Rice is a popular grain and forms part of the daily diet of people throughout the world. However, the consumption of rice and its products is sometimes limited by its high glycemic index due to its high starch content, low protein content and quality, and low bioavailability of minerals due to the presence of anti‐nutritional factors. This has partly stimulated research interest in recent times toward the use of bioprocessing techniques such as germination as cheap and natural means to improve the nutritional quality, digestibility, and health properties of cereals, including rice, to partially achieve nutrition and food security in the developing regions of the world. This review highlights the impact of germination on the nutritional quality, health‐promoting properties, and techno‐functional characteristics of germinated brown rice grains and their products. The review demonstrated that germinated rice grains and their products have improved nutritional quality and digestibility, modified functional properties, and showed antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, anti‐diabetic, anti‐obesity, anti‐cancer, and anti‐cardiovascular activities. Germination appears to be a suitable bioprocessing method to improve the nutritional quality and bioactive constituents and modify the techno‐functional properties of rice grains for diverse food applications and improved global nutrition and food safety.
Microplastics and also nanoplastics are tiny pieces of plastics that have been a rising source of worry due to their ubiquitous occurrence and possible environmental effect. This article dives into the presence, origins, and degrading processes that cause microscopic and nanoplastics in the natural environment, illuminating the complexities of this worldwide issue. Micro- and nanoplastics have become increasingly common in the environment during the last few decades. Microplastics have negative effects on aquatic habitats when they enter water bodies. Atmospheric deposit (microplastics are substances that have been found in the upper atmosphere, primarily originating compared to the breakdown of bigger polymers and the everyday use of car tires), splitting at sea in the marine environment, materials are confronted with constant both chemical and physical stressors, leading to dispersion into smaller pieces along with land-based runoff; storm water drainage from urban areas can transport polymer content, and particle size all impact the breakdown of micro- and nanoplastics. While plastics are known for their durability, they can be degraded through a variety of mechanisms, including mechanical weathering, photodegradation, corrosion by chemicals, biological degradation, and fragmentation. The widespread presence and persistence of micro- and nanoplastics in the surroundings has raised concerns about their potential effects on ecosystems and human health. Particles like these can be consumed by a variety of creatures, ranging from zooplankton to bigger marine animals, resulting in the spread of plastics throughout the food chain. The occurrence and degradation of micro- and nanoplastics is therefore focused in this review.
The issue of food fraud, safety and contaminants remains a topic of public concern, as it has been aligned to potential food scarcity. However, nanotech-nology presents a promising opportunity for improving various industries, including food, agriculture, and health. This article aims to examine the potential of nanotechnology in enhancing food safety in Ghana, and its efficacy in addressing prevalent food safety challenges. Nano-based approaches, such as nano-packaging, nano-sensing, nano-additives, and other nano-techniques, are discussed as effective methods for addressing major and emerging food safety issues in Ghana, such as food contaminants, antimicrobial resistance, food fraud and adulteration, and poor sanitary conditions. Additionally, the ethical and safety implications of these nano-based approaches and particles are also deliberated. K E Y W O R D S contaminants, food fraud, food safety, Ghana, nanotechnology
Agricultural production currently depends largely on the use of synthetic fertilizers to boost the production of staple and healthy foods. However, their excessive and inappropriate use had been found expensive and detrimental to the ecosystem. Thus, development of alternative bio-based fertilizers in the form of nanomaterials to improve the yield and nutraceutical properties of crops in a sustainable manner is encouraged. This study therefore reports the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (FH-AgNPs) using feather hydrolysates (FH) obtained after chicken feather degradation by keratinolytic Bacillus safensis LAU 13 and Aquamicrobium defluvii FH 20. Phytostimulatory effects of the biogenic AgNPs on Corchorus olitorius, Amaranthus caudatus and Celosea argentea cultivated in soil treated with 50–150 µg/ml FH-AgNPs were investigated compared to NPK fertilizer (15–15-15) and water as positive and negative controls, respectively. Vegetables grown with 150 µg/ml of both FH-AgNPs demonstrated 1–1.58-fold improvement in seed germination, shoot height, root length, leaf size, chlorophyll contents and other growth parameters compared to their controls. Hydrogen peroxide and DPPH radicals scavenging activities of the FH-AgNPs-fertilized vegetables were over 1.1-fold better than their respective control plants. FH-AgNPs treatment enriched the total phenolic, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidin compounds in the vegetables by more than 1.05-fold. The particles positively influenced the catalase activity of the vegetables and also inhibited lipid peroxidation in precision-cut liver slices by 1.05–1.21-fold over the untreated plants. The FH-AgNPs demonstrated inhibitory activities (60.33–88.20%) against phytopathogenic Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solani. Application of the biogenic FH-AgNPs performed considerably better than the NPK fertilizer virtually in most cases, aside their usefulness as nanopesticides. Thus, results obtained in this study indicate that the FH-mediated AgNPs have potential application as better substitute to conventional inorganic fertilizer to promote sustainable agricultural food production in an eco-friendly manner. Graphical abstract
Rapid urbanisation causes a rise in the need for infrastructure, which in turn fuels the creation of additional concrete and further increases cement supplies. Activation of illite-based clay mineral and usage in concrete production is one of the sustainable ways to address the cement industry anthropogenic issues. This study evaluates the durability properties of water transport (water absorption, and capillary water absorption), and resistance to aggressive environments (5% solutions of hydrochloric acid, HCl; sodium sulphate, Na2SO4; and calcium chloride, CaCl2) of meta-illite calcined clay (MCC)-based high-performance concrete (HPC). For this purpose, concrete was produced with 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% MCC content in partial substitution of CEM II. Results from the water absorption tests indicate an average percentage value of 3.57%, 3.35% and 2.52% for all the observed mixes at 28, 56 and 90 days, respectively, with MCCC-10 HPC having an average best value of 2.23% across the curing ages. On all observed days, the 5 to 15% cement replacements had very close average water sorptivity value of 0.125 ± 0.001 mm/min0.5 with the control mix (0.113 ± 0.011 mm/min0.5). The aggressive environments exposure findings of the hardened MCC-based HPC specimens of 10 to 20% recorded an approximately 15% compressive strength loss in HCl, Na2SO4 and CaCl2 solutions over the 90 days of curing. In all, the HPC mixes of 5 to 15% MCC content obtained an average durability performance factor of 89%. As a result, these findings imply that MCC can replace cement in up to 15% of HPC production.
The use of organisms like macroinvertebrates in developing bioassessment tools, such as multimetric indices (MMIs), is gaining global recognition in monitoring the health status of lakes. The transition from traditional methods of physico-chemical parameters is due to the financial and time costs involved in their analysis while failing to provide accurate early warning signals on ecosystem conditions. Currently, there is scanty information on the use of MMIs in the conservation and management of lakes in Nigeria. This study aimed at developing a macroinvertebrate-based MMI to assess the ecological status of lakes in North Central Nigeria. The study was conducted on Tagwai and Old Gawu Lakes, from April to October 2022. Sampling sites were clustered based on organic pollution and categorized into reference (four) and impaired (four) sites. Out of 54 macroinvertebrate-based candidate metrics, only five were selected after discriminatory, stability, and redundancy tests (performed using R software). The final metrics were abundance of Ephemeroptera + Trichoptera; abundance of Coleoptera + Ephemeroptera; Gastropoda richness; Shannon Wiener index; and percentages of shredders + predators + scrapers, hereafter referred to as North Central Nigeria-Lakes Multimetric Index (NCN-LMMI). The NCN-LMMI values ranged as follows: 21–25, 16–20, 11–15, and 5–10 corresponding to categories I, II, III, and IV for water quality, as indications of good, fair, poor, and very poor ecological status of the lake, respectively. The developed NCN-LMMI will be a useful tool for aquatic resource managers and environmentalists to assess the ecological condition of lakes, mainly the North Central Nigeria municipal lakes.
Due to the rapidly evolving technology in the dynamic world, there is a growing desire among software clients for swift delivery of high-quality software. Agile software development satisfies this need and has been widely and appropriately accepted by software professionals. The maintainability of such software, however, has a significant impact on its quality. Unfortunately, existing works neglected to consider timely delivery and instead concentrated primarily on the flexibility component of maintainability. This research looked at maintainability as a function of time to rectify codes among Individual Junior and Random pair software developers. Data was acquired from an experiment performed on software developers in the agile environment and analyzed to develop the quality model metrics for maintainability which was used for prediction. One hundred programmers each received a set of agile codes created in the Python programming language, with deliberate bugs ranging from one to ten. The cubic regression model was used for predicting time spent on debugging errors above ten bugs. Results show that the random pair programmers spent an average time of 21.88 min/error while the individual programmers spent a lesser time of 16.57 min/error.
Responding to the threats of climate change by cities requires taking relevant actions that will communicate the future conditions in a relatable and effective manner for sustainable and transformational climate actions. We used the analog approach to assess the geographical shifts and changes in average temperature conditions for six traditional and economic cities under different climate scenarios (Mitigated and Unmitigated scenarios). We calculated the similarity in temperature between each pixel for the current (2021-2050) and future (2041-2070) conditions of the cities, with every pixel globally in the historical (1971-200) period. Our analysis revealed that; (1) the temperature of the cities in the current and future periods will be similar to conditions of another place on the globe during the historical period; (2) Kano City will experience even more drastic changes because of the low level of similarity; (3) the new places found with the similar temperature conditions are generally to the south of the corresponding cities thus indicating warming. We highlighted the benefits of sustainable lessons that can be drawn from the interactions between the cities and their analogs through informed decisions to meet the demand for local adaptation and adopt comprehensive suites of integrated solutions to facilitate efforts on response strategies.
Climate change is a leading public health concern of the twenty-first century and has implications for population health globally. In this chapter, we present a general overview of what climate change is and how its direct and indirect effects are associated with disease prevalence and population health outcomes. In discussing these associations, examples of climate-related diseases and other health conditions highlighted in the literature are presented. Further, we share the findings of a few local and international studies to buttress the general outline given in this chapter. Health effects of climate change among different age groups and on sexual and reproductive health are also outlined. Essentially, the chapter is structured and written to serve as a basic text in educating a varied audience on the health effects of climate change.
Demographic pressure and human activities are having significant impacts on biodiversity conservation. As traditional farmlands have challenges of coupling crop production and conservation of biodiversity, this study assessed traditional farmlands in regard to their typology and impacts on conservation of tree species. A line tran-sect of 26 km was applied for the identification of the farmlands. Tree species were inventoried within each farm. A cluster analysis was performed for the typology; tree species diversity indices and dendrometric parameters were computed and analysed according to farmland groups. Five groups of farmlands were found with the small in size (< 1 ha) having high number of crop species but small number of tree species which dominated the farmlands' cover. Larger farmlands (≥ 1 ha) have fewer crop species but more tree species with high crown cover. On average, tree species richness varied between 2 and 14 in the four farmland groups, with a relatively low Shannon diversity index (1.15-3.18 bits). Tree density, total height of trees and tree crown cover did not vary significantly between the farmland groups (p > 0.5). However , mean stem diameter varied significantly between farmland groups, with larger farmland groups having greater trees with greater diameter. Tree species conservation strategies within agroforestry systems should mainly target the large farmlands in the Ouémé catchment.
Objectives: The use of medicinal plants for diabetes treatment is increasing owing to their effectiveness and safety compared to synthetic drugs. Thus, the ameliorative effects of Azanza garckeana (F. Hoffm.) fractions in diabetes-induced dyslipidemia, hepatopathy, and nephropathy in rats were evaluated in this study. Methods: Rats with alloxan (120 mg/kg body weight (BW))-induced diabetes were randomized into different groups (n=5) and treated with the crude methanolic extract, and fractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions) of A. garckeana each at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW. Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg BW) was used as a reference drug, and all treatments were administered orally daily for 6 weeks. Results: Our data revealed that treatment with the crude extract caused a dose-dependent hypoglycemic effect of 61.32±3.45%, 76.05±3.05%, and 78.59±5.90% at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW, respectively and improved the BW of the animals. The extract also ameliorated the elevated cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with untreated control animals. The extract also reversed serum biochemical alterations in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, total and direct bilirubin, urea, and uric acid that were observed in untreated diabetic rats. Interestingly, the A. garckeana fraction also exhibited significant protection against diabetes-induced dyslipidemia, hepatopathy, and nephropathy in rats, with the ethyl acetate fraction exhibiting a remarkable protective effect. The LC-MS characterisation of the active fraction identified the presence of various phenolic and flavonoid compounds that could be responsible for the bioactivity of the fraction. Conclusion: Collectively, this study suggests the potential application of A. garckeana for effective treatment of diabetic nephropathy, with the ethyl acetate fraction of this plant representing a reserve of potential candidates for developing new drugs.
Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical found in plastic bottles and has been linked to obesity and its associated health problems. Due to the cost and possible side effects that are associated with the orthodox medications employed for weight management, there is a shift in attention to local medicinal plants as they are readily available and are believed to be free from negative side effects. One plant that has found application for weight loss amongst the local population in Nigeria is Alchornea cordifolia which commonly grows in Africa and has been confirmed to possess numerous medicinal properties which include; anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, hepaprotective, antiviral, and anti-diabetic effects. Objective: To investigate the effects of Alchornea cordifolia ethanol extract (ACEA) against the harmful impacts caused by BPA-induced obesity in Wistar rats. Methods ACEA was prepared and tested on BPA-induced Wistar rats. Thirty (30) young male Wistar rats were divided into five groups with six rats per group where Group 1 (Normal control) received commercial feed and water only, Group 2 (BPA) received commercial feed and 50 mg/kg of BPA, Group 3 (BPA + Orlistat (30 mg/kg), Group 4 (BPA + A.cordifolia (500 mg/kg)) ethanol extract of A.cordifolia, Group 5 (BPA + A.cordifolia(1000 mg/kg) ethanol extract of A.cordifolia. The parameters studied after obesity was induced and after treatments are; Anthropometric parameters; body weight, waist circumference, lees index and biochemical and kidney function parameters; fasting blood glucose, serum glucose, total protein, relative weight of the kidneys, serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, concentrations of sodium, chloride, and potassium, serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerides (TAG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) lipase, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and HMG-CoA reductase activity. Results Results showed that Bisphenol-A caused obesity and related complications after 4 weeks of administration as evidenced by the elevation of the anthropometric, biochemical and kidney function parameters. However, treatment with low (500 mg/kg) and high dose (1000 mg/kg) of A.cordifolia reduced the elevated levels of the anthropometric, biochemical and kidney function parameters in the Wistar rats. Conclusion The results obtained from this study demonstrates the potential of ACEA in the management of obesity and its related complications
Groundwater plays a crucial role in sustainable development. This study focuses on the challenges of potable water supply faced by the inhabitants of Shango area, northcentral Nigeria. The objective of this research is to identify suitable sites for new wells and boreholes by leveraging the geological and geoelectrical attributes of existing productive boreholes and hand-dug wells in the area. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) was employed to assess the groundwater potential, aquifer protective capacity and the corrosivity of the overburden units. The VES results revealed five subsurface geoelectric units, each exhibiting distinct characteristics contributing to the lithological variability of the research area. Hydraulic conductivity ranged from 0.465 to 0.534 m/day, while transmissivity varied from 9.589 m²/day to 26.029 m²/day across different VES points. Zones with thick layers and low resistivity values were indicative of high longitudinal conductivity. Regions with low protective capacity were found to be vulnerable to pollution and contamination from leaks, and waste sites. Conversely, regions with high protective capacity and sealing make groundwater pollution in such areas very difficult. Except for one VES point with low groundwater potential and limited withdrawal capacity for local water supply, the aquifers in the study area generally have intermediate designations. The study revealed that all VES points are in practically non-corrosive zones, making them suitable for burying underground tanks without extremely low deterioration rates. Based on geoelectrical characteristics, the study area was divided into three groundwater potential zones: low, medium, and high. These findings provide valuable insights into the groundwater potential and protective capacity of the Shango area, aiding in the sustainable management of water resources.
Land degradation leads to the alteration of ecological and economic functions due to a decrease in the productivity and quality of the land. Land degradation over Minna, Niger State, was assessed using geospatial techniques. Studies between the rainfall and NDVI used on human-induced and climate-induced land degradation were correlated. Landsat imageries on a decadal scale (2000–2019) were processed and classified using a maximum likelihood classifier. NDVI trends are not by rainfall dynamics to human actions. Averagely low, about 24.14%, correlation was found between the observed land degradation and the precipitation factor, yielding more than 50% congruence in degradation induced by human activities. The study discovered that the built-up and bare surfaces are increasing. The long-term changes in built-ups were 96% between 2000 and 2019; conversely, a sharp decrease in vegetative lands at about –19.38%. Based on the terrain analysis, locations have less steep and moderate slopes in the study area due to continuous urban expansion and demographic pressure. Consequentially, over time, available lands not degraded within the study areas would be reduced. The study recommended a proper land management system of land use allocation and land cover activities.
The next milestone of synthetic biology research relies on the development of customized microbes for specific industrial purposes. Metabolic pathways of an organism, for example, depict its chemical repertoire and its genetic makeup. If genes controlling such pathways can be identified, scientists can decide to enhance or rewrite them for different purposes depending on the organism and the desired metabolites. The lignocellulosic biorefinery has achieved good progress over the past few years with potential impact on global bioeconomy. This principle aims to produce different bio-based products like biochemical(s) or biofuel(s) from plant biomass under microbial actions. Meanwhile, yeasts have proven very useful for different biotechnological applications. Hence, their potentials in genetic/metabolic engineering can be fully explored for lignocellulosic biorefineries. For instance, the secretion of enzymes above the natural limit (aided by genetic engineering) would speed-up the down-line processes in lignocellulosic biorefineries and the cost. Thus, the next milestone would greatly require the development of synthetic yeasts with much more efficient metabolic capacities to achieve basic requirements for particular biorefinery. This review gave comprehensive overview of lignocellulosic biomaterials and their importance in bioeconomy. Many researchers have demonstrated the engineering of several ligninolytic enzymes in heterologous yeast hosts. However, there are still many factors needing to be well understood like the secretion time, titter value, thermal stability, pH tolerance, and reactivity of the recombinant enzymes. Here, we give a detailed account of the potentials of engineered yeasts being discussed, as well as the constraints associated with their development and applications.
In this work, locally sourced organic wastes were used to produce brake pad using Taguchi experimental design. Organic wastes selected for production include seashell and snot apple fiber while graphite, ceramic wastes and araldite were used as friction modifier, abrasive and binder respectively. Nine samples were produced using Taguchi design technique by varying percentage composition and adopting constant process parameters. Sample characterization was carried out by investigating the tribological properties (wear rate and friction coefficient). The experimental findings revealed that optimal wear rate of the developed brake pad can be obtained using seashell (105.5g), snot apple fiber (4.5g), araldite (50g), ceramic (24g) and graphite (22g) while the optimal friction coefficient can be obtained using seashell (96g), snot apple fiber (4g), araldite (40g), ceramic (20g) and graphite (22g). Based on the results obtained, it can concluded that the selected organic wastes can effectively serve as reinforcement materials in the production of brake pads.
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