However, the semantic processing of social media data is complicated due to challenges such as language complexity, unstructured data, and ambiguity. In this paper, we proposed the Social Media Analysis Framework for Event Detection (SMAFED). SMAFED aims to facilitate improved semantic analysis of noisy terms in social media streams, improved representation/embedding of social media stream content, and improved summarization of event clusters in social media streams. For this, we employed key concepts such as integrated knowledge base, resolving ambiguity, semantic representation of social media streams, and Semantic Histogram-based Incremental Clustering based on semantic relatedness. Two evaluation experiments were conducted to validate the approach. First, we evaluated the impact of the data enrichment layer of SMAFED. We found that SMAFED outperformed other pre-processing frameworks with a lower loss function of 0.15 on the first dataset and 0.05 on the second dataset. Second, we determined the accuracy of SMAFED at detecting events from social media streams. The result of this second experiment showed that SMAFED outperformed existing event detection approaches with better Precision (0.922), Recall (0.793), and F-Measure (0.853) metric scores. The findings of the study present SMAFED as a more efficient approach to event detection in social media.
The problems associated with antibacterial drug discovery have kept the model of antibacterial drug to an extraordinary low level. Humans carry millions of bacteria; some species of bacteria can cause infectious disease, while some are pathogenic. Infectious bacteria which can reproduce quickly in the body can cause diseases such as tuberculosis, cholera, pneumonia, and typhoid, thus arises an urgent need to develop new drugs. Herein, 2-{[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]amino}nicotinic acid was synthesized from the condensation of o-phenylenediamine and 5-nitrosalicaldehyde followed by detailed characterization by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, vibrational studies FT-IR, nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR), and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). The complex synthesized was screened against selected microbes in order to establish their potential antimicrobial activity using selected known drugs as reference. From the results obtained, the Schiff base exhibited antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms except Candida albicans isolate, which exhibited zero diameter zone of inhibition. The theoretical investigations of the synthesized compounds were computed using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6–311 + + G(d, p) level of theory and in silico molecular docking simulation. By comparing binding affinity of the studied compound and the standard drug (ampicillin), the studied compound docked against bacterial protein showed a high binding affinity for E. coli 6.6 kcal/mol and makes it effective as an antibacterial agent for E. coli.
The fabrication of complete quantum dot based hole and electron transport layers for perovskite solar cells is carried out with different compositions of hybrid electron transport layers including carbon and inorganic based quantum dots, in an ambient environment. The experimental efficiency of cells is plotted against the percentage composition of quantum dots in electron transport layer, and unknown efficiencies of other compositions of electron transport layer are estimated by extrapolating the graph, with a minimal set-up of only three devices. This makes it a smart minimal set-up design that extrudes maximum information in a minimum time period for a range of perovskite solar cells. The efficiency of solar cells is associated with the LUMO levels of electron transport layers including pure and hybrid materials, where the LUMO is calculated by different methods including density-functional theory calculations. This smart formulation will allow us to use minimal setups in the future to characterize multiple perovskite solar cells simultaneously.
The palynological and geochemical analyses were carried out on shales samples in borehole and outcrop sections of the southern Bida and northern Anambra basins respectively. These analyses aimed at evaluating the hydrocarbon prospectivity of the basins. The results of total organic carbon (TOC) of 0.30-9.01 wt% in Patti Shale interval of Agbaja borehole in southern Bida Basin revealed a high TOC, depicting a substantial organic matter in the source rock. TOC of 0.82-2.56 wt% for Patti Shale in Ahoko outcrops (Southern Bida Basin) show relatively moderate TOC which revealed a fair organic matter in the source beds. TOC of 0.44-0.95 wt% of Mamu Shales in Ojodu outcrops in northern Anambra Basin indicates a moderate to poor TOC which suggests fair to poor organic matter in the source rock. Hydrogen Index (HI) range of 45- 153 mgHC/grock with producible hydrocarbon (S2) of 2.60-5.00 mgHC/grock reveals very good source rock potentials in the Agbaja section. HI of 0.08-0.57 mgHC/grock, S2 of 0.12 mgHC/grock in Ahoko and HI of Mamu Shales of 30-136 mgHC/grock, S2 of 0.14-0.90 mgHC/grock in Ojodu outcrop, both revealed poor to fair source rock potentials. The results of vitrinite reflectance (Ro) and maximum temperature (Tmax) range (0.30 to 0.55% and 420 to 435°C, respectively) suggest a low to relatively high thermal maturity index in both frontier basins. The thermal maturity of the shales in Agbaja borehole sections is moderate to high, although from record no petroleum has been produced from the sections in the basin. From the organic matter type, the kerogen is classified as type II/III and IV for both basins. The palynological results propose the Maastrichtian age for both basins, regarding the rich accumulation concerning micro-florals; Psilatricolporites prolatus, Florentinia laciniata seghiris, Echitriporite trianguliformis, Arecipites sp. Monoporite, Triporites. Dinocysts belonging to the Spiniferites, and Deflandreacean dinoflagellate, and Acritaarchs of Polipodiaceosporite retigularis, Acripite sp., which were analyzed from the shale intervals in the basins; suggest a Cretaceous age, marginal marine-continental environments, paleovegetation, and humid climate. Finally, the palynological, and geochemical analysis results will contribute knowledge that will be useful for hydrocarbons exploration in these frontier basins in Nigeria.
A combination of the IEC, AVI, and GOD pollution indices were used to assess the vulnerability of the fractured rock aquifer in the Abakaliki area to pollution from anthropogenic sources. The topsoil ranges from laterite to silt to silty-clay, according to the results of the vertical electrical sounding (VES). The geoelectric sections have varying numbers of layers (1–6 layers) with their resistivity ranges as 29.16–3,949.30 Ω, 4.98–1,630.70 Ωm, 0.35–3,767.20 Ωm,1.76–7926.30 Ωm, and 1.11–3,060.20 Ωm respectively. These have been grouped into four main lithologic units namely the topsoil, indurated/baked shale, fractured shale/sandstone (the aquiferous unit), and the consolidated sandstone units. The thickness of the vadose zone is generally thin (< 18 m), while their hydraulic conductivity is relatively high (0.20–16.11 m/day) for argillaceous rocks. The IEC values (0.003–0.850 S ) suggest a weak to fair protective capacity for the vadose zone. The result of the HR (1.01–55.49) indicates that the underlying aquifer is highly to extremely vulnerable, and the GOD values (> 0.7) agree that they are extremely vulnerable.
Modern cellular communication networks are already being perturbed by large and steadily increasing mobile subscribers in high demand for better service quality. To constantly and reliably deploy and optimally manage such mobile cellular networks, the radio signal attenuation loss between the path lengths of a base transmitter and the mobile station receiver must be appropriately estimated. Although many log-distance-based linear models for path loss prediction in wireless cellular networks exist, radio frequency planning requires advanced non-linear models for more accurate predictive path loss estimation, particularly for complex microcellular environments. The precision of the conventional models on path loss prediction has been reported in several works, generally ranging from 8–12 dB in terms of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), which is too high compared to the acceptable error limit between 0 and 6 dB. Toward this end, the need for near-precise machine learning-based path loss prediction models becomes imperative. This work develops a distinctive multi-layer perception (MLP) neural network-based path loss model with well-structured implementation network architecture, empowered with the grid search-based hyperparameter tuning method. The proposed model is designed for optimal path loss approximation between mobile station and base station. The hyperparameters examined include the neuron number, learning rate and hidden layers number. In detail, the developed MLP model prediction accuracy level using different learning and training algorithms with the tuned best values of the hyperparameters have been applied for extensive path loss experimental datasets. The experimental path loss data is acquired via a field drive test conducted over an operational 4G LTE network in an urban microcellular environment. The results were assessed using several first-order statistical performance indicators. The results show that prediction errors of the proposed MLP model compared favourably with measured data and were better than those obtained using conventional log-distance-based path loss models.
This study examines the changing role of women in the agricultural economy of Okunland occasioned by the transition from the pre-colonial arrangement to colonisation. Opinions are divided in the literature on the gendered processes in relation to colonial agricultural economy in most of Africa. The first thinking is that women lost power and economic autonomy as a result of discriminatory colonial policies. The second thinking suggests that the residual role of women in the agricultural economy was a product of choice rather than a deliberate colonial policy. The third maintains that women were economically active and productive but were unable to claim the proceeds of their labour. In Okunland, while women were prominently involved in the agricultural economy in the pre-colonial period, they appeared to be relegated to playing a residual role during the colonial period, leading to disempowerment. The data for this study were generated using the primary and secondary sources. While the primary sources involved the use of interviews, the secondary method involved the use of archival and documented materials. The data were analysed using thematic descriptive analysis. The study finds that the residual role played by women in the agricultural economy of colonial Okunland could be attributed to British colonial economic policies which generally favoured the men.
A study of sedimentary facies, mineral and textural characteristics of sections of conglomerates/pebbles and sandstone facies found within the Lokoja and Patti Formations in southern Bida Basin, Nigeria, is carried out to evaluate the paleo-environment and reservoir quality of the sandstones of the formations through field observations and textural and mineralogical (using X-Ray Diffractogram) analyses. Nine lithofacies are identified and grouped into three main facies associations. These sedimentary facies suggest deposition in both foreshore and estuary environments. The mineral analysis (XRD) shows that the quartz content in sandstone facies of the Lokoja Formation ranges between 49% and 67%, and that of the Patti Sandstone between 43% and 56%, indicating a quartz dominance. The granulometric studies reveal that the Lokoja Formation comprises coarse-to medium-grained (−0.63 to 1.30 φ) sandstone with moderate-poor sorting of 0.72–1.82 φ. On the other hand, medium to fine-grained sandstones dominates the Patti Formation, which is averagely poorly sorted (1.29–1.54 φ). The sandstones are coarsely skewed to finely skewed, with the kurtosis ranging from very platykurtic to leptokurtic. Morphological results of the pebbles from both Lokoja and Patti Formations indicate that the study areas are mainly characterized by the interplay of both wave and fluvial processes, which suggests that the environment of deposition of sandstone facies is predominantly of the fluvial to the shallow marine environment with the indication of tidal influence. Integrating sedimentary facies and textural results suggests subtidal sand ridge/foreshore, estuarine mudflat, and estuarine delta environments with fluvial influences. Evidence from the textural and mineral characteristics indicate that the sandstone facies of the Lokoja and Patti Formations are fairly matured and can act as potential hydrocarbon reservoirs in the formations. The facies, XRD mineral, and textural results have revealed potential hydrocarbon reservoir areas and paleo-depositional features of the Lokoja and Patti Formations.
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340 members
S.E. Atawodi
  • Department of Biochemistry/ Directorate of Advancement & Linkages
Stephen Agwuncha
  • Department of Chemistry
Emeka Ogbuju
  • Computer Science
Inyokwe SUNDAY Otinche
  • Public Administration
Joseph Isabona
  • Department of Physics
Lokoja, Nigeria
Head of institution
Professor Olayemi Durotimi Akinwumi